Phytosomal curcumin causes natural killer cell-dependent repolarization of glioblastoma (GBM) tumor-associated microglia/macrophages and elimination of GBM and GBM stem cells.
ABSTRACT: BACKGROUND:Glioblastoma (GBM) is a primary brain tumor with a 5-year survival rate of ?5%. We have shown earlier that GBM-antibody-linked curcumin (CC) and also phytosomal curcumin (CCP) rescue 50-60% of GBM-bearing mice while repolarizing the tumor-associated microglia/macrophages (TAM) from the tumor-promoting M2-type to the tumoricidal M1-type. However, systemic application of CCP yields only sub-IC50 concentrations of CC in the plasma, which is unlikely to kill GBM cells directly. This study investigates the role of CC-evoked intra-GBM recruitment of activated natural killer (NK) cells in the elimination of GBM and GBM stem cells. METHODS:We have used an immune-competent syngeneic C57BL6 mouse model with the mouse-GBM GL261 cells orthotopically implanted in the brain. Using immunohistochemistry and flow cytometry, we have quantitatively analyzed the role of the intra-GBM-recruited NK cells by (i) injecting (i.p.) the NK1.1 antibody (NK1.1Ab) to temporarily eliminate the NK cells and (ii) blocking NK recruitment by injecting an IL12 antibody (IL12Ab). The treatment cohorts used randomly-chosen GL261-implanted mice and data sets were compared using two-tailed t-test or ANOVA. RESULTS:CCP treatment caused the GBM tumor to acquire M1-type macrophages (50-60% of the TAM) and activated NK cells. The treatment also elicited (a) suppression of the M2-linked tumor-promoting proteins STAT3, ARG1, and IL10, (b) induction of the M1-linked anti-tumor proteins STAT1 and inducible nitric oxide synthase in the TAM, (c) elimination of CD133(+) GBM stem cells, and (d) activation of caspase3 in the GBM cells. Eliminating intra-GBM NK cell recruitment caused a partial reversal of each of these effects. Concomitantly, we observed a CCP-evoked dramatic induction of the chemokine monocyte chemotactic protein-1 (MCP-1) in the TAM. CONCLUSIONS:The recruited NK cells mediate a major part of the CCP-evoked elimination of GBM and GBM stem cells and stabilization of the TAM in the M1-like state. MCP-1 is known to activate peripheral M1-type macrophages to secrete IL12, an activator of NK cells. Based on such observations, we postulate that by binding to peripheral M1-type macrophages and IL12-activated NK cells, the brain-released chemokine MCP-1 causes recruitment of peripheral immune cells into the GBM, thereby causing destruction of the GBM cells and GBM stem cells.
Project description:Glioblastoma (GBM) is the least treatable type of brain tumor, afflicting over 15,000 people per year in the United States. Patients have a median survival of 16 months, and over 95% die within 5 years. The chemokine receptor ACKR3 is selectively expressed on both GBM cells and tumor-associated blood vessels. High tumor expression of ACKR3 correlates with poor prognosis and potential treatment resistance, making it an attractive therapeutic target. We engineered a single chain FV-human FC-immunoglobulin G1 (IgG1) antibody, X7Ab, to target ACKR3 in human and mouse GBM cells. We used hydrodynamic gene transfer to overexpress the antibody, with efficacy in vivo. X7Ab kills GBM tumor cells and ACKR3-expressing vascular endothelial cells by engaging the cytotoxic activity of natural killer (NK) cells and complement and the phagocytic activity of macrophages. Combining X7Ab with TMZ allows the TMZ dosage to be lowered, without compromising therapeutic efficacy. Mice treated with X7Ab and in combination with TMZ showed significant tumor reduction by MRI and longer survival overall. Brain-tumor-infiltrating leukocyte analysis revealed that X7Ab enhances the activation of M1 macrophages to support anti-tumor immune response in vivo. Targeting ACKR3 with immunotherapeutic monoclonal antibodies (mAbs) in combination with standard of care therapies may prove effective in treating GBM.
Project description:Natural killer (NK) cell therapy is one of the most promising treatments for Glioblastoma Multiforme (GBM). However, this emerging technology is limited by the availability of sufficient numbers of fully functional cells. Here, we investigated the efficacy of NK cells that were expanded and treated by interleukin-2 (IL-2) and heat shock protein 70 (HSP70), both in vitro and in vivo. Proliferation and cytotoxicity assays were used to assess the functionality of NK cells in vitro, after which treated and naïve NK cells were administrated intracranially and systemically to compare the potential antitumor activities in our in vivo rat GBM models. In vitro assays provided strong evidence of NK cell efficacy against C6 tumor cells. In vivo tracking of NK cells showed efficient homing around and within the tumor site. Furthermore, significant amelioration of the tumor in rats treated with HSP70/Il-2-treated NK cells as compared to those subjected to nontreated NK cells, as confirmed by MRI, proved the efficacy of adoptive NK cell therapy. Moreover, results obtained with systemic injection confirmed migration of activated NK cells over the blood brain barrier and subsequent targeting of GBM tumor cells. Our data suggest that administration of HSP70/Il-2-treated NK cells may be a promising therapeutic approach to be considered in the treatment of GBM.
Project description:Glioblastoma (GBM) is a deadly brain tumor with a current mean survival of 12-15 months. Despite being a potent anti-cancer agent, the turmeric ingredient curcumin (C) has limited anti-tumor efficacy in vivo due to its low bioavailability. We have reported earlier a strategy involving the use two other polyphenols, epicatechin gallate (E) from green tea and resveratrol (R) from red grapes at a unique, synergistic molar ratio with C (C:E:R: 4:1:12.5, termed TriCurin) to achieve superior potency against HPV+ tumors than C alone at C:E:R (?M): 32:8:100 (termed 32 ?M+ TriCurin). We have now prepared liposomal TriCurin (TrLp) and demonstrated that TrLp boosts activated p53 in cultured GL261 mouse GBM cells to trigger apoptosis of GBM and GBM stem cells in vitro. TrLp administration into mice yielded a stable plasma concentration of 210 nM C for 60 min, which, though sub-lethal for cultured GL261 cells, was able to cause repolarization of M2-like tumor (GBM)-associated microglia/macrophages to the tumoricidal M1-like phenotype and intra-GBM recruitment of activated natural killer cells. The intratumor presence of such tumoricidal immune cells was associated with concomitant suppression of tumor-load, and apoptosis of GBM and GBM stem cells. Thus, TrLp is a potential onco-immunotherapeutic agent against GBM tumors.
Project description:INTRODUCTION:The failure of immune checkpoint inhibitor (ICPi) on glioblastoma (GBM) treatment underscores the need for improving therapeutic strategy. We aimed to change tumor associated macrophage (TAM) from M2 type (anti-inflammatory) to M1 (pro-inflammatory) type to increase the therapeutic response of ICPi. We proposed that combined rapamycin (R) and hydroxychloroquine (Q) preferentially induce M2 cells death, as fatty acid oxidation was their major source of energy. METHODS:Macrophage polarization was characterized on mice and human macrophage cell lines by specific cytokines stimulation with or without RQ treatment under single culture or co-culture with GBM cell lines. Tumor sizes were evaluated on subcutaneous and intracranial GL261 mice models with or without RQ, anti-PD1 mAb treatment. Tumor volumes assessed by MRI scan and proportions of tumor infiltrating immune cells analyzed by flow cytometry were compared. RESULTS:In vitro RQ treatment decreased the macrophages polarization of M2, increased the phagocytic ability, and increased the lipid droplets accumulation. RQ treatment decreased the expression levels of CD47 and SIRP? on tumor cells and macrophage cells in co-culture experiments. The combination of RQ and anti-PD1 treatment was synergistic in action. Enhanced the intra-tumoral M1/M2 ratio, the CD8/CD4 ratio in the intracranial GL261 tumor model after RQ treatment were evident. CONCLUSION:We provide a rationale for manipulating the macrophage phenotype and increased the therapeutic effect of ICPi. To re-educate and re-empower the TAM/microglia opens an interesting avenue for GBM treatment.
Project description:Carbonic anhydrases (CAs) are acid-base regulatory proteins that modulate a variety of physiological functions. Recent findings have shown that CAIX is particularly upregulated in glioblastoma multiforme (GBM) and is associated with a poor patient outcome and survival rate. An analysis of the GSE4290 dataset of patients with gliomas showed that CAIX was highly expressed in GBM and was negatively associated with prognosis. The expression of CAIX under hypoxic conditions in GBM significantly increased in protein, mRNA, and transcriptional activity. Importantly, CAIX upregulation also regulated GBM motility, monocyte adhesion to GBM, and the polarization of tumor-associated monocytes/macrophages (TAM). Furthermore, the overexpression of CAIX was observed in intracranial GBM cells. Additionally, epidermal growth factor receptor/signal transducer and activator of transcription 3 regulated CAIX expression under hypoxic conditions by affecting the stability of hypoxia-inducible factor 1?. In contrast, the knockdown of CAIX dramatically abrogated the change in GBM motility and monocyte adhesion to GBM under hypoxic conditions. Our results provide a comprehensive understanding of the mechanisms of CAIX in the GBM microenvironment. Hence, novel therapeutic targets of GBM progression are possibly developed.
Project description:Tumor-associated immune cells are prognostic in non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) but findings have been conflicting.To determine the prognostic role of immune cells according to localization in NSCLC patients.A systematic literature review and meta-analysis was performed on dendritic cell (DC), tumor associated macrophages (TAM), mast cells (MC), natural killer (NK) cells, T and B cells and tumor CTLA-4 and PD-L1 studies.We analysed 96 articles (n= 21,752 patients). Improved outcomes were seen with increased tumor DCs (overall survival (OS) hazard ratio (HR) 0.55; 95% confidence interval (CI) 0.44-0.68), NK cells (OS HR 0.45; 0.31-0.65), TAMs (OS HR 0.33; 0.17-0.62), M1 TAMs (OS HR 0.10; 0.05-0.21), CD3+ T cells (disease specific survival (DSS) HR 0.64; 0.48-0.86), CD8+ T cells (OS HR 0.78; 0.66-0.93), B cells (OS HR 0.65; 0.42-0.99) and with increased stroma DC (DSS HR 0.62; 0.47-0.83), NK cells (DSS HR 0.51; 0.32-0.82), M1 TAMs (OS HR 0.63; 0.42-0.94), CD4+ T cells (OS HR 0.45; 0.21-0.94), CD8+ T cells (OS HR 0.77; 0.69-0.86) and B cells (OS HR 0.74;0.56-0.99). Poor outcomes were seen with stromal M2 TAMs (OS HR 1.44; 1.06-1.96) and Tregs (relapse free survival (RFS) HR 1.80; 1.34-2.43). Tumor PD-L1 was associated with worse OS (1.40; 1.20-1.69), RFS (1.67) and DFS (1.24).Tumor and stroma DC, NK cells, M1 TAMs, CD8+ T cells and B cells were associated with improved prognosis and tumor PD-L1, stromal M2 TAMs and Treg cells had poorer prognosis. Higher quality studies are required for confirmation.
Project description:Glioblastoma (GBM) is the most malignant brain tumor where patients' survival is only 14.6 months, despite multimodal therapy with debulking surgery, concurrent chemotherapy and radiotherapy. There is an urgent, unmet need for novel, effective therapeutic strategies for this devastating disease. Although several immunotherapies are under development for the treatment of GBM patients, the use of natural killer (NK) cells is still marginal despite this being a promising approach to treat cancer. In regard of our knowledge on the role of NG2/CSPG4 in promoting GBM aggressiveness we investigated the potential of an innovative immunotherapeutic strategy combining mAb9.2.27 against NG2/CSPG4 and NK cells in preclinical animal models of GBM. Multiple immune escape mechanisms maintain the tumor microenvironment in an anti-inflammatory state to promote tumor growth, however, the distinct roles of resident microglia versus recruited macrophages is not elucidated. We hypothesized that exploiting the cytokine release capabilities of activated (NK) cells to reverse the anti-inflammatory axis combined with mAb9.2.27 targeting the NG2/CSPG4 may favor tumor destruction by editing pro-GBM immune responses. Combination treatment with NK+mAb9.2.27 diminished tumor growth that was associated with reduced tumor proliferation, increased cellular apoptosis and prolonged survival compared to vehicle and monotherapy controls. The therapeutic efficacy was mediated by recruitment of CCR2low macrophages into the tumor microenvironment, increased ED1 and MHC class II expression on microglia that might render them competent for GBM antigen presentation, as well as elevated IFN-? and TNF-? levels in the cerebrospinal fluid compared to controls. Depletion of systemic macrophages by liposome-encapsulated clodronate decreased the CCR2low macrophages recruited to the brain and abolished the beneficial outcomes. Moreover, mAb9.2.27 reversed tumor-promoting effects of patient-derived tumor-associated macrophage/microglia(TAM) ex vivo.Taken together, these findings indicate thatNK+mAb9.2.27 treatment may be an amenable therapeutic strategy to treat NG2/CSPG4 expressing GBMs. We provide a novel conceptual approach of combination immunotherapy for glioblastoma. The results traverse beyond the elucidation of NG2/CSPG4 as a therapeutic target, but demonstrate a proof of concept that this antibody may hold potential for the treatment of GBM by activation of tumor infiltrated microglia/macrophages.
Project description:Optimally effective antitumor therapies would not only activate immune effector cells but also engage them at the tumor. Folate conjugated to immunoglobulin (F-IgG) could direct innate immune cells with Fc receptors to folate receptor-expressing cancer cells. F-IgG bound to human KB and HeLa cells, as well as murine L1210JF, a folate receptor (FR)-overexpressing cancer cell line, as determined by flow cytometry. Recognition of F-IgG by natural killer (NK) cell Fc receptors led to phosphorylation of the ERK transcription factor and increased NK cell expression of CD69. Lysis of KB tumor cells by NK cells increased by about 5-fold after treatment with F-IgG, an effect synergistically enhanced by treatment with IL2, IL12, IL15, or IL21 (P< 0.001). F-IgG also enhanced the lysis of chronic lymphocytic leukemia cells by autologous NK cells. NK cells significantly increased production of IFN?, MIP-1?, and RANTES in response to F-IgG-coated KB target cells in the presence of the NK cell-activating cytokine IL12, and these coculture supernatants induced significant T-cell chemotaxis (P< 0.001). F-IgG-coated targets also stimulated FcR-mediated monocyte effector functions. Studies in a murine leukemia model confirmed the intratumoral localization and antitumor activity of F-IgG, as well as enhancement of its effects by IL12 (P =0.05). The antitumor effect of this combination was dependent on NK cells and led to decreased tumor cell proliferation in vivo Thus, F-IgG can induce an immune response against FR-positive tumor cells that is mediated by NK cells and can be augmented by cytokine therapy.
Project description:Tumor-associated macrophages (TAMs) polarize to M1 and M2 subtypes exerting anti-tumoral and pro-tumoral effects, respectively. To date, little is known about TAMs, their subtypes, and their roles in non-functional pituitary adenomas (NFPAs). We performed flow cytometry on single cell suspensions from 16 NFPAs, revealing that CD11b+ myeloid cells comprise an average of 7.3% of cells in NFPAs (range = 0.5%-27.1%), with qPCR revealing most CD11b+ cells to be monocyte-derived TAMs rather than native microglia. The most CD11b-enriched NFPAs (10-27% CD11b+) were the most expansile (size>3.5 cm or MIB1>3%). Increasing CD11b+ fraction was associated with decreased M2 TAMs and increased M1 TAMs. All NFPAs with cavernous sinus invasion had M2/M1 gene expression ratios above one, while 80% of NFPAs without cavernous sinus invasion had M2/M1<1 (P = 0.02). Cultured M2 macrophages promoted greater invasion (P < 10-5) and proliferation (P = 0.03) of primary NFPA cultures than M1 macrophages in a manner inhibited by siRNA targeting S100A9 and EZH2, respectively. Primary NFPA cultures were of two types: some recruited more monocytes in an MCP-1-dependent manner and polarized these to M2 TAMs, while others recruited fewer monocytes and polarized them to M1 TAMS in a GM-CSF-dependent manner. These findings suggest that TAM recruitment and polarization into the pro-tumoral M2 subtype drives NFPA proliferation and invasion. Robust M2 TAM infiltrate may occur during an NFPA growth phase before self-regulating into a slower growth phase with fewer overall TAMs and M1 polarization. Analyses like these could generate immunomodulatory therapies for NFPAs.