A registry study of nursing assessments, interventions and evaluations according to nutrition for persons living in municipal residential care homes.
ABSTRACT: The aim was to explore planned nursing interventions and evaluations of such interventions, in older people at risk for malnutrition living in municipal residential care homes.A registry study.The study was conducted using data from the Swedish national quality registry Senior Alert. Data on all persons assessed and registered in Senior Alert living in municipal residential care homes in a mid-sized town between January and December 2014 were subjected to statistical analysis.In total, 677 nutritional risk assessments were performed among the participants (N = 587), who were between 65-109 years. A larger proportion of women were estimated as being at risk for malnutrition compared with men. The three most common prescribed nursing interventions were nutritional treatment, dietary support and weight control; however, interventions were not prescribed for all participants at risk for malnutrition. Lesser than 50% of the interventions were evaluated, with dietary support, pharmaceutical review and weight control the three most likely to be evaluated. Further, planned interventions for participants at risk of malnutrition were implemented more often for men than for women.
Project description:There is limited evidence to support the effectiveness of falls prevention interventions in the acute hospital setting. The 6-PACK falls prevention program includes a fall-risk tool; 'falls alert' signs; supervision of patients in the bathroom; ensuring patients' walking aids are within reach; toileting regimes; low-low beds; and bed/chair alarms. This study explored the acceptability of the 6-PACK program from the perspective of nurses and senior staff prior to its implementation in a randomised controlled trial. A mixed-methods approach was applied involving 24 acute wards from six Australian hospitals. Participants were nurses working on participating wards and senior hospital staff including: Nurse Unit Managers; senior physicians; Directors of Nursing; and senior personnel involved in quality and safety or falls prevention. Information on program acceptability (suitability, practicality and benefits) was obtained by surveys, focus groups and interviews. Survey data were analysed descriptively, and focus group and interview data thematically. The survey response rate was 60%. Twelve focus groups (n = 96 nurses) and 24 interviews with senior staff were conducted. Falls were identified as a priority patient safety issue and nurses as key players in falls prevention. The 6-PACK program was perceived to offer practical benefits compared to current practice. Nurses agreed fall-risk tools, low-low beds and alert signs were useful for preventing falls (>70%). Views were mixed regarding positioning patients' walking aid within reach. Practical issues raised included access to equipment; and risk of staff injury with low-low bed use. Bathroom supervision was seen to be beneficial, however not always practical. Views on the program appropriateness and benefits were consistent across nurses and senior staff. Staff perceived the 6-PACK program as suitable, practical and beneficial, and were open to adopting the program. Some practical concerns were raised highlighting issues to be addressed by the implementation plan.
Project description:OBJECTIVES:To construct and internally validate a risk score, the '80+ score', for revisits to hospital and mortality for older patients, incorporating aspects of pharmacotherapy. Our secondary aim was to compare the discriminatory ability of the score with that of three validated tools for measuring inappropriate prescribing: Screening Tool of Older Person's Prescriptions (STOPP), Screening Tool to Alert doctors to Right Treatment (START) and Medication Appropriateness Index (MAI). SETTING:Two acute internal medicine wards at Uppsala University hospital. Patient data were used from a randomised controlled trial investigating the effects of a comprehensive clinical pharmacist intervention. PARTICIPANTS:Data from 368 patients, aged 80 years and older, admitted to one of the study wards. PRIMARY OUTCOME MEASURE:Time to rehospitalisation or death during the year after discharge from hospital. Candidate variables were selected among a large number of clinical and drug-specific variables. After a selection process, a score for risk estimation was constructed. The 80+ score was internally validated, and the discriminatory ability of the score and of STOPP, START and MAI was assessed using C-statistics. RESULTS:Seven variables were selected. Impaired renal function, pulmonary disease, malignant disease, living in a nursing home, being prescribed an opioid or being prescribed a drug for peptic ulcer or gastroesophageal reflux disease were associated with an increased risk, while being prescribed an antidepressant drug (tricyclic antidepressants not included) was linked to a lower risk of the outcome. These variables made up the components of the 80+ score. The C-statistics were 0.71 (80+), 0.57 (STOPP), 0.54 (START) and 0.63 (MAI). CONCLUSIONS:We developed and internally validated a score for prediction of risk of rehospitalisation and mortality in hospitalised older people. The score discriminated risk better than available tools for inappropriate prescribing. Pending external validation, this score can aid in clinical identification of high-risk patients and targeting of interventions.
Project description:(1) To describe the anticholinergic burden experienced by nursing home residents with dementia using the Anticholinergic Cognitive Burden (ACB) Scale; and (2) to determine the association of anticholinergic burden and engagement in activity.Cross-sectional, using baseline data from an ongoing clinical trial.Nine nursing homes in Pennsylvania.Eighty-seven nursing home residents with dementiaThe ACB Scale was used to classify the severity of each resident's prescribed drugs' anticholinergic activity on cognition. Engagement in activity was measured by direct observation using a standard instrument.Across 775 observations, subjects were active approximately 54% of the time, doing nothing 24% of the time, and asleep over 21% of the time. Seventy-one (81.6%) subjects were prescribed at least one drug with anticholinergic properties and 32 (36.7%) were prescribed at least one drug with severe anticholinergic properties. On average, subjects had a total ACB score of 2.55 (+/- 1.9). Mental status (MMSE) and dependency (PGDRS) were associated with engagement, but use of anticholinergic drugs was not.Nursing home residents are prescribed many drugs with anticholinergic properties. The ACB Scale has utility as a tool to alert practitioners to high anticholinergic burden, who can then use this information when choosing between equally efficacious medications. Further study using larger samples of persons with dementia in earlier stages of the disease, and use of intense measurement designs are needed to more clearly determine the association of ACB with quality of life indicators.
Project description:<h4>Background</h4>Protein energy malnutrition predisposes individuals to disease, delays recovery from illness and reduces quality of life. Care home residents are especially vulnerable, with an estimated 30%-42% at risk. There is no internationally agreed protocol for the nutritional treatment of malnutrition in the care home setting. Widely used techniques include food-based intervention and/or the use of prescribed oral nutritional supplements, but a trial comparing the efficacy of interventions is necessary. In order to define outcomes and optimise the design for an adequately powered, low risk of bias cluster randomised controlled trial, a feasibility trial with 6-month intervention is being run, to assess protocol procedures, recruitment and retention rates, consent processes and resident and staff acceptability.<h4>Methods</h4>Trial recruitment began in September 2013 and concluded in December 2013. Six privately run care homes in Solihull, England, were selected to establish feasibility within different care home types. Residents with or at risk of malnutrition with no existing dietetic intervention in place were considered for receipt of the allocated intervention. Randomisation took place at the care home level, using a computer-generated random number list to allocate each home to either a dietetic intervention arm (food-based or prescribed supplements) or the standard care arm, continued for 6 months. Dietetic intervention aimed to increase daily calorie intake by 600 kcal and protein by 20-25 g.<h4>Results</h4>The primary outcomes will be trial feasibility and acceptability of trial design and allocated interventions. A range of outcome assessments and data collection tools will be evaluated for feasibility, including change in nutrient intake, anthropometric parameters and patient-centric measures, such as quality of life and self-perceived appetite.<h4>Conclusions</h4>The complexities inherent in care home research has resulted in the under representation of this population in research trials. The results of this feasibility trial will be used to inform the development and design of a future cluster randomised controlled trial to compare food-based intervention with prescribed oral nutritional supplements (ONS) in the treatment of malnutrition within the care home population.<h4>Trial registration</h4>Current Controlled Trials ISRCTN38047922.
Project description:Background:Research indicates that the active support of managers is essential for the sustainable implementation of health-related work design interventions in organizations. However, little is known about managers' perceptions of such health promotion measures. Objective:Our study aims to provide information that help to foster managers active support of health-related work design interventions in hospitals. Based on Ajzen's Theory of Planned Behavior (TPB) we explore the attitudes, perceived organizational norms, and perceived behavioral control of managers in the hospital regarding such interventions. Methods:Semi-structured interviews with 37 managers (chief physicians, senior physicians, and senior nurses) were carried out in one German hospital. A software aided qualitative content analysis was applied. Results:We observed that the majority of managers are aware of the importance of health-related work design. We found a high variation in the perception of organizational norms related to mental health promotion of employees. Behavioral control for supporting interventions is perceived more on an individual (e.g., appraisal interviews, professional development or support) and team level (e.g., fair work schedule, regular team meetings), less on an organizational level. Conclusion:To enable and to motivate hospital medical and nursing managers to support health-related work design, hospitals need to establish clear organizational norms that the health promotion of their employees is an important organizational goal. Moreover, managers need to get more work-design competencies and decision latitude to get more control. Important arguments for the top hospital management could be that health-related work design is highly effective for economic success, for treatment quality, and that the middle management already has a positive attitude toward the implementation of measures that help promote the mental health of their staff.
Project description:INTRODUCTION:In 2008, the NutriAction study showed that (risk of) malnutrition was highly prevalent (57%) among Belgian older people living in the community or in a nursing home. In 2013, this study was repeated to re-evaluate the occurrence of malnutrition, as well as mobility problems and dependence in activities of daily living (ADL). METHODS:Health care professionals (HCPs) associated with homecare organizations and nursing homes across Belgium were invited to screen their patients and complete an online questionnaire. Nutritional status, presence of pre-specified comorbidities, mobility, and ADL dependency were assessed. RESULTS:In total, 3299 older patients were analysed: 2480 (86.3 ± 6.3 years) nursing home (NH) residents and 819 (82.7 ± 6.1 years) community dwelling (CD). Overall, 12% was malnourished (MNA-SF score < 8) and 44% was at risk of malnutrition (MNA-SF 8-11). The highest prevalence of (risk of) malnutrition was observed in NHs (63%) and in patients with dementia (CD: 68%; NH: 82%) or depression (CD: 68%; NH: 79%). Of all malnourished individuals, 49% was recognized as malnourished by HCPs and 13% of the malnourished recognized themselves as such. Mobility (stair climbing and walking) and ADL dependency (Belgian KATZ score) were impaired in older people with (risk of) malnutrition in comparison with individuals with normal nutritional status (p < 0.001). DISCUSSION:Despite public awareness initiatives, the prevalence of malnutrition remained stable among Belgian older people seen by HCPs in the period 2008-2013. Moreover, malnutrition is not well recognized. CONCLUSION:Under-recognition of malnutrition is problematic, because associated loss of mobility and independence may accelerate the transformation of frailty into disability in older people.
Project description:Driven by emergency department targets, there is a need for rapid initial assessment and investigations of attendees to the department, and blood tests are often performed before full patient assessment. It has been shown that many investigations ordered in the emergency department are inappropriate. Coagulation samples are acknowledged as one the commonest blood samples requested on admission. We predicted that the majority of the routine coagulation samples performed in our ED department were unnecessary. We aimed to determine if coagulation tests sent from our department were appropriate, develop guidance for appropriate testing and to increase the percentage of appropriate tests to 90%. Criterion based audit was used. All coagulation samples sent from the ED over a one week period were reviewed and the indications for testing compared to guidance developed by consensus with ED consultants. On the first data collection, 66 of 369 (17%) samples were deemed appropriate. Feedback to clinical staff was given at educational meetings and appropriate indications discussed. In collaboration with both senior nursing and medical staff, coagulation screen request bottles were removed from the main clinical area and were only available in the resuscitation area. Following these interventions, 69 of 97 (71%) samples were deemed appropriate and a further intervention is planned to reach our standard. This improvement could lead to a £100,000 saving annually and a cross-site collaborative study is planned to spread these improvements.
Project description:OBJECTIVES:Describe nursing home polypharmacy prevalence in the context of prescribing for diabetes and hypertension and determine possible associations between lower surrogate markers for treated hypertension and diabetes (overtreatment) and polypharmacy. DESIGN:Cross-sectional study. SETTING:6 nursing homes in British Columbia, Canada. PARTICIPANTS:214 patients residing in one of the selected facilities during data collection period. PRIMARY AND SECONDARY OUTCOME MEASURES:Polypharmacy was defined as ?9?regular medications. Overtreatment of diabetes was defined as being prescribed at least one hypoglycaemic medication and a glycosylated haemoglobin (HbA1c) ?7.5%. Overtreatment of hypertension required being prescribed at least one hypertension medication and having a systolic blood pressure ?128?mm Hg. Polypharmacy prescribing, independent of overtreatment, was calculated by subtracting condition-specific medications from total medications prescribed. RESULTS:Data gathering was completed for 214 patients, 104 (48%) of whom were prescribed ?9 medications. All patients were very frail. Patients with polypharmacy were more likely to have a diagnosis of hypertension (p=0.04) or congestive heart failure (p=0.003) and less likely to have a diagnosis of dementia (p=0.03). Patients with overtreated hypertension were more likely to also experience polypharmacy (Relative Risk (RR))1.77 (1.07 to 2.96), p=0.027). Patients with overtreated diabetes were prescribed more non-diabetic medications than those with a higher HbA1c (11.0±3.7vs 7.2±3.1, p=0.01). CONCLUSION:Overtreated diabetes and hypertension appear to be prevalent in nursing home patients, and the presence of polypharmacy is associated with more aggressive treatment of these risk factors. The present study was limited by its small sample size and cross-sectional design. Further study of interventions designed to reduce overtreatment of hypertension and diabetes is needed to fully understand the potential links between polypharmacy and potential of harms of condition-specific overtreatment.
Project description:BACKGROUND: The increase of multidrug-resistant organisms (MDROs) causes problems in geriatric nursing homes. Older people are at increased a growing risk of infection due to multimorbidity and frequent stays in hospital. A high proportion of the elderly require residential care in geriatric nursing facilities, where hygiene requirements in nursing homes are similar to those in hospitals. For this reason we examined how well nursing homes are prepared for MDROs and how effectively protect their infection control residents and staff. METHODS: A cross-sectional study was performed on infection control in residential geriatric nursing facilities in Germany 2012. The questionnaire recorded important parameters of hygiene, resident and staff protection and actions in case of existing MDROs. RESULTS: The response was 54% in Hamburg and 27% in the rest of Germany. Nursing homes were generally well equipped for dealing with infection control: There were standards for MDROs and regular hygiene training for staff. The facilities provided adequate protective clothing, affected residents are usually isolated and hygienic laundry processing conducted. There are deficits in the communication of information on infected residents with hospitals and general practitioners. 54% of nursing homes performed risk assessments for staff infection precaution. CONCLUSION: There is a growing interest in MDROs and infection control will be a challenge in for residential geriatric nursing facilities in the future. This issue has also drawn increasing attention. Improvements could be achieved by improving communication between different participants in the health service, together with specific measures for staff protection at work.
Project description:We aimed to compare the predictive capacity of malnutrition, sarcopenia, and malnutrition combined with sarcopenia for mortality in nursing home residents. We conducted a prospective study in four nursing homes in China. Nutrition status and sarcopenia were measured according to the new European Society of Clinical Nutrition and Metabolism (ESPEN) definition and SARC-F, respectively. The study population was divided into four groups: malnutrition with sarcopenia (MN+/SA+), malnutrition without sarcopenia (MN+/SA-), sarcopenia without malnutrition (MN-/SA+), and normal nutrition without sarcopenia (MN-/SA-). The participants were followed up for 12 months. We included 329 participants. Thirty-eight participants (11.6%) had MN+/SA+, 38 participants (11.6%) had MN+/SA-, and 93 participants (28.3%) had MN-/SA+. The 1-year mortality was 18.3%, 21.5%, 18.4%, and 47.4% in the MN-/SA-, MN-/SA+, MN+/SA-, and MN+/SA+ groups, respectively. Compared to participants with MN-/SA-, participants with MN+/SA+ were at a significantly higher risk of mortality (adjusted hazard ratio [HR]: 3.19, 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.71-5.95); however, MN-/SA+ (adjusted HR: 1.24, 95% CI 0.69-2.22) and MN+/SA- (adjusted HR: 0.95, 95% CI 0.41-2.19) were not predictors of mortality. In conclusion, the coexistence of malnutrition and sarcopenia is a significant predictor of mortality in a study population of Chinese nursing home residents.