Development of a Rapid Automated Fluorescent Lateral Flow Immunoassay to Detect Hepatitis B Surface Antigen (HBsAg), Antibody to HBsAg, and Antibody to Hepatitis C.
ABSTRACT: BACKGROUND:Accurate, rapid, and cost-effective screening tests for hepatitis B virus (HBV) and hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection may be useful in laboratories that cannot afford automated chemiluminescent immunoassays (CLIAs). We evaluated the diagnostic performance of a novel rapid automated fluorescent lateral flow immunoassay (LFIA). METHODS:A fluorescent LFIA using a small bench-top fluorescence reader, Automated Fluorescent Immunoassay System (AFIAS; Boditech Med Inc., Chuncheon, Korea), was developed for qualitative detection of hepatitis B surface antigen (HBsAg), antibody to HBsAg (anti-HBs), and antibody to HCV (anti-HCV) within 20 minutes. We compared the diagnostic performance of AFIAS with that of automated CLIAs-Elecsys (Roche Diagnostics GmbH, Penzberg, Germany) and ARCHITECT (Abbott Laboratories, Abbott Park, IL, USA)-using 20 seroconversion panels and 3,500 clinical serum samples. RESULTS:Evaluation with the seroconversion panels demonstrated that AFIAS had adequate sensitivity for HBsAg and anti-HCV detection. From the clinical samples, AFIAS sensitivity and specificity were 99.8% and 99.3% for the HBsAg test, 100.0% and 100.0% for the anti-HBs test, and 98.8% and 99.1% for the anti-HCV test, respectively. Its agreement rates with the Elecsys HBsAg, anti-HBs, and anti-HCV detection assays were 99.4%, 100.0%, and 99.0%, respectively. AFIAS detected all samples with HBsAg genotypes A-F and H and anti-HCV genotypes 1, 1a, 1b, 2a, 2b, 4, and 6. Cross-reactivity with other infections was not observed. CONCLUSIONS:The AFIAS HBsAg, anti-HBs, and anti-HCV tests demonstrated diagnostic performance equivalent to current automated CLIAs. AFIAS could be used for a large-scale HBV or HCV screening in low-resource laboratories or low-to middle-income areas.
Project description:A variety of amino acid substitutions, such as K122I and G145R, have been identified around or within the a determinant of hepatitis B surface antigen (HBsAg), impair HBsAg secretion and antibody binding, and may be responsible for immune escape in patients. In this study, we examined how different substitutions at amino acid positions 122 and 145 of HBsAg influence HBsAg expression, secretion, and recognition by anti-HBs antibodies. The results showed that the hydrophobicity, the presence of the phenyl group, and the charges in the side chain of the amino acid residues at position 145 reduced HBsAg secretion and impaired reactivity with anti-HBs antibodies. Only the substitution K122I at position 122 affected HBsAg secretion and recognition by anti-HBs antibodies. Genetic immunization in mice demonstrated that the priming of anti-HBs antibody response was strongly impaired by the substitutions K122I, G145R, and others, like G145I, G145W, and G145E. Mice preimmunized with wild-type HBsAg (wtHBsAg) or variant HBsAg (vtHBsAg) were challenged by hydrodynamic injection (HI) with a replication-competent hepatitis B virus (HBV) clone. HBsAg persisted in peripheral blood for at least 3 days after HI in mice preimmunized with vtHBsAg but was undetectable in mice preimmunized with wtHBsAg, indicating that vtHBsAgs fail to induce proper immune responses for efficient HBsAg clearance. In conclusion, the biochemical properties of amino acid residues at positions 122 and 145 of HBsAg have a major effect on antigenicity and immunogenicity. In addition, the presence of proper anti-HBs antibodies is indispensable for the neutralization and clearance of HBsAg during HBV infection.
Project description:The coexistence of HBsAg and anti-HBs has been reported in some chronic hepatitis B patients; however, the long-term outcomes of this serological profile have not been elucidated. We aimed to evaluate the long-term outcomes of HBsAg/anti-HBs double-positive chronic hepatitis B patients. Chronic hepatitis B patients who underwent baseline abdominal ultrasonography and follow-up (HBsAg/anti-HBs assessment and abdominal ultrasonography) at our healthcare center were included. The “coexistence group” included patients positive for both HBsAg and anti-HBs and the “control group” included patients positive for only HBsAg during follow-up. The outcomes were hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) incidence, HBsAg seroclearance and overall mortality. Kaplan-Meier and Cox proportional hazard regression analyses were performed. Of the 2,341 eligible patients, 166 (7.1%) were in the coexistence group. The total follow-up duration was 5.4 years. The coexistence group had a 3.08-fold higher risk of HCC than the control group [hazard ratio (HR) 3.08, 95% confidence interval(CI) 1.26–7.55, P?=?0.014] in multivariate analysis. The coexistence group had more HBsAg seroclearance than the control group (HR 1.43, 95% CI 1.01–2.03, P?=?0.046). However, overall mortality did not significantly differ between the 2 groups. The coexistence group is heterogeneous and includes subjects with unfavorable outcomes (incidence of HCC) and favorable outcomes (more HBsAg seroclearance).
Project description:Coexistence of hepatitis B surface antigen (HBsAg) and antibody against HBsAg (anti-HBs) comprises an atypical serological profile in patients with chronic hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection. In this study, in total 94 patients with coexisting HBsAg and anti-HBs and 94 age- and sex-matched patients with positive HBsAg were characterized by quantitatively measuring HBsAg and HBV DNA, sequencing large S genes, and observing clinical features. Compared with common hepatitis B patients, the patients with coexisting HBsAg and anti-HBs had lower HBsAg and HBV DNA levels. These two groups had similar rate of pre-S deletion mutations. However, in patients with coexisting HBsAg and anti-HBs, more amino acid substitutions in the a determinant of S gene were observed in HBV genotype C, but not in genotype B. Fourteen patients with coexisting HBsAg and anti-HBs were followed up for an average of 15.5 months. There were no significant changes in the levels of HBsAg, anti-HBs, HBV DNA and ALT over the follow-up period. Compared with the baseline sequences, amino acid substitutions in the MHR of HBsAg occurred in 14.3% (2/14) patients. In conclusion, coexistence of HBsAg and anti-HBs may be associated with higher frequency of mutations in the a determinant of HBV genotype C.
Project description:AIM:To investigate the clinical significance and presence of mutations in the surface (S) and overlapping polymerase gene of hepatitis B patients with coexisting HBsAg and anti-HBs. METHODS:Twenty-three patients with chronic hepatitis B were studied. Of the 23 patients, 11 were both positive for hepatitis B virus (HBV) surface antigen (HBsAg) and antibody to HBV surface antigen (anti-HBs), 12 were negative for anti-HBs while positive for HBsAg. DNA was extracted from 200 muL serum of the patients. Nucleotide of the surface and overlapping polymerase gene from HBV-infected patients was amplified by PCR, and the PCR products were sequenced. RESULTS:Forty-one mutations were found within the surface gene protein of HBV in 15 patients (10 with coexisting HBsAg and anti-HBs). Six (14.6%) out of 41 mutations were located at "alpha " determinant region in 5 patients (4 positive for HBsAg and anti-HBs). Eleven mutations (26.8%) occurred in the downstream or upstream of "alpha " determinant region. Lamivudine (LMV)-selected mutations were found in three patients who developed anti-HBs, which occurred in amino acid positions (196, 198, 199) of the surface protein and in YMDD motif (M204I/V) of the polymerase protein simultaneously. Presence of these mutations did not relate to changes in ALT and HBV DNA levels. CONCLUSION:Besides mutations in the "alpha " deter-minant region, mutations at downstream or upstream of the "alpha " determinant region may contribute to the development of anti-HBs. These mutations do not block the replicating competency of HBV in the presence of high titer of anti-HBs.
Project description:Although the evolutionary changes of viral quasispecies are correlated to the pathological status of a disease, little is known in the coexistence of hepatitis B surface antigen (HBsAg) and antibodies to these antigens (anti-HBs). To examine evolutionary changes in hepatitis B virus (HBV) and their relationship to the coexistence of HBsAg and anti-HBs antibodies, HBV genomes in patients with a coexistence of HBsAg and anti-HBs antibodies (experimental group) and HBsAg positive without anti-HBs (control group) were assessed. Our results showed that quasispecies diversity was significantly higher in the experimental group for large HBsAg (LHBsAg), middle HBsAg (MHBsAg), and HBsAg genes. LHBsAg harbored dN/dS values eight times higher in the experimental group; however, the mean dN/dS ratios in genes HbxAg, Pol and PreC/C of the experimental patients had an opposite trend. Phylogenetic trees in the experimental group were more complex than the control group. More positive selection sites, mutations and deletions were observed in the experimental group in specific regions. Furthermore, several amino acid variants in epitopes were potentially associated with the immune evasion. In conclusion, cumulative evolutionary changes in HBV genome that facilitate immune evasion provide insights into the genetic mechanism of a coexistence of HBsAg and anti-HBs antibodies.
Project description:Hepatitis A (HAV), hepatitis B (HBV), and hepatitis C (HCV) viruses are hepatotropic viruses responsible for acute/chronic hepatitis associated with liver failure, cirrhosis, and hepatocellular carcinoma. Due to the limited data on the prevalence of hepatitis in the older population in Thailand, this study aimed to evaluate the seroprevalence of these viruses in elderly Thais. Using an automated immunoassay, serum samples from individuals older than 60 years of age in Chum Phae district of Khon Kaen province in northeast Thailand were analyzed for anti-HAV (n = 93), HBV markers (n = 460, HBsAg, anti-HBs, and anti-HBc), and anti-HCV (n = 460). Samples were classified into five age groups (61-65, 66-70, 71-75, 76-80, and >80 years). The overall seroprevalence of anti-HAV, HBsAg, anti-HBc, anti-HBs, and anti-HCV was 98.9%, 4.6%, 51.5%, 32.4%, and 1.3%, respectively. When samples were stratified into three groups representing three generations (children/young adults aged 6 months-30 years and middle-aged adults between 31-60 years old from a previous survey, and older adults aged >60 years from the current study), the highest levels of anti-HAV and anti-HBc were found in older adults. Children/young adults had the lowest levels of HBsAg and anti-HCV, and the highest level of anti-HBs. These findings are consistent with the integration of HBV vaccination into the Expanded Program on Immunization (EPI) in 1992 and coincide with increased awareness of blood-borne viral transmission in Thailand. Extrapolating from our data, the estimated numbers of cases of chronic HBV and HCV infection in Thailand in 2017 were 2.2 and 0.79 million, respectively. Thus, effective treatments for viral hepatitis B and C for middle-aged and elderly Thais are needed. This seroprevalence survey could be used to help formulate policies and possible guidelines for treatment and prevention in specific age groups, which is recommended to facilitate the elimination of viral hepatitis by 2030.
Project description:The underlying mechanism of coexistence of hepatitis B surface antigen (HBsAg) and hepatitis B surface antigen antibody (anti-HBs) is still controversial. To identify the host genetic factors related to this unusual clinical phenomenon, a two-stage study was conducted in the Chinese Han population. In the first stage, we performed a case-control (1:1) age- and gender-matched study of 101 cases with concurrent HBsAg and anti-HBs and 102 controls with negative HBsAg and positive anti-HBs using whole exome sequencing. In the second validation stage, we directly sequence the 16 exons on the OAS3 gene in two dependent cohorts of 48 cases and 200 controls. Although, in the first stage, a genome-wide association study of 58,563 polymorphism variants in 101 cases and 102 controls found no significant loci (P-value ? .05/58563), and neither locus achieved a conservative genome-wide significance threshold (P-value ? 5e-08), gene-based burden analysis showed that OAS3 gene rare variants were associated with the coexistence of HBsAg and anti-HBs. (P-value = 4.127e-06 ? 0.05/6994). A total of 16 rare variants were screened out from 21 cases and 3 controls. In the second validation stage, one case with a stop-gained rare variant was identified. Fisher's exact test of all 149 cases and 302 controls showed that the rare coding sequence mutations were more frequent in cases vs controls (P-value = 7.299e-09, OR = 17.27, 95% CI [5.01-58.72]). Protein-coding rare variations on the OAS3 gene are associated with the coexistence of HBsAg and anti-HBs in patients with chronic HBV infection in Chinese Han population.
Project description:INTRODUCTION:Achieving functional cure of chronic HBV infection (Hepatitis B surface antigen [HBsAg] clearance, eventually followed by acquisition of anti-hepatitis B surface antigen [Anti-HBs]) in individuals with HIV and HBV infections is a rare event. In this setting, factors related to HBV cure have not yet been fully characterized. METHODS:HIV-infected individuals with chronic HBV infection enrolled in the French Dat'AIDS cohort (NCT02898987), who started combined antiretroviral (cART)-anti-HBV treatment were retrospectively analyzed for HBsAg loss and Anti-HBs seroconversion. RESULTS:Overall, 1419 naïve-subjects received three different cART-anti-HBV treatment schedule: (1) 3TC or FTC only (n = 150), (2) TDF with or without 3TC or FTC (n = 489) and (3) 3TC or FTC as first line followed by adding/switching to TDF as second line (n = 780). Individuals were followed-up for a median of 89 months (IQR, 56-118). HBV-DNA was < 15 IU/mL in 91% of individuals at the end of the follow-up. Overall, 97 individuals cleared HBsAg (0.7/100 patient-years), of whom, 67 seroconverted for Anti-HBs (0.5/100 patient-years). A high CD4 nadir, a short delay between HBV diagnosis and treatment, a longer time on HBV therapy, an African origin and TDF-based therapy were independent predictors of HBsAg clearance (Probability of odds ratio [OR]>1, >95%) suggested by Bayesian analysis. Also, TDF-based regimen as first line (OR, 3.03) or second line (OR, 2.95) increased rates of HBsAg clearance compared to 3TC or FTC alone, with a 99% probability. CONCLUSIONS:HBsAg clearance rate was low in HIV-HBV co-infected cART-anti-HBV treated individuals, but was slightly improved on TDF-based regimen.
Project description:The study aimed to determine the association of additional N-glycosylation mutations in the major hydrophilic region (MHR) of hepatitis B virus (HBV) S gene with hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) occurrence in HBsAg/anti-HBs coexistent patients. A total of 288 HBsAg/anti-HBs coexistent patients and 490 single HBsAg-positive patients were enrolled, including 193 with HCC, 433 with chronic hepatitis B (CHB), and 152 with acute-on-chronic liver failure (ACLF). The HBV S genes were amplified from serum and sequenced. The frequency of additional N-glycosylation mutations was significantly higher in HCC patients (12.37%) than in CHB patients (4.39%) and ACLF patients (2.63%). The frequency escalated by an order of single HBsAg-positive non-HCC (1.61%), single HBsAg-positive HCC (5.98%), HBsAg/anti-HBs coexistent non-HCC (8.01%), and HBsAg/anti-HBs coexistent HCC (22.36%). Twelve kinds of mutations/mutation patterns were detected, five of which have not been reported. Multivariate analysis showed that age > 40 years [<i>OR</i>, 3.005; 95% CI, 1.177-7.674; <i>P</i> = 0.021], alpha-fetoprotein > 10 ng/mL [<i>OR</i>, 4.718; 95% CI, 2.406-9.251; <i>P</i> <0.001], cirrhosis [<i>OR</i>, 6.844; 95% CI, 2.773-16.891, <i>P</i> < 0.001], Hepatitis B e antigen negativity [<i>OR</i>, 2.218; 95% CI, 4.335, <i>P</i> = 0.020], and additional N-glycosylation mutation [<i>OR</i>, 2.831; 95% CI, 1.157-6.929; <i>P</i> = 0.023] were independent risk factors for HCC in HBsAg/anti-HBs coexistent patients. Dynamical analysis showed that the additional N-glycosylation mutations existed 1-4 years prior to HCC occurrence in eight of 18 patients observed. In conclusion, the dditional N-glycosylation mutations together with HBsAg/anti-HBs coexistence might serve as a predictive indicator for HCC occurrence in chronic HBV-infected patients.
Project description:The IFN-?3 gene (IFNL3) plays a role in HCV clearance. We investigated circulating IFN-?3 and IFNL3 SNPs in haemodialysis patients who differed in their response to HBV vaccination and their HBV/HCV infection status. In 201 patients, plasma IFN-?3 was determined using ELISA. IFNL3 SNPs (rs12979860, rs8099917) were genotyped using HRM analysis. Differences in IFN-?3 levels were shown between responders and nonresponders to HBV vaccination and between HBsAg-positive patients and those who developed anti-HBs after infection and became HBsAg negative. HBV vaccine responders without HCV resolution revealed lower IFN-?3 than noninfected responders. HBsAg/HCV RNA-positive subjects showed lower IFN-?3 than patients positive only for HCV RNA or subjects who resolved both infections. Circulating IFN-?3 correlated positively with anti-HBs and negatively with positive HCV RNA testing in the adjusted regression analyses. HBV vaccine nonresponders, HBsAg-positive patients, and subjects with replicating HCV composed a group with unfavourable outcomes. Responders to HBV vaccination, subjects who became HBsAg negative, and those who cleared HCV were analysed as having favourable outcomes. The latter showed higher IFN-?3 but did not differ in distribution of IFNL3 SNPs compared with subjects with unfavourable outcomes. Higher IFN-?3 concentrations are associated with response to HBV vaccination, self-limited HBV infection, and HCV resolution.