Library screening of cell-penetrating peptide for BY-2 cells, leaves of Arabidopsis, tobacco, tomato, poplar, and rice callus.
ABSTRACT: Cell-penetrating peptides (CPPs) are used for various applications, especially in the biomedical field. Recently, CPPs have been used as a part of carrier to deliver proteins and/or genes into plant cells and tissues; hence, these peptides are attractive tools for plant biotechnological and agricultural applications, but require more efficient delivery rates and optimization by species before wide-scale use can be achieved. Here, we developed a library containing 55 CPPs to determine the optimal CPP characteristics for penetration of BY-2 cells and leaves of Nicotiana benthamiana, Arabidopsis thaliana, tomato (Solanum lycopersicum), poplar (hybrid aspen Populus tremula?×?tremuloides line T89), and rice (Oryza sativa). By investigating the cell penetration efficiency of CPPs in the library, we identified several efficient CPPs for all the plants studied except rice leaf. In the case of rice, several CPPs showed efficient penetration into rice callus. Furthermore, we examined the relationship between cell penetration efficiency and CPP secondary structural characteristics. The cell penetration efficiency of Lys-containing CPPs was relatively greater in plant than in animal cells, which could be due to differences in lipid composition and surface charge of the cell membranes. The variation in optimal CPPs across the plants studied here suggests that CPPs must be optimized for each plant species and target tissues of interest.
Project description:Direct protein delivery into intact plants remains a challenge for the agricultural and plant science fields. Cell-penetrating peptide (CPP)-mediated protein delivery requires the binding of CPPs to a protein to carry the protein into the cell through the cell wall and lipid bilayer. Thus, we prepared ionic complexes of a CPP-containing carrier peptide and a cargo protein, namely, Citrine yellow fluorescent protein, and subsequently studied their physicochemical properties. Two types of carrier peptides, BP100(KH)9 and BP100CH7, were investigated for delivery efficiency into rice callus. Both BP100(KH)9 and BP100CH7 successfully introduced Citrine protein into rice callus cells under pressure and vacuum treatment. Moreover, delivery efficiency varied at different growth stages of rice callus; 5-day rice callus was a more efficient recipient for Citrine than 21-day callus.
Project description:In bacterial biotechnology, instead of producing functional proteins from plasmids, it is often necessary to deliver functional proteins directly into live cells for genetic manipulation or physiological modification. We constructed a library of cell-penetrating peptides (CPPs) capable of delivering protein cargo into bacteria and developed an efficient delivery method for CPP-conjugated proteins. We screened the library for highly efficient CPPs with no significant cytotoxicity in Escherichia coli and developed a model for predicting the penetration efficiency of a query peptide, enabling the design of new and efficient CPPs. As a proof-of-concept, we used the CPPs for plasmid curing in E. coli and marker gene excision in Methylomonas sp. DH-1. In summary, we demonstrated the utility of CPPs in bacterial engineering. The use of CPPs would facilitate bacterial biotechnology such as genetic engineering, synthetic biology, metabolic engineering, and physiology studies.
Project description:Because of their favorable properties as macromolecular drugs, antibodies are a very successful therapeutic modality for interfering with disease-relevant targets in the extracellular space or at the cell membrane. However, a large number of diseases involve cytosolic targets and designing antibodies able to efficiently reach intracellular compartments would expand the antibody-tractable conditions. Here, we genetically fused cell penetrating peptides (CPPs) at various positions to an antibody targeting cancer cells, evaluated the developability features of the resulting antibody-peptide fusions and the ability of selected constructs to reach the cytosol. We first determined positions in the IgG structure that were permissive to CPP incorporation without destabilizing the antibody. Fusing CPPs to the C-terminus of the light chain and either before or after the hinge had the least effect on antibody developability features. These constructs were further evaluated for cell penetration efficiency. Two out of five tested CPPs significantly enhanced antibody penetration into the cytosol, in particular when fused before or after the hinge. Finally, we demonstrate that specific antibody binding to the cell surface target is necessary for efficient cell penetration of the CPP-antibody fusions. This study provides a solid basis for further exploration of therapeutic antibodies for intracellular targets.
Project description:Microspores are specialized generative cells with haploid genome that demonstrate the amenability toward embryogenesis under certain conditions. The induced microspore culture technique is largely exploited by the breeding programs of wheat and other crops due to its high efficiency for generation of the large number of haploid plants in the relatively short period of time. The ability to produce mature double haploid plant from a single cell has also attracted attention of the plant biotechnologists in the past few years. More importantly, the possibility to deliver proteins for improvement of embryogenesis and the genome modification purposes holds great potential for transgene-free wheat biotechnology. In the present study, we examined the ability of cationic and amphipathic cell penetrating peptides (CPPs) to convey a covalently-linked mCherry protein inside the viable microspores. We demonstrate that the affinity of CPPs to the microspore cells dependents on their charge with the highest efficiency of CPP-mCherry binding to the cells achieved by cationic CPPs (penetratin and R9). Additionally, due to overall negative charge of the microspore cell wall, the successful uptake of the protein cargo by live microspore cells is attained by utilization of a reversible disulfide bond between the R9 CPP and mCherry protein. Overall, the approach proposed herein can be applied by the other biotechnology groups for the fast and efficient screening of the different CPP candidates for their ability to deliver proteins inside the viable plant cells.
Project description:Maurocalcine is the first demonstrated example of an animal toxin peptide with efficient cell penetration properties. Although it is a highly competitive cell-penetrating peptide (CPP), its relatively large size of 33 amino acids and the presence of three internal disulfide bridges may hamper its development for in vitro and in vivo applications. Here, we demonstrate that several efficient CPPs can be derived from maurocalcine by replacing Cys residues by isosteric 2-aminobutyric acid residues and sequence truncation down to peptides of up to 9 residues in length. A surprising finding is that all of the truncated maurocalcine analogues possessed cell penetration properties, indicating that the maurocalcine is a highly specialized CPP. Careful examination of the cell penetration properties of the truncated analogues indicates that several maurocalcine-derived peptides should be of great interest for cell delivery applications where peptide size matters.
Project description:Among various delivery systems for vaccine and drug delivery, cell-penetrating peptides (CPPs) have been known as a potent delivery system because of their capability to penetrate cell membranes and deliver some types of cargoes into cells. Several CPPs were found in the proteome of viruses such as Tat originated from human immunodeficiency virus-1 (HIV-1), and VP22 derived from herpes simplex virus-1 (HSV-1). In the current study, a wide-range of CPPs was identified in the proteome of SARS-CoV-2, a new member of coronaviruses family, using in silico analyses. These CPPs may play a main role for high penetration of virus into cells and infection of host. At first, we submitted the proteome of SARS-CoV-2 to CellPPD web server that resulted in a huge number of CPPs with ten residues in length. Afterward, we submitted the predicted CPPs to C2Pred web server for evaluation of the probability of each peptide. Then, the uptake efficiency of each peptide was investigated using CPPred-RF and MLCPP web servers. Next, the physicochemical properties of the predicted CPPs including net charge, theoretical isoelectric point (pI), amphipathicity, molecular weight, and water solubility were calculated using protparam and pepcalc tools. In addition, the probability of membrane binding potential and cellular localization of each CPP were estimated by Boman index using APD3 web server, D factor, and TMHMM web server. On the other hand, the immunogenicity, toxicity, allergenicity, hemolytic potency, and half-life of CPPs were predicted using various web servers. Finally, the tertiary structure and the helical wheel projection of some CPPs were predicted by PEP-FOLD3 and Heliquest web servers, respectively. These CPPs were divided into: a) CPP containing tumor homing motif (RGD) and/or tumor penetrating motif (RXXR); b) CPP with the highest Boman index; c) CPP with high half-life (~100 hour) in mammalian cells, and d) CPP with +5.00 net charge. Based on the results, we found a large number of novel CPPs with various features. Some of these CPPs possess tumor-specific motifs which can be evaluated in cancer therapy. Furthermore, the novel and potent CPPs derived from SARS-CoV-2 may be used alone or conjugated to some sequences such as nuclear localization sequence (NLS) for vaccine and drug delivery.
Project description:Cell penetrating peptides (CPPs) have been established as excellent candidates for mediating drug delivery into cells. When designing synthetic CPPs for drug delivery applications, it is important to understand their ability to penetrate the cell membrane. In this paper, anionic or zwitterionic phospholipid monolayers at the air-water interface are used as model cell membranes to monitor the membrane insertion potential of synthetic CPPs. The insertion potential of CPPs having different cationic and hydrophobic amino acids were recorded using a Langmuir monolayer approach that records peptide adsorption to model membranes. Fluorescence microscopy was used to visualize alterations in phospholipid packing due to peptide insertion. All CPPs had the highest penetration potential in the presence of anionic phospholipids. In addition, two of three amphiphilic CPPs inserted into zwitterionic phospholipids, but none of the hydrophilic CPPs did. All the CPPs studied induced disruptions in phospholipid packing and domain morphology, which were most pronounced for amphiphilic CPPs. Overall, small changes to amino acids and peptide sequences resulted in dramatically different insertion potentials and membrane reorganization. Designers of synthetic CPPs for efficient intracellular drug delivery should consider small nuances in CPP electrostatic and hydrophobic properties.
Project description:Cell-penetrating peptides (CPPs) have proven very effective as intracellular delivery vehicles for various therapeutics. However, there are some concerns about non-specific penetration and cytotoxicity of CPPs for effective cancer treatments. Herein, based on the cell-penetrating motif of an anticancer peptide, buforin IIb, we designed several CPP derivatives with cancer cell specificity. Among the derivatives, a 17-amino acid peptide (BR2) was found to have cancer-specificity without toxicity to normal cells. After specifically targeting cancer cells through interaction with gangliosides, BR2 entered cells via lipid-mediated macropinocytosis. Moreover, BR2 showed higher membrane translocation efficiency than the well-known CPP Tat (49-57). The capability of BR2 as a cancer-specific drug carrier was demonstrated by fusion of BR2 to a single-chain variable fragment (scFv) directed toward a mutated K-ras (G12V). BR2-fused scFv induced a higher degree of apoptosis than Tat-fused scFv in K-ras mutated HCT116 cells. These results suggest that the novel cell-penetrating peptide BR2 has great potential as a useful drug delivery carrier with cancer cell specificity.
Project description:The cell membrane is a complex and highly regulated system that is composed of lipid bilayer and proteins. One of the main functions of the cell membrane is the regulation of cell entry. Cell-penetrating peptides (CPPs) are defined as peptides that can cross the plasma membrane and deliver their cargo inside the cell. The uptake of a peptide is determined by its sequence and biophysicochemical properties. At the same time, the uptake mechanism and efficiency are shown to be dependent on local peptide concentration, cell membrane lipid composition, characteristics of the cargo, and experimental methodology, suggesting that a highly efficient CPP in one system might not be as productive in another. To better understand the dependence of CPPs on the experimental system, we present a review of the in vitro assays that have been employed in the literature to evaluate CPPs and CPP-cargos. Our comprehensive review suggests that utilization of orthogonal assays will be more effective for deciphering the true ability of CPPs to translocate through the membrane and enter the cell cytoplasm.
Project description:Cellular uptake and intracellular release efficiency of biomacromolecules is low because of hurdles in the cell membrane that result in limited access to intra-cellular targets with few functional effects. Cell-penetrating peptides (CPPs) act as cargo delivery vehicles to promote therapeutic molecule translocation. Here, we describe the novel CPP-Dot1l that not only penetrates by itself, but also mediates cargo translocation in cultured cells, as confirmed by fluorescence microscopy and fluorescence spectrophotometry. We conducted cytotoxicity assays and safety evaluations, and determined peptide-membrane interactions to understand the possible pathway for cargo translocation. Additional nucleic acid and covalently conjugated green fluorescence protein (GFP) studies mediated by CPP-Dot1l were conducted to show functional delivery potential. Results indicate that CPP-Dot1l is a novel and effective CPP due to its good penetrating properties in different cell lines and its ability to enter cells in a concentration-dependent manner. Its penetration efficiency can be prompted by DMSO pretreatment. In addition, not only can it mediate plasmid delivery, but CPP-Dot1l can also deliver GFP protein into cytosol. In conclusion, the findings of this study showed CPP-Dot1l is an attractive pharmaceutical and biochemical tool for future drug, regenerative medicine, cell therapy, gene therapy, and gene editing-based therapy development.