Assessing global surface water inundation dynamics using combined satellite information from SMAP, AMSR2 and Landsat.
ABSTRACT: A method to assess global land surface water (fw) inundation dynamics was developed by exploiting the enhanced fw sensitivity of L-band (1.4 GHz) passive microwave observations from the Soil Moisture Active Passive (SMAP) mission. The L-band fw (fwLBand ) retrievals were derived using SMAP H-polarization brightness temperature (Tb ) observations and predefined L-band reference microwave emissivities for water and land endmembers. Potential soil moisture and vegetation contributions to the microwave signal were represented from overlapping higher frequency Tb observations from AMSR2. The resulting fwLBand global record has high temporal sampling (1-3 days) and 36-km spatial resolution. The fwLBand annual averages corresponded favourably (R=0.85, p-value<0.001) with a 250-m resolution static global water map (MOD44W) aggregated at the same spatial scale, while capturing significant inundation variations worldwide. The monthly fwLBand averages also showed seasonal inundation changes consistent with river discharge records within six major US river basins. An uncertainty analysis indicated generally reliable fwLBand performance for major land cover areas and under low to moderate vegetation cover, but with lower accuracy for detecting water bodies covered by dense vegetation. Finer resolution (30-m) fwLBand results were obtained for three sub-regions in North America using an empirical downscaling approach and ancillary global Water Occurrence Dataset (WOD) derived from the historical Landsat record. The resulting 30-m fwLBand retrievals showed favourable spatial accuracy for water (commission error 31.46%, omission error 30.20%) and land (commission error 0.87%, omission error 0.96%) classifications and seasonal wet and dry periods when compared to independent water maps derived from Landsat-8 imagery. The new fwLBand algorithms and continuing SMAP and AMSR2 operations provide for near real-time, multi-scale monitoring of global surface water inundation dynamics and potential flood risk.
Project description:A Neural Network (NN) algorithm was developed to estimate global surface soil moisture for April 2015 to March 2017 with a 2-3 day repeat frequency using passive microwave observations from the Soil Moisture Active Passive (SMAP) satellite, surface soil temperatures from the NASA Goddard Earth Observing System Model version 5 (GEOS-5) land modeling system, and Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer-based vegetation water content. The NN was trained on GEOS-5 soil moisture target data, making the NN estimates consistent with the GEOS-5 climatology, such that they may ultimately be assimilated into this model without further bias correction. Evaluated against in situ soil moisture measurements, the average unbiased root mean square error (ubRMSE), correlation and anomaly correlation of the NN retrievals were 0.037 m3m-3, 0.70 and 0.66, respectively, against SMAP core validation site measurements and 0.026 m3m-3, 0.58 and 0.48, respectively, against International Soil Moisture Network (ISMN) measurements. At the core validation sites, the NN retrievals have a significantly higher skill than the GEOS-5 model estimates and a slightly lower correlation skill than the SMAP Level-2 Passive (L2P) product. The feasibility of the NN method was reflected by a lower ubRMSE compared to the L2P retrievals as well as a higher skill when ancillary parameters in physically-based retrievals were uncertain. Against ISMN measurements, the skill of the two retrieval products was more comparable. A triple collocation analysis against Advanced Microwave Scanning Radiometer 2 (AMSR2) and Advanced Scatterometer (ASCAT) soil moisture retrievals showed that the NN and L2P retrieval errors have a similar spatial distribution, but the NN retrieval errors are generally lower in densely vegetated regions and transition zones.
Project description:The NASA Soil Moisture Active Passive (SMAP) satellite mission was launched on January 31, 2015 to provide global mapping of high-resolution soil moisture and freeze-thaw state every 2-3 days using an L-band (active) radar and an L-band (passive) radiometer. The Level 2 radiometer-only soil moisture product (L2_SM_P) provides soil moisture estimates posted on a 36-km Earth-fixed grid using brightness temperature observations from descending passes. This paper provides the first comparison of the validated-release L2_SM_P product with soil moisture products provided by the Soil Moisture and Ocean Salinity (SMOS), Aquarius, Advanced Scatterometer (ASCAT), and Advanced Microwave Scanning Radiometer 2 (AMSR2) missions. This comparison was conducted as part of the SMAP calibration and validation efforts. SMAP and SMOS appear most similar among the five soil moisture products considered in this paper, overall exhibiting the smallest unbiased root-mean-square difference and highest correlation. Overall, SMOS tends to be slightly wetter than SMAP, excluding forests where some differences are observed. SMAP and Aquarius can only be compared for a little more than two months; they compare well, especially over low to moderately vegetated areas. SMAP and ASCAT show similar overall trends and spatial patterns with ASCAT providing wetter soil moistures than SMAP over moderate to dense vegetation. SMAP and AMSR2 largely disagree in their soil moisture trends and spatial patterns; AMSR2 exhibits an overall dry bias, while desert areas are observed to be wetter than SMAP.
Project description:We report a unique multiyear L-band microwave radiometry dataset collected at the Maqu site on the eastern Tibetan Plateau and demonstrate its utilities in advancing our understandings of microwave observations of land surface processes. The presented dataset contains measurements of L-band brightness temperature by an ELBARA-III microwave radiometer in horizontal and vertical polarization, profile soil moisture and soil temperature, turbulent heat fluxes, and meteorological data from the beginning of 2016 till August 2019, while the experiment is still continuing. Auxiliary vegetation and soil texture information collected in dedicated campaigns are also reported. This dataset can be used to validate the Soil Moisture and Ocean Salinity (SMOS) and Soil Moisture Active Passive (SMAP) satellite based observations and retrievals, verify radiative transfer model assumptions and validate land surface model and reanalysis outputs, retrieve soil properties, as well as to quantify land-atmosphere exchanges of energy, water and carbon and help to reduce discrepancies and uncertainties in current Earth System Models (ESM) parameterizations. Measurement cases in winter, pre-monsoon, monsoon and post-monsoon periods are presented.
Project description:Despite the sparse distribution of meteorological stations and issues with missing data, vector-borne disease studies in Ethiopia have been commonly conducted based on the relationships between these diseases and ground-based in situ measurements of climate variation. High temporal and spatial resolution satellite-based remote-sensing data is a potential alternative to address this problem. In this study, we evaluated the accuracy of daily gridded temperature and rainfall datasets obtained from satellite remote sensing or spatial interpolation of ground-based observations in relation to data from 22 meteorological stations in Amhara Region, Ethiopia, for 2003-2016. Famine Early Warning Systems Network (FEWS-Net) Land Data Assimilation System (FLDAS) interpolated temperature showed the lowest bias (mean error (ME) ?1-3 °C), and error (mean absolute error (MAE) ?1-3 °C), and the highest correlation with day-to-day variability of station temperature (COR ?0.7-0.8). In contrast, temperature retrievals from the blended Advanced Microwave Scanning Radiometer on Earth Observing Satellite (AMSR-E) and Advanced Microwave Scanning Radiometer 2 (AMSR2) passive microwave and Moderate-resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) land-surface temperature data had higher bias and error. Climate Hazards group InfraRed Precipitation with Stations (CHIRPS) rainfall showed the least bias and error (ME ?-0.2-0.2 mm, MAE ?0.5-2 mm), and the best agreement (COR ?0.8), with station rainfall data. In contrast FLDAS had the higher bias and error and the lowest agreement and Global Precipitation Mission/Tropical Rainfall Measurement Mission (GPM/TRMM) data were intermediate. This information can inform the selection of geospatial data products for use in climate and disease research and applications.
Project description:This study compares different methods to extract soil moisture information through the assimilation of Soil Moisture Active Passive (SMAP) observations. Neural Network (NN) and physically-based SMAP soil moisture retrievals were assimilated into the NASA Catchment model over the contiguous United States for April 2015 to March 2017. By construction, the NN retrievals are consistent with the global climatology of the Catchment model soil moisture. Assimilating the NN retrievals without further bias correction improved the surface and root zone correlations against in situ measurements from 14 SMAP core validation sites (CVS) by 0.12 and 0.16, respectively, over the model-only skill and reduced the surface and root zone ubRMSE by 0.005 m3 m-3 and 0.001 m3 m-3, respectively. The assimilation reduced the average absolute surface bias against the CVS measurements by 0.009 m3 m-3, but increased the root zone bias by 0.014 m3 m-3. Assimilating the NN retrievals after a localized bias correction yielded slightly lower surface correlation and ubRMSE improvements, but generally the skill differences were small. The assimilation of the physically-based SMAP Level-2 passive soil moisture retrievals using a global bias correction yielded similar skill improvements, as did the direct assimilation of locally bias-corrected SMAP brightness temperatures within the SMAP Level-4 soil moisture algorithm. The results show that global bias correction methods may be able to extract more independent information from SMAP observations compared to local bias correction methods, but without accurate quality control and observation error characterization they are also more vulnerable to adverse effects from retrieval errors related to uncertainties in the retrieval inputs and algorithm. Furthermore, the results show that using global bias correction approaches without a simultaneous re-calibration of the land model processes can lead to a skill degradation in other land surface variables.
Project description:An accurate temporal and spatial characterization of errors is required for the efficient processing, evaluation, and assimilation of remotely-sensed surface soil moisture retrievals. However, empirical evidence exists that passive microwave soil moisture retrievals are prone to periodic artifacts which may complicate their application in data assimilation systems (which commonly treat observational errors as being temporally white). In this paper, the link between such temporally-periodic errors and spatial land surface heterogeneity is examined. Both the synthetic experiment and site-specified cases reveal that, when combined with strong spatial heterogeneity, temporal periodicity in satellite sampling patterns (associated with exact repeat intervals of the polar-orbiting satellites) can lead to spurious high frequency spectral peaks in soil moisture retrievals. In addition, the global distribution of the most prominent and consistent 8-day spectral peak in the Advanced Microwave Scanning Radiometer - Earth Observing System soil moisture retrievals is revealed via a peak detection method. Three spatial heterogeneity indicators - based on microwave brightness temperature, land cover types, and long-term averaged vegetation index - are proposed to characterize the degree to which the variability of land surface is capable of inducing periodic error into satellite-based soil moisture retrievals. Regions demonstrating 8-day periodic errors are generally consistent with those exhibiting relatively higher heterogeneity indicators. This implies a causal relationship between spatial land surface heterogeneity and temporal periodic error in remotely-sensed surface soil moisture retrievals.
Project description:This study evaluates the impact of assimilating soil moisture data from NASA's Soil Moisture Active Passive (SMAP) on short-term regional weather and air quality modeling in East Asia during the Korea-US Air Quality Study (KORUS-AQ) airborne campaign. SMAP data are assimilated into the Noah land surface model using an ensemble Kalman filter approach in the Land Information System framework, which is semi-coupled with the NASA-Unified Weather Research and Forecasting model with online chemistry (NUWRF-Chem). With SMAP assimilation included, water vapor and carbon monoxide (CO) transport from northern-central China transitional climate zones to South Korea is better represented in NUWRF-Chem during two studied pollution events. Influenced by different synoptic conditions and emission patterns, impact of SMAP assimilation on modeled CO in South Korea is intense (>30 ppbv) during one event and less significant (<8 ppbv) during the other. SMAP assimilation impact on air quality modeling skill is complicated by other error sources such as the chemical initial and boundary conditions (IC/LBC) and emission inputs of NUWRF-Chem. Using a satellite-observation-constrained chemical IC/LBC instead of a free-running, coarser-resolution chemical IC/LBC reduces modeled CO by up to 80 ppbv over South Korea. Consequently, CO performance is improved in the middle-upper troposphere whereas degraded in the lower troposphere. Remaining negative CO biases result largely from the emissions inputs. The advancements in land surface modeling and chemical IC/LBC presented here are expected to benefit future investigations on constraining emissions using observations, which can in turn enable more accurate assessments of SMAP assimilation and chemical IC/LBC impacts.
Project description:Surface water dynamics play an important role in water, energy and carbon cycles of the Amazon Basin. A macro-scale inundation scheme was integrated with a surface-water transport model and the extended model was applied in this vast basin. We addressed the challenges of improving basin-wide geomorphological parameters and river flow representation for large-scale applications. Vegetation-caused biases embedded in the HydroSHEDS DEM data were alleviated by using a vegetation height map of about 1-km resolution and a land cover dataset of about 90-m resolution. The average elevation deduction from the DEM correction was about 13.2 m for the entire basin. Basin-wide empirical formulae for channel cross-sectional geometry were adjusted based on local information for the major portion of the basin, which could significantly reduce the cross-sectional area for the channels of some subregions. The Manning roughness coefficient of the channel varied with the channel depth to reflect the general rule that the relative importance of riverbed resistance in river flow declined with the increase of river size. The entire basin was discretized into 5395 subbasins (with an average area of 1091.7 km2), which were used as computation units. The model was driven by runoff estimates of 14 years (1994 - 2007) generated by the ISBA land surface model. The simulated results were evaluated against in situ streamflow records, and remotely sensed Envisat altimetry data and GIEMS inundation data. The hydrographs were reproduced fairly well for the majority of 13 major stream gauges. For the 11 subbasins containing or close to 11 of the 13 gauges, the timing of river stage fluctuations was captured; for most of the 11 subbasins, the magnitude of river stage fluctuations was represented well. The inundation estimates were comparable to the GIEMS observations. Sensitivity analyses demonstrated that refining floodplain topography, channel morphology and Manning roughness coefficients, as well as accounting for backwater effects could evidently affect local and upstream inundation, which consequently affected flood waves and inundation of the downstream area. It was also shown that the river stage was sensitive to local channel morphology and Manning roughness coefficients, as well as backwater effects. The understanding obtained in this study could be helpful to improving modeling of surface hydrology in basins with evident inundation, especially at regional or larger scales.
Project description:Knowledge of the temporal error structure for remotely sensed surface soil moisture retrievals can improve our ability to exploit them for hydrologic and climate studies. This study employs a triple collocation analysis to investigate both the total variance and temporal auto-correlation of errors in Soil Moisture Active and Passive (SMAP) products generated from two separate soil moisture retrieval algorithms, the vertically-polarized brightness temperature based Single Channel Algorithm (SCA-V, the current baseline SMAP algorithm) and the Dual Channel Algorithm (DCA). A key assumption made in SCA-V is that real-time vegetation opacity can be accurately captured using only a climatology for vegetation opacity. Results demonstrate that, while SCA-V generally outperforms DCA, SCA-V can produce larger total errors when this assumption is significantly violated by inter-annual variability in vegetation health and biomass. Furthermore, larger auto-correlated errors in SCA-V retrievals are found in areas with relatively large vegetation opacity deviations from climatological expectations. This implies that a significant portion of the auto-correlated error in SCA-V is attributable to the violation of its vegetation opacity climatology assumption and suggests that utilizing a real (as opposed to climatological) vegetation opacity time series in the SCA-V algorithm would reduce the magnitude of auto-correlated soil moisture retrieval errors.
Project description:The dataset presented in this article is related to the work "Evaluation and Analysis of SMAP, AMSR2, and MEaSUREs Freeze/Thaw Products in China ". Soil moisture and temperature are important variables of land-atmosphere energy exchange, monitoring vegetation growth, predicting drought disasters and climate and hydrological modelling , , , , . This work provides detailed information on in situ soil moisture and temperature data network established in the Genhe watershed and Saihanba area in China, respectively. The Genhe watershed represents the complex surface heterogeneity in Northeast China. Therefore, data from 22 in situ sites were established in the Genhe watershed since March 2016 to improve the dynamic analysis and modeling of remotely sensed information for complex land surfaces. Saihanba is currently China's largest manmade forest and has a unique alpine wetland and a complete aquatic ecosystem. There are 29 in situ sites deployed in Saihanba since August 2018 for studying the cold temperate continental monsoon climate and estimating forest carbon storage capacity and carbon emissions from manmade forests. Soil temperature and permittivity data in the network were measured using ECH2O EC-5TM probes (Decagon Devices, Inc., Washington, USA, https://www.metergroup.com/) and XingShiTu (XST) probes (BEIJING XST Co., Ltd., www.xingshitu.com) every 30 min at depths of 3, 5, and 10 cm for the Genhe watershed continuous automatic observation network, and depths of 5 and 10 cm for the Saihanba continuous automatic observation network. In the Genhe watershed, soil moisture and soil temperature data in the network were automatically collected using the EM50 data collection system. The Saihanba area has the XST data collection system to record soil temperature and permittivity. The permittivity data collected with the XST data collector were transformed to soil moisture data (volumetric water content) based on the formula developed by . The datasets of the Genhe watershed and Saihanba area consist of raw data acquired by the data collector and processed data of soil moisture and temperature. The Saihanba dataset also includes the calibration data based on soil texture. The result of temporal variations analysis in observed data in the Genhe Watershed and the processing in observed data in the saihanba area show that the long-term in situ soil moisture and temperature datasets can be used for the validation/calibration and improvement of the soil moisture and soil freeze/thaw algorithm.