An Uncharacterized Major Facilitator Superfamily Transporter From Planococcus maritimus Exhibits Dual Functions as a Na+(Li+, K+)/H+ Antiporter and a Multidrug Efflux Pump.
ABSTRACT: Within major facilitator superfamily (MFS), up to 27 unknown major facilitator families and many members of 60 well-characterized families have been functionally unknown as yet, due to their sharing no or significantly low sequence identity with characterized MFS members. Here we present the first report on the characterization of one functionally unknown MFS transporter designated MdrP with the accession version No. ANU18183.1 from the slight halophile Planococcus maritimus DS 17275T. During the screening of Na+/H+ antiporter genes, we found at first that MdrP exhibits Na+(Li+, K+)/H+ antiport activity, and propose that it should represent a novel class of Na+(Li+, K+)/H+ antiporters. However, we speculate that MdrP may possess an additional protein function. The existence of the signature Motif A of drug/H+antiporter (DHA) family members and phylogenetic analysis suggest that MdrP may also function as a drug efflux pump, which was established by minimum inhibitory concentration tests and drug efflux activity assays. Taken together, this novel MFS transporter exhibits dual functions as a Na+(Li+, K+)/H+ antiporter and a multidrug efflux pump, which will be very helpful to not only positively contribute to the function prediction of uncharacterized MFS members especially DHA1 family ones, but also broaden the knowledge of Na+/H+ antiporters.
Project description:Multidrug resistance (MDR) transporters of the major facilitator superfamily (MFS) were previously believed to drive the extrusion of multiple antimicrobial drugs through the coupling to proton translocation. Here, we present the identification of the first Na+-coupled MFS-MDR transporter, MdrP, which also can achieve H+-coupled drug efflux independently of Na+. Importantly, we propose that MdrP can extrude norfloxacin in a mode of drug/Na+ antiport, which has not yet been reported in any MFS member. On this basis, we further provide the insights into a novel Na+ and H+ coupling mechanism of MFS-MDR transporters, even for all secondary transporters. The most important finding lies in that D223 should mainly act as a key determinant in the Na+ translocation coupled to norfloxacin efflux. Furthermore, our results partially modify the knowledge of the conformational stability-related residues in the motif A of MFS transporters and imply the importance of a new positively charged residue, R361, for the stabilization of outward-facing conformation of MFS transporters. These novel findings positively contribute to the knowledge of MFS-MDR transporters, especially about Na+ and H+ coupling mechanism. This study is based mainly on measurements in intact cells or everted membranes, and a biochemical assay with a reconstituted MdrP protein should be necessary to come to conclusion to be assured.
Project description:Multidrug resistance (MDR) poses a major challenge to medicine. A principle cause of MDR is through active efflux by MDR transporters situated in the bacterial membrane. Here we present the crystal structure of the major facilitator superfamily (MFS) drug/H+ antiporter MdfA from Escherichia coli in an outward open conformation. Comparison with the inward facing (drug binding) state shows that, in addition to the expected change in relative orientations of the N- and C-terminal lobes of the antiporter, the conformation of TM5 is kinked and twisted. In vitro reconstitution experiments demonstrate the importance of selected residues for transport and molecular dynamics simulations are used to gain insights into antiporter switching. With the availability of structures of alternative conformational states, we anticipate that MdfA will serve as a model system for understanding drug efflux in MFS MDR antiporters.
Project description:By employing information theoretic measures, this study presents a structure and functional analysis of a multidrug-proton antiporter Mdr1p of Candida albicans. Since CaMdr1p belongs to drug-proton antiporter (DHA1) family of Major Facilitator Superfamily (MFS) of transporters, we contrasted DHA1 (antiporters) with Sugar Porter family (symporters). Cumulative Relative Entropy (CRE) calculated for these two sets of alignments enabled us to selectively identify conserved residues of not only CaMdr1p but for the entire DHA1 family. Based on CRE, the highest scoring thirty positions were selected and predicted to impart functional specificity to CaMdr1p as well as to other drug-proton antiporters. Nineteen positions wherein the CaMdr1p residue matched with the most frequent amino acid at a particular alignment position of DHA1 members were subjected to site-directed mutagenesis and were replaced with either alanine or leucine. All these mutant variants, except one, displayed either complete or selective sensitivity to the tested drugs. The enhanced susceptibility of these mutant variants was corroborated with the simultaneously abrogated efflux of substrates. Taken together, based on scaled CRE between two MFS sub-families, we could accurately predict the functionally relevant residues of CaMdr1p. An extrapolation of these predictions to the entire DHA1 family members as validated from previously published data shows that these residues are functionally critical in other members of the DHA1 family also.
Project description:Vibrio cholerae, the causative agent of cholera, is a normal inhabitant of aquatic environments, where it survives in a wide range of conditions of pH and salinity. In this work, we investigated the role of three Na+/H+ antiporters on the survival of V. cholerae in a saline environment. We have previously cloned the Vc-nhaA gene encoding the V. cholerae homolog of Escherichia coli. Here we identified two additional antiporter genes, designated Vc-nhaB and Vc-nhaD, encoding two putative proteins of 530 and 477 residues, respectively, highly homologous to the respective antiporters of Vibrio species and E. coli. We showed that both Vc-NhaA and Vc-NhaB confer Na+ resistance and that Vc-NhaA displays an antiport activity in E. coli, which is similar in magnitude, kinetic parameters, and pH regulation to that of E. coli NhaA. To determine the roles of the Na+/H+ antiporters in V. cholerae, we constructed nhaA, nhaB, and nhaD mutants (single, double, and triple mutants). In contrast to E. coli, the inactivation of the three putative antiporter genes (Vc-nhaABD) in V. cholerae did not alter the bacterial exponential growth in the presence of high Na+ concentrations and had only a slight effect in the stationary phase. In contrast, a pronounced and similar Li+-sensitive phenotype was found with all mutants lacking Vc-nhaA during the exponential phase of growth and also with the triple mutant in the stationary phase of growth. By using 2-n-nonyl-4-hydroxyquinoline N-oxide, a specific inhibitor of the electron-transport-linked Na+ pump NADH-quinone oxidoreductase (NQR), we determined that in the absence of NQR activity, the Vc-NhaA Na+/H+ antiporter activity becomes essential for the resistance of V. cholerae to Na+ at alkaline pH. Since the ion pump NQR is Na+ specific, we suggest that its activity masks the Na+/H+ but not the Li+/H+ antiporter activities. Our results indicate that the Na+ resistance of the human pathogen V. cholerae requires a complex molecular system involving multiple antiporters and the NQR pump.
Project description:Monovalent cation proton antiporter-3 (Mrp) family antiporters are widely distributed and physiologically important in prokaryotes. Unlike other antiporters, they require six or seven hydrophobic gene products for full activity. Standard fluorescence-based assays of Mrp antiport in membrane vesicles from Escherichia coli transformants have not yielded strong enough signals for characterization of antiport kinetics. Here, an optimized assay protocol for vesicles of antiporter-deficient E. coli EP432 transformants produced higher levels of secondary Na(+)(Li(+))/H(+) antiport than previously reported. Assays were conducted on Mrps from alkaliphilic Bacillus pseudofirmus OF4 and Bacillus subtilis and the homologous antiporter of Staphylococcus aureus (Mnh), all of which exhibited Na(+)(Li(+))/H(+) antiport. A second paralogue of S. aureus (Mnh2) did not. K(+), Ca(2+), and Mg(2+) did not support significant antiport by any of the test antiporters. All three Na(+)(Li(+))/H(+) Mrp antiporters had alkaline pH optima and apparent K(m) values for Na(+) that are among the lowest reported for bacterial Na(+)/H(+) antiporters. Using a fluorescent probe of the transmembrane electrical potential (DeltaPsi), Mrp Na(+)/H(+) antiport was shown to be DeltaPsi consuming, from which it is inferred to be electrogenic. These assays also showed that membranes from E. coli EP432 expressing Mrp antiporters generated higher DeltaPsi levels than control membranes, as did membranes from E. coli EP432 expressing plasmid-borne NhaA, the well-characterized electrogenic E. coli antiporter. Assays of respiratory chain components in membranes from Mrp and control E. coli transformants led to a hypothesis explaining how activity of secondary, DeltaPsi-consuming antiporters can elicit increased capacity for DeltaPsi generation in a bacterial host.
Project description:In this study, genomic DNA was screened from Halobacillus andaensis NEAU-ST10-40T by selection in Escherichia coli KNabc lacking three major Na+/H+ antiporters. One gene designated upf0118 exhibiting Na+(Li+)/H+ antiport activity was finally cloned. Protein alignment showed that UPF0118 shares the highest identity of 81.5% with an unannotated gene encoding a protein with uncharacterized protein function belonging to UPF0118 family from H. kuroshimensis, but shares no identity with all known specific Na+(Li+)/H+ antiporter genes or genes with Na+(Li+)/H+ antiport activity. Growth test, western blot and Na+(Li+)/H+ antiport assay revealed that UPF0118 as a transmembrane protein exhibits pH-dependent Na+(Li+)/H+ antiport activity. Phylogenetic analysis indicated that UPF0118 clustered with all its homologs belonging to UPF0118 family at a wide range of 22-82% identities with the bootstrap value of 92%, which was significantly distant with all known specific single-gene Na+(Li+)/H+ antiporters and single-gene proteins with the Na+(Li+)/H+ antiport activity. Taken together, we propose that UPF0118 should represent a novel class of Na+(Li+)/H+ antiporter. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first report on the functional analysis of a protein with uncharacterized protein function as a representative of UPF0118 family containing the domain of unknown function, DUF20.
Project description:Functionally uncharacterized UPF0118 family has been re-designated as autoinducer-2 exporter (AI-2E) family since one of its members, Escherichia coli YdgG, was identified to function as an AI-2E. However, it's very likely that AI-2E family members may exhibit significantly distinct functions due to low identities between them. Recently, we identified one member of this family designated as UPF0118 to represent a novel class of Na+(Li+)/H+ antiporters. In this study, we presented that UPF0118, together with its homologs, should represent an independent group of AI-2E family, designated as Na+/H+ Antiporter Group. Notably, this group shows five highly conserved motifs designated as Motifs A to E, which are not detected in the majority of AI-2E family members. Functional analysis established that polar or charged residues located in Motif A to D play a vital role in Na+(Li+)/H+ antiport activity or pH response of UPF0118. However, three basic residues located in Motif E are not involved in the function of UPF0118, although the truncation of C terminus resulted in the non-expression of this transporter. Therefore, we propose that E179-R182-K215-Q217-D251-R292-R293-E296-K298-S30 7 located in Motifs A to D can be used for signature functional motifs to recognize whether AI-2E family members function as Na+(Li+)/H+ antiporters. Current findings positively contribute to the knowledge of molecular mechanism of Na+, Li+ transporting and pH response of UPF0118, and the functional prediction of uncharacterized AI-2E family members.
Project description:Synechocystis sp. strain PCC 6803 has five genes for putative Na(+)/H(+) antiporters (designated nhaS1, nhaS2, nhaS3, nhaS4, and nhaS5). The deduced amino acid sequences of NhaS1 and NhaS2 are similar to that of NhaP, the Na(+)/H(+) antiporter of Pseudomonas aeruginosa, whereas those of NhaS3, NhaS4, and NhaS5 resemble that of NapA, the Na(+)/H(+) antiporter of Enterococcus hirae. We successfully induced the expression of nhaS1, nhaS3, and nhaS4 under control of an Na(+)-dependent promoter in Escherichia coli TO114, a strain that is deficient in Na(+)/H(+) antiport activity. Inverted membrane vesicles prepared from TO114 nhaS1 and TO114 nhaS3 cells exhibited Na(+)(Li(+))/H(+) antiport activity. Kinetic analysis of this activity revealed that nhaS1 encodes a low-affinity Na(+)/H(+) antiporter with a K(m) of 7.7 mM for Na(+) ions and a K(m) of 2.5 mM for Li(+) ions, while nhaS3 encodes a high-affinity Na(+)/H(+) antiporter with a K(m) of 0.7 mM for Na(+) ions and a K(m) of 0.01 mM for Li(+) ions. Transformation of E. coli TO114 with the nhaS1 and nhaS3 genes increased cellular tolerance to high concentrations of Na(+) and Li(+) ions, as well as to depletion of K(+) ions during cell growth. To our knowledge, this is the first functional characterization of Na(+)/H(+) antiporters from a cyanobacterium. Inverted membrane vesicles prepared from TO114 nhaS4 cells did not have Na(+)/H(+) antiport activity, and the cells themselves were as sensitive to Na(+) and Li(+) ions as the original TO114 cells. However, the TO114 nhaS4 cells were tolerant to depletion of K(+) ions. Taking into account these results and the growth characteristics of Synechocystis mutants in which nhaS genes had been inactivated by targeted disruption, we discuss possible roles of NhaS1, NhaS3, and NhaS4 in Synechocystis.
Project description:Na+/H+ antiporters are integral membrane proteins that are present in almost every cell and in every kingdom of life. They are essential for the regulation of intracellular pH-value, Na+-concentration and cell volume. These secondary active transporters exchange sodium ions against protons via an alternating access mechanism, which is not understood in full detail. Na+/H+ antiporters show distinct species-specific transport characteristics and regulatory properties that correlate with respective physiological functions. Here we present the characterization of the Na+/H+ antiporter NhaA from Salmonella enterica serovar Thyphimurium LT2, the causing agent of food-born human gastroenteritis and typhoid like infections. The recombinant antiporter was functional in vivo and in vitro. Expression of its gene complemented the Na+-sensitive phenotype of an E. coli strain that lacks the main Na+/H+ antiporters. Purified to homogeneity, the antiporter was a dimer in solution as accurately determined by size-exclusion chromatography combined with multi-angle laser-light scattering and refractive index monitoring. The purified antiporter was fully capable of electrogenic Na+(Li+)/H+-antiport when reconstituted in proteoliposomes and assayed by solid-supported membrane-based electrophysiological measurements. Transport activity was inhibited by 2-aminoperimidine. The recorded negative currents were in agreement with a 1Na+(Li+)/2H+ stoichiometry. Transport activity was low at pH 7 and up-regulation above this pH value was accompanied by a nearly 10-fold decrease of KmNa (16 mM at pH 8.5) supporting a competitive substrate binding mechanism. K+ does not affect Na+ affinity or transport of substrate cations, indicating that selectivity of the antiport arises from the substrate binding step. In contrast to homologous E. coli NhaA, transport activity remains high at pH values above 8.5. The antiporter from S. Typhimurium is a promising candidate for combined structural and functional studies to contribute to the elucidation of the mechanism of pH-dependent Na+/H+ antiporters and to provide insights in the molecular basis of species-specific growth and survival strategies.
Project description:Multidrug efflux pumps play an important role as a self-defense system in bacteria. Bacterial multidrug efflux pumps are classified into five families based on structure and coupling energy: resistance-nodulation-cell division (RND), small multidrug resistance (SMR), major facilitator (MF), ATP binding cassette (ABC), and multidrug and toxic compounds extrusion (MATE). We cloned a gene encoding a MATE-type multidrug efflux pump from Streptococcus pneumoniae R6, and designated it pdrM. PdrM showed sequence similarity with NorM from Vibrio parahaemolyticus, YdhE from Escherichia coli, and other bacterial MATE-type multidrug efflux pumps. Heterologous expression of PdrM let to elevated resistance to several antibacterial agents, norfloxacin, acriflavine, and 4',6-diamidino-2-phenylindole (DAPI) in E. coli KAM32 cells. PdrM effluxes acriflavine and DAPI in a Na(+)- or Li(+)-dependent manner. Moreover, Na(+) efflux via PdrM was observed when acriflavine was added to Na(+)-loaded cells expressing pdrM. Therefore, we conclude that PdrM is a Na(+)/drug antiporter in S. pneumoniae. In addition to pdrM, we found another two genes, spr1756 and spr1877,that met the criteria of MATE-type by searching the S. pneumoniae genome database. However, cloned spr1756 and spr1877 did not elevate the MIC of any of the investigated drugs. mRNA expression of spr1756, spr1877, and pdrM was detected in S. pneumoniae R6 under laboratory growth conditions. Therefore, spr1756 and spr1877 are supposed to play physiological roles in this growth condition, but they may be unrelated to drug resistance.