Soy protein supplementation is not androgenic or estrogenic in college-aged men when combined with resistance exercise training.
ABSTRACT: It is currently unclear as to whether sex hormones are significantly affected by soy or whey protein consumption. Additionally, estrogenic signaling may be potentiated via soy protein supplementation due to the presence of phytoestrogenic isoflavones. Limited also evidence suggests that whey protein supplementation may increase androgenic signaling. Therefore, the purpose of this study was to examine the effects of soy protein concentrate (SPC), whey protein concentrate (WPC), or placebo (PLA) supplementation on serum sex hormones, androgen signaling markers in muscle tissue, and estrogen signaling markers in subcutaneous (SQ) adipose tissue of previously untrained, college-aged men (n?=?47, 20?±?1?yrs) that resistance trained for 12 weeks. Fasting serum total testosterone increased pre- to post-training, but more so in subjects consuming WPC (p?
Project description:Athletes as well as elderly or hospitalized patients use dietary protein supplementation to maintain or grow skeletal muscle. It is recognized that high quality protein is needed for muscle accretion, and can be obtained from both animal and plant-based sources. There is interest to understand whether these sources differ in their ability to maintain or stimulate muscle growth and function. In this study, baseline muscle performance was assessed in 50 adult Sprague-Dawley rats after which they were assigned to one of five semi-purified "Western" diets (n = 10/group) differing only in protein source, namely 19 kcal% protein from either milk protein isolate (MPI), whey protein isolate (WPI), soy protein isolate (SPI), soy protein concentrate (SPC) or enzyme-treated soy protein (SPE). The diets were fed for 8 weeks at which point muscle performance testing was repeated and tissues were collected for analysis. There was no significant difference in food consumption or body weights over time between the diet groups nor were there differences in terminal organ and muscle weights or in serum lipids, creatinine or myostatin. Compared with MPI-fed rats, rats fed WPI and SPC displayed a greater maximum rate of contraction using the in vivo measure of muscle performance (p<0.05) with increases ranging from 13.3-27.5% and 22.8-29.5%, respectively at 60, 80, 100 and 150 Hz. When the maximum force was normalized to body weight, SPC-fed rats displayed increased force compared to MPI (p<0.05), whereas when normalized to gastrocnemius weight, WPI-fed rats displayed increased force compared to MPI (p<0.05). There was no difference between groups using in situ muscle performance. In conclusion, soy protein consumption, in high-fat diet, resulted in muscle function comparable to whey protein and improved compared to milk protein. The benefits seen with soy or whey protein were independent of changes in muscle mass or fiber cross-sectional area.
Project description:Whey protein supplementation may augment resistance exercise-induced increases in muscle strength and mass. Further studies are required to determine whether this effect extends to mobility-limited older adults. The objectives of the study were to compare the effects of whey protein concentrate (WPC) supplementation to an isocaloric control on changes in whole-body lean mass, mid-thigh muscle cross-sectional area, muscle strength, and stair-climbing performance in older mobility-limited adults in response to 6 months of resistance training (RT).Eighty mobility-limited adults aged 70-85 years were randomized to receive WPC (40g/day) or an isocaloric control for 6 months. All participants also completed a progressive high-intensity RT intervention. Sample sizes were calculated based on the primary outcome of change in whole-body lean mass to give 80% power for a 0.05-level, two-sided test.Lean mass increased 1.3% and 0.6% in the WPC and control groups, respectively. Muscle cross-sectional area was increased 4.6% and 2.9% in the WPC and control groups, respectively, and muscle strength increased 16%-50% in WPC and control groups. Stair-climbing performance also improved in both groups. However, there were no statistically significant differences in the change in any of these variables between groups.These data suggest that WPC supplementation at this dose does not offer additional benefit to the effects of RT in mobility-limited older adults.
Project description:Protein intake is essential to maximally stimulate muscle protein synthesis, and the amino acid leucine seems to possess a superior effect on muscle protein synthesis compared to other amino acids. Native whey has higher leucine content and thus a potentially greater anabolic effect on muscle than regular whey (WPC-80). This study compared the acute anabolic effects of ingesting 2?×?20 g of native whey protein, WPC-80 or milk protein after a resistance exercise session.A total of 24 young resistance trained men and women took part in this double blind, randomized, partial crossover, controlled study. Participants received either WPC-80 and native whey (n?=?10), in a crossover design, or milk (n?=?12). Supplements were ingested immediately (20 g) and two hours after (20 g) a bout of heavy-load lower body resistance exercise. Blood samples and muscle biopsies were collected to measure plasma concentrations of amino acids by gas-chromatography mass spectrometry, muscle phosphorylation of p70S6K, 4E-BP1 and eEF-2 by immunoblotting, and mixed muscle protein synthesis by use of [2H5]phenylalanine-infusion, gas-chromatography mass spectrometry and isotope-ratio mass spectrometry. Being the main comparison, differences between native whey and WPC-80 were analysed by a one-way ANOVA and comparisons between the whey supplements and milk were analysed by a two-way ANOVA.Native whey increased blood leucine concentrations more than WPC-80 and milk (P?<?0.05). Native whey ingestion induced a greater phosphorylation of p70S6K than milk 180 min after exercise (P?=?0.03). Muscle protein synthesis rates increased 1-3 h hours after exercise with WPC-80 (0.119%), and 1-5 h after exercise with native whey (0.112%). Muscle protein synthesis rates were higher 1-5 h after exercise with native whey than with milk (0.112% vs. 0.064, P?=?0.023).Despite higher-magnitude increases in blood leucine concentrations with native whey, it was not superior to WPC-80 concerning effect on muscle protein synthesis and phosphorylation of p70S6K during a 5-h post-exercise period. Native whey increased phosphorylation of p70S6K and muscle protein synthesis rates to a greater extent than milk during the 5-h post exercise period.This study was retrospectively registered at clinicaltrials.gov as NCT02968888.
Project description:OBJECTIVE:Elderly muscle seems less sensitive to the anabolic stimulus of a meal. Changes in blood concentrations of leucine are suggested as one important trigger of the anabolic response in muscle. The aim of this study was to investigate whether native whey protein, containing high amounts of leucine, may be a more potent stimulator of muscle protein synthesis (MPS) in elderly than regular whey protein (WPC-80) or milk. DESIGN:Randomized controlled partial crossover. SETTING:Norwegian School of Sport Sciences. PARTICIPANTS:21 healthy elderly men and women (?70 years). INTERVENTION:Participants received either 20 g of WPC-80 and native whey (n = 11) on separate days in a crossover design, or milk (n = 10). Supplements were ingested immediately and two hours after a bout of lower body heavy-load resistance exercise. MEASUREMENTS:Blood samples and muscle biopsies were collected to measure blood concentrations of amino acids by gas-chromatography mass spectrometry (GCMS), phosphorylation of p70S6K, 4E-BP1 and eEF-2 by immunoblotting and mixed muscle fractional synthetic rate (FSR) by use of [2H5]phenylalanine-infusion, GCMS and isotope-ratio mass spectrometry. RESULTS:Native whey increased blood leucine concentrations more than WPC-80 (P < 0.05), but not p70S6K phosphorylation or mixed muscle FSR. Both whey supplements increased blood leucine concentrations (P < 0.01) and P70S6K phosphorylation more than milk (P = 0.014). Native whey reached higher mixed muscle FSR values than milk (P = 0.026) 1-3h after exercise. CONCLUSIONS:Despite greater increases in blood leucine concentrations than WPC-80 and milk, native whey was only superior to milk concerning increases in MPS and phosphorylation of P70S6K during a 5-hour post-exercise period in elderly individuals.
Project description:BACKGROUND:Protein ingestion during recovery from resistance-type exercise increases postexercise muscle protein synthesis rates. Whey protein has been reported to have greater anabolic properties than soy protein, an effect which may be attributed to the higher leucine content of whey. OBJECTIVE:The objective of this study was to compare postprandial myofibrillar (MyoPS) and mitochondrial (MitoPS) protein synthesis rates after ingestion of carbohydrate with whey, soy, or soy protein enriched with free leucine (to match the leucine content of whey) during recovery from a single bout of concurrent resistance- and endurance-type exercise in young healthy men. METHODS:In a randomized, double-blind, parallel-group design, 36 healthy young recreationally active men (mean ± SEM age: 23 ± 0.4 y) received a primed continuous infusion of l-[ring-13C6]-phenylalanine and l-[ring-3,5-2H2]-tyrosine and ingested 45 g carbohydrate with 20 g protein from whey (WHEY), soy (SOY), or leucine-enriched soy (SOY + LEU) after concurrent resistance- and endurance-type exercise. Blood and muscle biopsies were collected over a 360 min postexercise recovery period to assess MyoPS and MitoPS rates, and associated signaling through the mammalian target of rapamycin complex 1 (mTORC1). RESULTS:Postprandial peak plasma leucine concentrations were significantly higher in WHEY (mean ± SEM: 322 ± 10 μmol/L) and SOY + LEU (328 ± 14 μmol/L) compared with SOY (216 ± 6 μmol/L) (P < 0.05). Despite the apparent differences in plasma leucinemia, MyoPS (WHEY: 0.054 ± 0.002; SOY: 0.053 ± 0.004; SOY + LEU: 0.056 ± 0.004%·h-1; P = 0.83), and MitoPS (WHEY: 0.061 ± 0.004; SOY: 0.061 ± 0.006; SOY + LEU: 0.063 ± 0.004%·h-1; P = 0.96) rates over the entire 360 min recovery period did not differ between treatments. Similarly, signaling through mTORC1Ser2448, p70S6kThr389, 4E-BP1Thr37/46, and rpS6Ser235/236 was similar between treatments. CONCLUSION:Postexercise MyoPS and MitoPS rates do not differ after co-ingestion of carbohydrate with 20 g protein from whey, soy, or leucine-enriched soy protein during 360 min of recovery from concurrent resistance- and endurance-type exercise in young, recreationally active men. This trial was registered at Nederlands Trial Register as NTR5098.
Project description:The incorporation of probiotics and bioactive compounds, via plasticised thin-layered hydrocolloids, within food products has recently shown potential to functionalise and improve the health credentials of processed food. In this study, choice of polymer and the inclusion of whey protein isolate was evaluated for their ability to stabalise live probiotic organisms. Edible films based on low (LSA) and high (HSA) viscosity sodium alginate, low esterified amidated pectin (PEC), kappa-carrageenan/locust bean gum (?-CAR/LBG) and gelatine (GEL) in the presence or absence of whey protein concentrate (WPC) were shown to be feasible carriers for the delivery of L. rhamnosus GG. Losses of L. rhamnosus GG throughout the drying process ranged from 0.87 to 3.06 log CFU/g for the systems without WPC, losses were significantly reduced to 0 to 1.17 log CFU/g in the presence of WPC. Storage stability (over 25d) of L. rhamnosus GG at both tested temperatures (4 and 25 °C), in descending order, was ?-CAR/LBG > HSA > GEL > LSA = PEC. In addition, supplementation of film forming agents with WPC led to a 1.8- to 6.5-fold increase in shelf-life at 4 °C (calculated on the WHO/FAO minimum requirements of 6 logCFU/g), and 1.6-4.3-fold increase at 25 °C. Furthermore probiotic films based on HSA/WPC and ?-CAR/LBG/WPC blends had both acceptable mechanical and barrier properties.
Project description:Human milk is rich in nutritional factors, such as alpha-lactalbumin (?-Lac), and important for neonatal development, but nutrient supplementation may be required for optimal growth. Using a pig model, we hypothesized that ?-Lac-enriched whey protein concentrate (WPC) supplementation improves neonatal development. Cesarean-delivered preterm pigs were fed either dilute bovine milk (REF) or REF milk supplemented with WPC with normal (STANDARD-ALPHA) or high (HIGH-ALPHA) ?-Lac. Clinical, gut, immune and cognitive endpoints (open field, T-maze) were assessed and tissues collected at Day 19. The growth of STANDARD-ALPHA and HIGH-ALPHA were higher than REF (31 vs. 19 g/kg/d). Most organ weights, gut, immunity and brain variables were similar between WPC groups. HIGH-ALPHA had a higher bone mineral content, colon microbial diversity and an abundance of specific bacteria and microbial metabolites, and tended to show a faster food transit time (p = 0.07). Relative to REF, WPC pigs showed higher relative organ weights, blood amino acids, blood neutrophil function, and microbial metabolites, but lower brush-border enzyme activities and plasma cortisol. Cognition outcomes did not differ among the groups. In conclusion, WPC supplementation of milk improved some growth, gut and immunity parameters in preterm pigs. However, increasing the ?-Lac content beyond human milk levels had limited effects on the immature gut and developing brain.
Project description:Previous work demonstrated that a soy-dairy protein blend (PB) prolongs hyperaminoacidemia and muscle protein synthesis in young adults after resistance exercise.We investigated the effect of PB in older adults. We hypothesized that PB would prolong hyperaminoacidemia, enhancing mechanistic target of rapamycin complex 1 (mTORC1) signaling and muscle protein anabolism compared with a whey protein isolate (WPI).This double-blind, randomized controlled trial studied men 55-75 y of age. Subjects consumed 30 g protein from WPI or PB (25% soy, 25% whey, and 50% casein) 1 h after leg extension exercise (8 sets of 10 repetitions at 70% one-repetition maximum). Blood and muscle amino acid concentrations and basal and postexercise muscle protein turnover were measured by using stable isotopic methods. Muscle mTORC1 signaling was assessed by immunoblotting.Both groups increased amino acid concentrations (P < 0.05) and mTORC1 signaling after protein ingestion (P < 0.05). Postexercise fractional synthesis rate (FSR; P ≥ 0.05), fractional breakdown rate (FBR; P ≥ 0.05), and net balance (P = 0.08) did not differ between groups. WPI increased FSR by 67% (mean ± SEM: rest: 0.05% ± 0.01%; postexercise: 0.09% ± 0.01%; P < 0.05), decreased FBR by 46% (rest: 0.17% ± 0.01%; postexercise: 0.09% ± 0.03%; P < 0.05), and made net balance less negative (P < 0.05). PB ingestion did not increase FSR (rest: 0.07% ± 0.03%; postexercise: 0.09% ± 0.01%; P ≥ 0.05), tended to decrease FBR by 42% (rest: 0.25% ± 0.08%; postexercise: 0.15% ± 0.08%; P = 0.08), and made net balance less negative (P < 0.05). Within-group percentage of change differences were not different between groups for FSR, FBR, or net balance (P ≥ 0.05).WPI and PB ingestion after exercise in older men induced similar responses in hyperaminoacidemia, mTORC1 signaling, muscle protein synthesis, and breakdown. These data add new evidence for the use of whey or soy-dairy PBs as targeted nutritional interventions to counteract sarcopenia. This trial was registered at clinicaltrials.gov as NCT01847261.
Project description:BACKGROUND:Muscle protein synthesis (MPS) can be stimulated by ingestion of protein sources, such as whey, casein, or soy. Protein supplementation can enhance muscle protein synthesis after exercise and may preserve skeletal muscle mass and function in aging adults. Therefore, identifying protein sources with higher anabolic potency is of high significance. OBJECTIVE:The aim of this study was to determine the anabolic potency and efficacy of a novel whey protein hydrolysate mixture (WPH) on mechanistic target of rapamycin complex 1 (mTORC1) signaling and skeletal MPS in healthy young subjects. METHODS:Ten young men (aged 28.7 ± 3.6 y, 25.2 ± 2.9 kg/m2 body mass index [BMI]) were recruited into a double-blind two-way crossover trial. Subjects were randomized to receive either 0.08 g/kg of body weight (BW) of WPH or an intact whey protein (WHEY) mixture during stable isotope infusion experiments. Fractional synthetic rate, leucine and phenylalanine kinetics, and markers of amino acid sensing were assessed as primary outcomes before and 1-3 h after protein ingestion using a repeated measures mixed model. RESULTS:Blood leucine concentration, delivery of leucine to muscle, transport of leucine from blood into muscle and intracellular muscle leucine concentration significantly increased to a similar extent 1 h after ingestion of both mixtures (P < 0.05). Phosphorylation of S6K1 (i.e. a marker of mTORC1 activation) increased equally by ?20% 1-h postingestion (P < 0.05). Ingestion of WPH and WHEY increased mixed MPS similarly in both groups by ?43% (P < 0.05); however, phenylalanine utilization for synthesis increased in both treatments 1-h postingestion but remained elevated 3-h postingestion only in the WPH group (P < 0.05). CONCLUSIONS:We conclude that a small dose of WPH effectively increases leucine transport into muscle, activating mTORC1 and stimulating MPS in young men. WPH anabolic potency and efficacy for promoting overall muscle protein anabolism is similar to WHEY, an intact protein source. This trial was registered at clinicaltrials.gov as NCT03313830.
Project description:Dietary protein intake is important for skeletal muscle protein synthesis. In this study, we investigated the differential effect of protein sources on hypertrophy of plantaris muscle induced by surgical ablation of gastrocnemius and soleus muscles. Six-week old mice were fed diets containing caseinate, whey, or soy as protein sources for 2 weeks. Plantaris muscle hypertrophy was induced by a unilateral ablation of synergistic muscles after a week. Food intake of soy protein-fed mice was higher than that of caseinate and whey-fed mice, resulting in higher body and fat weights. Plantaris muscle weight in sham-operated mice was not different across the groups. Overload-operated plantaris muscle weight and increased ratio of overloaded muscle to sham-operated muscle weights were higher in caseinate-fed mice than in whey- and soy protein-fed mice, suggesting caseinate as a promising protein source for muscle hypertrophy.