ObjectivePeriodontitis is a microbe-induced chronic inflammatory disease. Previous exposure of the host to bacteria or their virulence factors leads to refractory responses to further stimuli, which is called tolerance. Porphyromonas gingivalis (P. gingivalis) is one of the most important pathogenic microorganisms associated with periodontitis, and is a potent inducer of pro- and anti-inflammatory cytokines. The aim of this study was to explore the roles and possible mechanisms of tolerance induced by P. gingivalis.
MethodsTHP-1-derived macrophages were pretreated with 1x108 colony-forming units/ml P. gingivalis ATCC 33277 or 21 clinical isolates from moderate to severe chronic periodontitis patients (24 h), washed (2 h) and treated with P. gingivalis ATCC 33277 or the same clinical isolates again (24 h). Levels of pro-inflammatory cytokines TNF-? and IL-1? and anti-inflammatory cytokine IL-10 in supernatants were detected by ELISA. Moreover, to identify the possible mechanisms for the changes in cytokine secretion, Toll-like receptor 2 (TLR2) and TLR4 protein expressions were explored in these cells by flow cytometry.
ResultsAfter repeated challenge with P. gingivalis ATCC 33277 or clinical isolates, production of TNF-? and IL-1? in macrophages was decreased significantly compared with that following a single stimulation (p<0.05), while only comparable levels of IL-10 were detected in P. gingivalis ATCC 33277 or clinical isolate-tolerized cells (p>0.05). In addition, there was interstrain variability in the ability to induce IL-1? and IL-10 production after repeated P. gingivalis stimulation. However, no significant changes in TLR2 or TLR4 were detected in macrophages that were repeatedly treated with P. gingivalis ATCC 33277 or clinical isolates compared with those stimulated with P. gingivalis only once (p>0.05).
ConclusionsRepeated P. gingivalis stimulation triggered tolerance, which might contribute to limiting periodontal inflammation. However, tolerance induced by P. gingivalis might develop independently of TLR2 and TLR4 and be related to molecules in signaling pathways downstream of TLR2 and TLR4.
PROVIDER: S-EPMC6057631 | BioStudies |