Cardiac regenerative capacity is age- and disease-dependent in childhood heart disease.
ABSTRACT: OBJECTIVE:We sought to define the intrinsic stem cell capacity in pediatric heart lesions, and the effects of diagnosis and of age, in order to inform evidence-based use of potential autologous stem cell sources for regenerative medicine therapy. METHODS:Ventricular explants derived from patients with hypoplastic left heart syndrome (HLHS), tetralogy of Fallot (TF), dilated cardiomyopathy (DCM) and ventricular septal defect (VSD) were analyzed following standard in vitro culture conditions, which yielded cardiospheres (C-spheres), indicative of endogenous stem cell capacity. C-sphere counts generated per 5 mm3 tissue explant and the presence of cardiac progenitor cells were correlated to patient age, diagnosis and echocardiographic function. RESULTS:Cardiac explants from patients less than one year of age with TF and DCM robustly generated c-kit- and/or vimentin-positive cardiac mesenchymal cells (CMCs), populating spontaneously forming C-spheres. Beyond one year of age, there was a marked reduction or absence of cardiac explant-derivable cardiac stem cell content in patients with TF, VSD and DCM. Stem cell content in HLHS and DCM strongly correlated to the echocardiographic function in the corresponding ventricular chamber, with better echocardiographic function correlating to a more robust regenerative cellular content. CONCLUSIONS:We conclude that autologous cardiomyogenic potential in pediatric heart lesions is robust during the first year of life and uniformly declines thereafter. Depletion of stem cell content occurs at an earlier age in HLHS with the onset of ventricular failure in a chamber-specific pattern that correlates directly to ventricular dysfunction. These data suggest that regenerative therapies using autologous cellular sources should be implemented in the neonatal period before the potentially rapid onset of single ventricle failure in HLHS or the evolution of biventricular failure in DCM.
Project description:BACKGROUND:Ischemic cardiomyopathy (ICM) and dilated cardiomyopathy (DCM) differ in histopathology and prognosis. Although transendocardial delivery of mesenchymal stem cells is safe and provides cardiovascular benefits in both, a comparison of mesenchymal stem cell efficacy in ICM versus DCM has not been done. METHODS AND RESULTS:We conducted a subanalysis of 3 single-center, randomized, and blinded clinical trials: (1) TAC-HFT (Transendocardial Autologous Mesenchymal Stem Cells and Mononuclear Bone Marrow Cells in Ischemic Heart Failure Trial); (2) POSEIDON (A Phase I/II, Randomized Pilot Study of the Comparative Safety and Efficacy of Transendocardial Injection of Autologous Mesenchymal Stem Cells Versus Allogeneic Mesenchymal Stem Cells in Patients With Chronic Ischemic Left Ventricular Dysfunction Secondary to Myocardial Infarction); and (3) POSEIDON-DCM (Percutaneous Stem Cell Injection Delivery Effects on Neomyogenesis in Dilated Cardiomyopathy). Baseline and 1-year cardiac structure and function and quality-of-life data were compared in a post hoc pooled analysis including ICM (n=46) and DCM (n=33) patients who received autologous or allogeneic mesenchymal stem cells. Ejection fraction improved in DCM by 7% (within-group, P=0.002) compared to ICM (1.5%; within-group, P=0.14; between-group, P=0.003). Similarly, stroke volume increased in DCM by 10.59 mL (P=0.046) versus ICM (-0.2 mL; P=0.73; between-group, P=0.02). End-diastolic volume improved only in ICM (10.6 mL; P=0.04) and end-systolic volume improved only in DCM (17.8 mL; P=0.049). The sphericity index decreased only in ICM (-0.04; P=0.0002). End-diastolic mass increased in ICM (23.1 g; P<0.0001) versus DCM (-4.1 g; P=0.34; between-group, P=0.007). The 6-minute walk test improved in DCM (31.1 m; P=0.009) and ICM (36.3 m; P=0.006) with no between-group difference (P=0.79). The New York Heart Association class improved in DCM (P=0.005) and ICM (P=0.02; between-group P=0.20). The Minnesota Living with Heart Failure Questionnaire improved in DCM (-19.5; P=0.002) and ICM (-6.4; P=0.03; ? between-group difference P=0.042) patients. CONCLUSIONS:Mesenchymal stem cell therapy is beneficial in DCM and ICM patients, despite variable effects on cardiac phenotypic outcomes. Whereas cardiac function improved preferentially in DCM patients, ICM patients experienced reverse remodeling. Mesenchymal stem cell therapy enhanced quality of life and functional capacity in both etiologies. CLINICAL TRIAL REGISTRATION:URL: http://www.clinicaltrials.gov. Unique identifiers: TAC-HFT: NCT00768066, POSEIDON: NCT01087996, POSEIDON-DCM: NCT01392625.
Project description:INTRODUCTION:Hypoplastic left heart syndrome (HLHS) is a congenital condition with an underdeveloped left ventricle (LV) that provides inadequate systemic blood flow postnatally. The development of HLHS is postulated to be due to altered biomechanical stimuli during gestation. Predicting LV size at birth using mid-gestation fetal echocardiography is a clinical challenge critical to prognostic counseling. HYPOTHESIS:We hypothesized that decreased ventricular filling in utero due to mitral stenosis may reduce LV growth in the fetal heart via mechanical growth signaling. METHODS:We developed a novel finite element model of the human fetal heart in which cardiac myocyte growth rates are a function of fiber and cross-fiber strains, which is affected by altered ventricular filling, to simulate alterations in LV growth and remodeling. Model results were tested with echocardiogram measurements from normal and HLHS fetal hearts. RESULTS:A strain-based fetal growth model with a normal 22-week ventricular filling (1.04?mL) was able to replicate published measurements of changes between mid-gestation to birth of mean LV end-diastolic volume (EDV) (1.1-8.3?mL) and dimensions (long-axis, 18-35?mm; short-axis, 9-18?mm) within 15% root mean squared deviation error. By decreasing volumetric load (-25%) at mid-gestation in the model, which emulates mitral stenosis in utero, a 65% reduction in LV EDV and a 46% reduction in LV wall volume were predicted at birth, similar to observations in HLHS patients. In retrospective blinded case studies for HLHS, using mid-gestation echocardiographic data, the model predicted a borderline and severe hypoplastic LV, consistent with the patients' late-gestation data in both cases. Notably, the model prediction was validated by testing for changes in LV shape in the model against clinical data for each HLHS case study. CONCLUSION:Reduced ventricular filling and altered shape may lead to reduced LV growth and a hypoplastic phenotype by reducing myocardial strains that serve as a myocyte growth stimulus. The human fetal growth model presented here may lead to a clinical tool that can help predict LV size and shape at birth based on mid-gestation LV echocardiographic measurements.
Project description:Dilated cardiomyopathy (DCM) is the most frequent cause of heart failure and the leading indication for heart transplantation. Here we show that epigenetic regulator and central transcriptional instructor in adult stem cells, Bmi1, protects against DCM by repressing cardiac senescence. Cardiac-specific Bmi1 deletion induces the development of DCM, which progresses to lung congestion and heart failure. In contrast, Bmi1 overexpression in the heart protects from hypertrophic stimuli. Transcriptome analysis of mouse and human DCM samples indicates that p16(INK4a) derepression, accompanied by a senescence-associated secretory phenotype (SASP), is linked to severely impaired ventricular dimensions and contractility. Genetic reduction of p16(INK4a) levels reverses the pathology of Bmi1-deficient hearts. In parabiosis assays, the paracrine senescence response underlying the DCM phenotype does not transmit to healthy mice. As senescence is implicated in tissue repair and the loss of regenerative potential in aging tissues, these findings suggest a source for cardiac rejuvenation.
Project description:Lamin A/C (LMNA) encodes for two nuclear intermediate filament proteins. Mutations in LMNA cause a highly heterogeneous group of diseases predominantly leading to muscular or cardiac disease, lipodystrophy syndromes, peripheral neuropathy, and accelerated aging disorders. Cardiac involvement includes progressive arrhythmias (brady/tachyarrhythmias, sudden cardiac death). Furthermore, cardiomyocyte damage often progresses into dilated cardiomyopathy (DCM), rarely described in the pediatric age group. Neuromuscular manifestations are even rarer in children. We report on six pediatric patients with LMNA mutations: patient 1 was operated on for aortic coarctation, non-compact left ventricle, atrial fibrillation (AF) preceding the diagnosis of DCM; patient 2 was operated on for ventricular septal defect (VSD), developed after years malignant arrhythmias preceding the progression to DCM (left ventricular non-compaction with LV dysfunction); patient 3 had ectopic atrial tachycardia as first manifestation of a DCM; patients 4 and 5 had no major arrhythmic events but only dilated ascending aorta, mildly dilated LV with mild hypertrabeculation of the lateral wall and a normally functioning but dilated left ventricle, respectively; patient 6 showed aortic coarctation, supraventricular tachycardia. Paroxysmal AF occurred in patients 1, 2, and 3 (50% of cases). Our series highlight the coexistence of congenital heart defects (CHDs) and aortic involvement with laminopathies in four of our patients: consisting of aortic coarctation (two patients), aortic root dilatation (one patient), and VSD (one patient). Aortic changes in laminopathies have been reported only once in an adult patient. This is the first report in the pediatric setting, and no associations with CHD have been previously described.
Project description:Doberman Pinschers with dilated cardiomyopathy (DCM) are at high risk of sudden cardiac death (SCD). Risk factors for SCD are poorly defined.To assess cardiac biomarkers, Holter-ECG, echocardiographic variables and canine characteristics in a group of Doberman Pinschers with DCM dying of SCD and in a DCM control group to identify factors predicting SCD.A longitudinal prospective study was performed in 95 Doberman Pinschers with DCM. Forty-one dogs died within 3 months after the last cardiac examination (SCD-group) and were compared to 54 Doberman Pinschers with DCM surviving 1 year after inclusion. Holter-ECG, echocardiography, measurement of N-terminal prohormone of brain-natriuretic peptide (NT-proBNP), and cardiac Troponin I (cTnI) concentrations were recorded for all dogs.Volume overload of the left ventricle (left ventricular end-diastolic volume (LVEDV/BSA) > 91.3 mL/m²) was the single best variable to predict SCD. The probability of SCD increases 8.5-fold (CI0.95 = 0.8-35.3) for every 50 mL/m²-unit increment in LVEDV/BSA. Ejection fraction (EF), left ventricular end-systolic volume (LVESV/BSA) and NT-proBNP were highly correlated with LVEDV/BSA (r = -0.63, 0.96, 0.86, respectively). Generated conditional inference trees (CTREEs) revealed that the presence of ventricular tachycardia (VT), increased concentration of cTnI, and the fastest rate (FR) of ventricular premature complexes (VPC) ?260 beats per minute (bpm) are additional important variables to predict SCD.Conditional inference trees provided in this study might be useful for risk assessment of SCD in Doberman Pinschers with DCM.
Project description:Hypoplastic left heart syndrome (HLHS) is a serious congenital cardiovascular malformation resulting in hypoplasia or atresia of the left ventricle, ascending aorta, and aortic and mitral valves. Diminished flow through the left side of the heart is clearly a key contributor to the condition, but any myocardial susceptibility component is as yet undefined. Using recent advances in the field of induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs), we have been able to generate an iPSC model of HLHS malformation and characterize the properties of cardiac myocytes (CMs) differentiated from these and control-iPSC lines. Differentiation of HLHS-iPSCs to cardiac lineages revealed changes in the expression of key cardiac markers and a lower ability to give rise to beating clusters when compared with control-iPSCs and human embryonic stem cells (hESCs). HLHS-iPSC-derived CMs show a lower level of myofibrillar organization, persistence of a fetal gene expression pattern, and changes in commitment to ventricular versus atrial lineages, and they display different calcium transient patterns and electrophysiological responses to caffeine and ?-adrenergic antagonists when compared with hESC- and control-iPSC-derived CMs, suggesting that alternative mechanisms to release calcium from intracellular stores such as the inositol trisphosphate receptor may exist in HLHS in addition to the ryanodine receptor thought to function in control-iPSC-derived CMs. Together our findings demonstrate that CMs derived from an HLHS patient demonstrate a number of marker expression and functional differences to hESC/control iPSC-derived CMs, thus providing some evidence that cardiomyocyte-specific factors may influence the risk of HLHS.
Project description:Dilated cardiomyopathy (DCM) is a structural heart disease that causes dilatation of cardiac chambers and impairs cardiac contractility. The SCN5A gene encodes Nav1.5, the predominant cardiac sodium channel alpha subunit. SCN5A mutations have been identified in patients with arrhythmic disorders associated with DCM. The characterization of Nav1.5 mutations located in the voltage sensor domain (VSD) and associated with DCM revealed divergent biophysical defects that do not fully explain the pathologies observed in these patients. The purpose of this study was to characterize the pathological consequences of a gating pore in the heart arising from the Nav1.5/R219H mutation in a patient with complex cardiac arrhythmias and DCM. We report its properties using cardiomyocytes derived from patient-specific human induced pluripotent stem cells. We showed that this mutation generates a proton leak (called gating pore current). We also described disrupted ionic homeostasis, altered cellular morphology, electrical properties, and contractile function, most probably linked to the proton leak. We thus propose a novel link between SCN5A mutation and the complex pathogenesis of cardiac arrhythmias and DCM. Furthermore, we suggest that leaky channels would constitute a common pathological mechanism underlying several neuronal, neuromuscular, and cardiac pathologies.
Project description:Postnatal outcome of fetuses with hypoplastic left heart syndrome (HLHS) is mainly determined by right ventricular function. In the present study we used spatio-temporal image correlation (STIC) to assess right ventricular function of fetuses with HLHS.Three-dimensional ultrasound with STIC technique was used to acquire heart images from fetuses that had HLHS and the normal controls, between 24(+0) and 37(+6) weeks of gestation. Right ventricular end-diastolic volume (RVEDV) and right ventricular end-systolic volume (RVESV) were determined using the virtual organ computer-aided analysis software, and the parameters of right ventricular function were calculated.Both RVEDV and RVESV were found to be significantly higher in fetuses with HLHS as compared to that in normal controls (P < 0.001). There were no significant differences in the parameters between fetuses with and without a visible left ventricular cavity (P > 0.05). Compared to fetuses with HLHS plus mild tricuspid regurgitation (TR), fetuses with HLHS plus severe TR exhibited lower right ventricular stroke volume (RVSV), right ventricular cardiac output (RVCO) and standardized RVCO (P < 0.05). The right ventricular ejection fraction (RVEF) was significantly lower in HLHS fetuses that had severe TR (P < 0.001).As the right ventricle is solely responsible for maintenance of circulation, the right ventricular systolic function undergoes compensatory enhancement in fetuses with HLHS and mild TR, compared to that in normal controls. Size of the left ventricle does not significantly affect the right ventricular function in HLHS. However, right ventricular systolic function may be impaired prenatally in HLHS fetuses that have severe TR.
Project description:<h4>Background?</h4>Catecholaminergic polymorphic ventricular tachycardia (CPVT) is a severe genetic arrhythmogenic disorder characterized by adrenergically induced ventricular tachycardia manifesting as stress-induced syncope and sudden cardiac death. While CPVT is not associated with dilated cardiomyopathy (DCM) in most cases, the combination of both disease entities poses a major diagnostic and therapeutic challenge.<h4>Case summary?</h4>We present the case of a young woman with CPVT. The clinical course since childhood was characterized by repetitive episodes of exercise-induced ventricular arrhythmias and a brady-tachy syndrome due to rapid paroxysmal atrial fibrillation and sinus bradycardia. Medical treatment included propranolol and flecainide until echocardiography showed a dilated left ventricle with severely depressed ejection fraction when the patient was 32?years old. Cardiac magnetic resonance imaging revealed non-specific late gadolinium enhancement. Myocardial inflammation, however, was excluded by subsequent endomyocardial biopsy. Genetic analysis confirmed a mutation in the cardiac ryanodine receptor but no pathogenetic variant associated with DCM. Guideline-directed medical therapy for HFrEF was limited due to symptomatic hypotension. Over the next months, the patient developed progressive heart failure symptoms that were finally managed by heart transplantation.<h4>Discussion?</h4>Management in patients with CPVT and DCM is challenging, as Class I antiarrhythmic drugs are not recommended in structural heart disease and prophylactic internal cardioverter-defibrillator implantation without adjuvant antiarrhythmic therapy can be detrimental. Regular echocardiographic screening for DCM is recommendable in patients with CPVT. A multidisciplinary team of heart failure specialists, electrophysiologists, geneticists, and imaging specialists is needed to collaborate in the delivery of clinical care.
Project description:Our objective was to characterise the divergence of effort from outcome in congenital heart disease (CHD) care by measuring mortality-related resource utilisation fraction (MRRUF) for various CHD lesions across institutions of differing volumes.Study design was observational analysis of an administrative database, the Pediatric Health Information System (PHIS). The setting was inpatient; 2004-2013. Patients were ≤21 years old with atrial septal defect (ASD), ventricular septal defect (VSD), tetralogy of Fallot (TOF), hypoplastic left heart syndrome (HLHS) or other single ventricle (SV). There were no interventions but diagnosis, institution (and volume), age, length of hospitalisation, billed charges and deaths were recorded. The main outcome measure was MRRUF, the ratio of investments during hospitalisations ending in fatality to investments during all hospitalisations.There were 50 939 admissions, 1711 deaths, 703 383 inpatient days, and $10 182 000 000 billed charges. MRRUF varied widely by diagnosis: highest in HLHS (21%), but present in ASD (2%) and VSD (4%). Highest among the very young, MRRUF also increased in HLHS and SV during adolescence. MRRUF increased with hospitalisation duration. MRRUF had no relation to institutional volume, and was static over the decade studied.Even in the modern era we invest heavily in inpatient CHD care that does not produce the desired outcome. Although its magnitude varies by lesion and age, MRRUF is not limited to complex disease in the very young. MRRUF is not decreasing, and is not isolated to high or low volume institutions.