Development of a Modified Korean Version of the Epworth Sleepiness Scale Reflecting Korean Sociocultural Lifestyle.
ABSTRACT: The Epworth Sleepiness Scale is a measure used for the diagnosis of sleep disorders including obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) syndrome, insomnia, and narcolepsy. Although a Korean version has been developed (the KESS), Korean lifestyle such as the floor culture and low driving rates has not been considered. We aim to develop and validate a modified KESS (mKESS) that reflects the Korean lifestyle.The sample consisted of 795 healthy participants and 323 OSA patients. The mKESS was developed by modifying several questions to concern the floor culture (questions 1, 2, 6, and 7) and low driving rates (question 8). Feasibility of the modification was tested by comparing the KESS and mKESS using paired samples t-test and by examining internal consistency reliability. Then, mKESS scores of the OSA patients and general participants were compared to test its validity.Questions 1, 2, 7, and 8 were significantly different when comparing the performances of the general population on both scales. Especially, the mean scores on question 8 were significantly different in the non-driver group, but not in the driver group. Cronbach's alpha of the mKESS was relatively higher than that of the KESS. Total mKESS scores of the OSA patients were significantly higher than that of the general population.The mKESS is more universally applicable for the clinical evaluation of people that live in Korea. Results support that the mKESS can be administered to measure the average daytime sleep propensity of the Korean population as an alternative to the KESS.
Project description:BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE:Responses to oral appliances (OAs) in obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) vary, and have not been fully evaluated in Korean patients. In this study we aimed to determine the efficacy of OAs for the first-line treatment of Korean patients with moderate or severe OSA. METHODS:This multicenter prospective observational study included 45 patients with moderate or severe OSA that had been newly diagnosed between March 2017 and May 2018 and who underwent OA treatment for 1 month. Questionnaires were completed and polysomnography (PSG) was performed before and after OA treatment. The primary outcome measures were improvement in the absolute apnea-hypopnea index (AHI) and the percentage reduction in the AHI. The secondary outcomes were improvements in the questionnaire scores related to sleep-associated symptoms and PSG parameters. RESULTS:The patients were aged 47.4±12.1 years (mean±SD), only two of them were female, and their AHI at baseline was 29.7±10.9/h. After OA treatment the AHI had reduced by 63.9±25.8%, with the reduction was similar between the patients with moderate OSA and those with severe OSA. Overall 31.1% of the patients achieved a normal AHI (<5/h), and 64.4% had an AHI of ?10/h after the treatment. The body mass index (BMI) was the most reliable factor for predicting the percentage reduction in the AHI. The OAs also improved the sleep architecture and subjective sleep-related symptoms. CONCLUSIONS:The OAs were effective in patients with moderate or severe OSA. The OAs reduced the mean AHI to 63.9% of the baseline value, and this reduction was influenced by the BMI.
Project description:BACKGROUND:Daytime sleepiness is highly prevalent across the globe. The Epworth sleepiness scale (ESS) is the most widely used tool for screening daytime sleepiness. The psychometric properties of the ESS have not been comprehensively examined in African populations. MATERIAL AND METHODS:A cross-sectional design with simple random sampling was used in the present study. The study recruited 600 students from Mizan-Tepi University, Ethiopia, of which 329 (age?= 18-28?years and body mass index?= 21.19?±?3.17?kg/m2) completed the study. ESS, a semi-structured socio-demographics questionnaire and a clinical interview to diagnose insomnia according to the International Classification of Sleep Disorders were employed. RESULTS:All except one item of the ESS showed a floor effect, while only one item score showed ceiling effect. However, no ceiling/floor effect was observed in the ESS total score. The Cronbach's alpha (0.75) and composite reliability (0.75), indicated good internal consistency, while a moderate item-total score correlation (r =?0.55-0.67) implied favorable internal homogeneity. The known-group validity was established by significantly higher scores for all the ESS item scores and the ESS total scores among those with symptoms of insomnia than among non-symptomatic students. Fit indices along with the consideration of inter-factor correlation coefficient, measures of item retention favored the unidimensional structure of the ESS. CONCLUSION:The ESS has excellent psychometric validity for screening daytime sleepiness in Ethiopian university students.
Project description:Professional drivers show a higher prevalence of obstructive sleep apnoea (OSA) compared with the general population. Furthermore, there is concern about the association between OSA and car crash risk given that drivers with OSA show an increased risk for car accidents. Despite this risk, OSA is often underdiagnosed and undertreated in this population, mainly due to lack of appropriate screening and sleep study referrals. Polysomnography (PSG), the gold standard test, is inappropriate for systematic screening because of its high expense, complexity and relative inaccessibility in this population. Therefore, there is a strong demand for good screening tools, including both subjective and objective data that may assist in early identification of possible OSA among professional drivers and, thus, aid in PSG examination referral and OSA management in an accredited sleep centre. However, there is considerable disagreement over screening methods and criteria for triggering a sleep study referral in different countries. There is also a strong need for further research in the area of OSA screening of commercial drivers in order to improve the diagnostic accuracy of screening tools and ensure that patients with OSA are accurately identified. Key points:Obstructive sleep apnoea (OSA) is often undiagnosed and undertreated in professional drivers.Professional drivers often under-report and are reluctant to report OSA symptoms.Barriers to OSA diagnosis include appropriate screening and sleep study referrals.Screening tools including both subjective and objective data may assist in early identification of possible OSA among professional drivers. Educational aims:To evaluate screening instruments currently used to identify OSA risk in professional drivers.To provide guidance for developing an assessment strategy for OSA by professional driver medical examiners.
Project description:Background Triglyceride glucose (TyG) index is a reliable marker of insulin resistance, which is linked to obstructive sleep apnea (OSA). However, the relationship between TyG index and OSA has not been adequately assessed. This study aimed to evaluate the association between TyG index and OSA. Methods TyG index was assessed in 180 (mean age: 48.6?±?13.8?years; 73.9% male) consecutive Korean adults with suspected OSA admitted to the sleep clinic at St. Paul’s Hospital between 2010 and 2012. The occurrence of more than 5 apnea-hypopnea index (AHI) events/h was used to define OSA. TyG index was calculated using the following equation: In [fasting triglycerides (mg/dL)?×?fasting glucose (mg/dL)/2]. All participants were grouped according to TyG index tertiles. Multivariate logistic regression analysis was used to determine factors associated with increased OSA risk. Results The overall prevalence of OSA in study participants was determined to be 83.9%. The prevalence of OSA increased (I [lowest]: 71.6%; II: 88.7%; III [highest]: 91.4%), and lowest peripheral oxygen saturation (SpO2) levels decreased (I: 83.3?±?8.5%; II: 79.9?±?8.7%; III: 79.0?±?8.3%), as TyG index tertile increased (P <?0.05). TyG index was correlated with AHI (r =?0.179) and lowest SpO2 (r =???0.188) (P <?0.05, respectively). Univariate linear regression analysis revealed an association between TyG and AHI (??=?10.084; P =?0.016). Multivariate logistic regression analysis showed that TyG index (odds ratio [OR]: 3.348; 95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.081–10.372), age???55?years (OR: 5.426; 95% CI: 1.642–17.935), and obesity (OR: 3.801; 95% CI: 1.468–9.842) were associated with increased OSA risk (all P <?0.05). The optimal TyG index cut-off value for predicting OSA was 8.83 (sensitivity: 61.6%; specificity: 69.0%; area under the curve: 0.688; P =?0.001). The predictive value of the OSA cut-off value improved when age???55?years and obesity were considered. Conclusion Increased TyG index was independently associated with increased OSA risk.
Project description:To determine the prevalence, sleep characteristics, and comorbidities associated with a high risk for obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) in the Korean adult population.We analyzed data from 2,740 subjects who responded to a nationwide questionnaire survey of sleep characteristics. Those who qualified under two or more symptom categories of the Berlin questionnaire were defined as "at high risk for OSA". We investigated their socio-demographic information, sleep habits, and medical and psychiatric comorbidities. Logistic regression analyses were performed to identify factors and consequences significantly associated with a high risk for OSA.The prevalence of a high risk for OSA was 15.8% (95% confidence interval [CI] 14.5-17.2%). Multiple logistic regression analysis showed that old age (? 70 years, odds ratio [OR] 2.68) and body mass index ? 25 kg/m2 (OR 10.75) were significantly related with a high risk for OSA, whereas regular physical activity (OR 0.70) had a protective effect. Subjective sleep characteristics associated with a high risk for OSA were perceived insufficient sleep (OR 1.49), excessive daytime sleepiness (OR 1.88), and insomnia (OR 3.70). In addition, hypertension (OR 5.83), diabetes mellitus (OR 2.54), hyperlipidemia (OR 2.85), and anxiety (OR 1.63) were comorbid conditions independently associated with a high risk for OSA.This is the first study to demonstrate the prevalence of a high risk for OSA in a nationwide representative sample of the Korean adult population. These findings elucidate the epidemiology and clinical characteristics of those at high risk for OSA.
Project description:BACKGROUND:Rapid response system (RRS) is a safety tool designed for early detection and intervention of a deteriorating patient on the general floor in the hospital. Obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) has been associated with significant cardiovascular complications. We hypothesized that patients with high-risk of OSA have higher rate of RRS events and intervention with positive airway pressure therapy in these patients can mitigate the RRS events. METHODS:As part of a clinical pathway, during a 15 month period, patients with BMI ? 30 kg/m2 in select medical services were screened with a validated sleep questionnaire. Patients were characterized as high or low risk based on the screening questionnaire. RRS rates were compared between the groups. Subsequently the impact of PAP therapy on RRS events was evaluated. RESULTS:Out of the 2,590 patients screened, 1,973 (76%) were identified as high-risk. RRS rates calculated per 1,000 admissions, were 43.60 in the High-Risk OSA group versus 25.91 in the Low-Risk OSA Group. The PAP therapy compliant group had significantly reduced RRS event rates compared to non-compliant group and group with no PAP therapy (16.99 vs. 53.40 vs. 56.21) (p < 0.01). CONCLUSION:In a large cohort of patients at a tertiary care hospital, we show an association of increased rate of RRS events in high-risk OSA patients and reduction of the risk with PAP intervention in the compliant group.
Project description:Interstitial lung diseases (ILDs) are chronic, progressive, parenchymal lung diseases with high morbidity and mortality. In recent studies, the prevalence of obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) in patients with ILD has been reported to be high. However, the prevalence and predictive factors of OSA in Korean ILD patients are not well defined. Therefore, the aim of this study was to evaluate the prevalence and predictive factors of OSA in Korean patients with ILD. Clinical data from 86 patients with ILD enrolled from December 2017 to April 2019 at Haeundae-Paik Hospital, Busan, South Korea, were retrospectively analyzed. OSA was monitored with a level 4 portable device and defined as an apnea-hypopnea index of more than 5 per hour of sleep. The median follow-up period was 7 months. The mean age was 69.8 years, and 64% of participants were men. Among the ILDs, idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis (IPF) was the most common (66.3%), followed by connective tissue disease-associated ILD (16.3%) and cryptogenic organizing pneumonia (5.8%). Forty-six ILD patients (53.5%) were diagnosed with OSA, and IPF patients had OSA more frequently (64.9% vs. 31.0%, p = 0.003) than those with other ILDs. Older age (odds ratio [OR], 1.11, 95% CI 1.04-1.19, p = 0.002), higher body weight (OR 1.05, 95% CI 1.01-1.10, p = 0.012), and diabetes mellitus (OR 4.03, 95% CI 1.26-12.91, p = 0.019) were independent risk factors for OSA in the multivariable logistic regression analysis. In the multivariable Cox analysis, an IPF diagnosis was a significant risk factor for one-year mortality (hazard ratio [HR] 7.92, 95% CI: 1.01-61.83, p = 0.048) in ILD patients; however, OSA was not. In conclusion, half of Korean patients with ILD had OSA. Older age, higher body weight, and diabetes mellitus were risk factors for OSA in patients with ILD.
Project description:OBJECTIVES:Originally developed as a paper questionnaire, the electronic Epworth Sleepiness Scale (ESS) is widely used in sleep clinics and sleep population research. Despite potential differences between computer-based and conventional questionnaire delivery, studies have not evaluated the agreement between electronic and paper versions of the ESS. Given the widespread use of the ESS, a bias between results would present considerable data concerns. Thus, the aim of this study was to examine agreement between electronic and paper ESS responses in obstructive sleep apnoea (OSA). DESIGN:We undertook a secondary analysis of baseline data from a randomised controlled trial (ANZCTR: ACTRN12611000847910). SETTING:Data were collected in a tertiary sleep research laboratory located in Sydney, Australia. PARTICIPANTS:Data were analysed from 112 adult patients with OSA. MEASUREMENTS:Patients were given the English version of the ESS as part of a battery of sleep laboratory questionnaires. They completed electronic and subsequently paper ESS questionnaires on the same day. RESULTS:We found no significant difference between electronic and paper ESS questionnaires (mean=0.1, SD=2.1, 95%?CI -0.3 to 0.5, P=0.57) or heteroscedasticity. There was no evidence of bias along the range of the measure. 95% limits of agreement at 4.3 and -4.1 were comparable with previous data. CONCLUSIONS:We found no evidence of bias between electronic and paper ESS questionnaires in this sample of patients with OSA, as the two formats displayed sufficient agreement to be clinically comparable. Regardless of severity, patients reported the same level of daytime sleepiness with the same level of accuracy across both measures. TRIAL REGISTRATION NUMBER:ACTRN12611000847910; Pre-results.
Project description:STUDY OBJECTIVES:Insomnia is the most common sleep disorder with significant psychiatric/physical comorbidities in the general population. The aim of this study is to investigate whether socioeconomic and demographic factors are associated with gender differences in insomnia and subtypes in Korean population. METHOD:The present study used data from the nationwide, cross-sectional study on sleep among all Koreans aged 19 to 69 years. The Insomnia Severity Index (ISI) was used to classify insomnia symptoms and their subtypes (cutoff value: 9.5). The Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index (PSQI), Goldberg Anxiety Scale (GAS) and Patient Health Questionnaire-9 (PHQ-9) were used to measure sleep quality, anxiety and depression. RESULTS:A total of 2695 participants completed the survey. The overall prevalence of insomnia symptoms was 10.7%, including difficulty in initiating sleep (DIS) (6.8%), difficulty in maintaining sleep (DMS) (6.5%) and early morning awakening (EMA) (6.5%), and these symptoms were more prevalent in women than in men. Multivariate analysis showed that female gender, shorter sleep time and psychiatric complications were found to be independent predictors for insomnia symptoms and subtypes. After adjusting for covariates among these factors, female gender remained a significant risk factor for insomnia symptoms and their subtypes. As for men, low income was related to insomnia. CONCLUSION:Approximately one-tenth of the sample from the Korean general population had insomnia symptoms. The prevalence of insomnia symptom and the subtypes were more prevalent in women than men. Gender is an independent factor for insomnia symptoms.
Project description:PURPOSE:Daytime sleepiness, a frequent symptom of obstructive sleep apnea (OSA), can impact functional status. In patients with coronary artery disease (CAD) and concomitant OSA, the distinction between sleep-related functional impairment from underlying CAD versus OSA is unclear. This study evaluated the impact of OSA on sleep-related functional impairment in patients with CAD and compared the effect of 1-year continuous positive airway pressure (CPAP) use on change in impairment between those with and without excessive daytime sleepiness (EDS) and OSA. We hypothesized that sleep-related functional impairment is impacted by EDS independent of OSA in patients with CAD. METHODS:One hundred five CAD patients without OSA and 105 with moderate-to-severe OSA from the RICCADSA trial were matched on disease severity and included in the current substudy. Of those with OSA, 80 were allocated to CPAP. Functional Outcomes of Sleep Questionnaire (FOSQ) score <?17.9 corresponded to sleep-related functional impairment. RESULTS:Following revascularization, CAD patients with and without OSA frequently report sleep-related functional impairment (35% and 27.3%, respectively; p?=?.29). Moderate-to-severe OSA was not related to baseline FOSQ scores <?17.9 in regression analyses; EDS was (OR 4.82, 95% CI 2.12-11.0; p?<?.001). CPAP use significantly improved FOSQ scores from baseline to 1-year follow-up in OSA patients with EDS (17.2?±?2.0 to 18.15?±?1.7, p?=?.002) despite suboptimal adherence. CONCLUSIONS:Sleep-related functional impairment may be reflective of persistent EDS, independent of OSA. Diagnosing OSA and initiating treatment are worthwhile in individuals with CAD and EDS, as both are important to guide appropriate therapy in patients with CAD.