Highly Stereoselective Synthesis of Tetrasubstituted Acyclic All-Carbon Olefins via Enol Tosylation and Suzuki-Miyaura Coupling.
ABSTRACT: A highly stereocontrolled synthesis of tetrasubstituted acyclic all-carbon olefins has been developed via a stereoselective enolization and tosylate formation, followed by a palladium-catalyzed Suzuki-Miyaura cross-coupling of the tosylates and pinacol boronic esters in the presence of a Pd(OAc)2/RuPhos catalytic system. Both the enol tosylation and Suzuki-Miyaura coupling reactions tolerate an array of electronically and sterically diverse substituents and generate high yield and stereoselectivity of the olefin products. Judicious choice of substrate and coupling partner provides access to either the E- or Z-olefin with excellent yield and stereochemical fidelity. Olefin isomerization was observed during the Suzuki-Miyaura coupling. However, under the optimized cross-coupling reaction conditions, the isomerization was suppressed to <5% in most cases. Mechanistic probes indicate that the olefin isomerization occurs via an intermediate, possibly a zwitterionic palladium carbenoid species.
Project description:The Suzuki–Miyaura cross-coupling reaction is one of the most reliable methods for the construction of carbon–carbon bonds in solution. However, examples for the corresponding solid-state cross-coupling reactions remain scarce. Herein, we report the first broadly applicable mechanochemical protocol for a solid-state palladium-catalyzed organoboron cross-coupling reaction using an olefin additive. Compared to previous studies, the newly developed protocol shows a substantially broadened substrate scope. Our mechanistic data suggest that olefin additives might act as dispersants for the palladium-based catalyst to suppress higher aggregation of the nanoparticles, and also as stabilizer for the active monomeric Pd(0) species, thus facilitating these challenging solid-state C–C bond forming cross-coupling reactions.
Project description:An improved method for the nickel-catalyzed Suzuki-Miyaura cross-coupling of alkenyl ethers is reported. This stereoconvergent protocol allows for the utilization of a wide range of alkenyl ethers and aryl boronic esters for the synthesis of variously substituted styrene derivatives. An olefinic mixture with respect to the alkenyl ethers can be employed, thereby circumventing the stereodefined synthesis of starting materials. Preliminary mechanistic investigations indicate a nickel-catalyzed olefin isomerization following initial stereoretentive cross-coupling.
Project description:A catalyst system for the Suzuki-Miyaura cross-coupling reactions of aryl and vinyl tosylates and mesylates has been developed. This catalyst displays excellent functional group tolerance and allows the coupling of heteroarylboronic acids with aryl tosylates and mesylates to be performed in high yields. Moreover, reactions employing alkylboronic acids, as well as heteroaryl, vinyl, and allylic pinacol boronate esters, were conducted with high efficiencies.
Project description:The catalytic Suzuki-Miyaura cross-coupling with chiral ?,?-disubstituted allylboronates in the presence of RuPhos ligand occurs with high regioselectivity and enantiospecificity, furnishing nonracemic compounds with quaternary centers. Mechanistic experiments suggest that the reaction occurs by transmetalation with allyl migration, followed by rapid reductive elimination.
Project description:Palladium-catalyzed Suzuki-Miyaura cross-coupling or aryl halides is widely employed in the synthesis of many important molecules in synthetic chemistry, including pharmaceuticals, polymers and functional materials. Herein, we disclose the first palladium-catalyzed decarbonylative Suzuki-Miyaura cross-coupling of amides for the synthesis of biaryls through the selective activation of the N-C(O) bond of amides. This new method relies on the precise sequence engineering of the catalytic cycle, wherein decarbonylation occurs prior to the transmetallation step. The reaction is compatible with a wide range of boronic acids and amides, providing valuable biaryls in high yields (>60 examples). DFT studies support a mechanism involving oxidative addition, decarbonylation and transmetallation and provide insight into high N-C(O) bond activation selectivity. Most crucially, the reaction establishes the use of palladium catalysis in the biaryl Suzuki-Miyaura cross-coupling of the amide bond and should enable the design of a wide variety of cross-coupling methods in which palladium rivals the traditional biaryl synthesis from aryl halides and pseudohalides.
Project description:The Suzuki-Miyaura cross-coupling has been widely recognized as one of the most important methods for the construction of C-C bonds. However, in contrast to traditional aryl halide or pseudohalide electrophiles, coupling reactions with unactivated C-N and C-O electrophiles have proven significantly more challenging. Here we report the first general palladium-catalyzed Suzuki-Miyaura cross-coupling of both common amides and aryl esters through the selective cleavage of the C-N and C-O bonds under exceedingly mild conditions. Notably, for the first time we demonstrate selective C(acyl)-N and C(acyl)-O cleavage/cross-coupling under the same reaction conditions. The reaction uses a commercially available, bench-stable and operationally-convenient (?3-1-t-Bu-indenyl)Pd(IPr)(Cl) precatalyst. Furthermore, we demonstrate that the reactivity of generic amides and aryl esters can be correlated with barriers to isomerization around the C(acyl)-X (X = N, O) bond, thus providing a blueprint for the development of a broad range of novel coupling reactions of ester and amide electrophiles by the selective activation of C-O and C-N bonds.
Project description:Zeolite faujasite is widely used as a catalyst in many industrial catalytic applications. In this study, synthesis and characterization of magnetic zeolite Y-palladium-nickel ferrite were studied. First, palladium nanoparticles were combined with nickel ferrite and then placed on zeolite Y by ultrasonic treatment. The structure and morphology of the synthesized magnetic zeolite Y-palladium-nickel ferrite were characterized using Fourier transform infrared, X-ray diffraction, scanning electron microscopy, transmission electron microscopy, energy-dispersive X-ray, vibrating sample magnetometer, and inductively coupled plasma optical emission spectroscopy analysis. Also, we investigated the catalytic activity of this prepared zeolite in Suzuki-Miyaura coupling reaction between phenylboronic acid and aryl halides. Our study shows that magnetic zeolite Y-palladium-nickel ferrite is a suitable catalyst for Suzuki-Miyaura coupling reaction. Short reaction time, high yield, and easy reusability are the advantages of using this catalyst in carbon-carbon cross-coupling reactions.
Project description:Diethanolamine complexed heterocyclic boronic acids (DABO boronates) are air-stable reagents that can be used directly in Suzuki-Miyaura reactions in the presence of water or a protic co-solvent. Interestingly, heterocyclic DABO boronates can be stored for extended periods of time at room temperature with no noticeable degradation, unlike their boronic acid counterparts. Heterocyclic DABO boronates constitute an operationally simple and efficient alternative to other boronic acid derivatives as coupling partners in palladium catalyzed cross-coupling reactions under standard Suzuki-Miyaura conditions.
Project description:[reaction: see text] The cis-dihydroxylation of olefin-containing potassium alkyl- and aryltrifluoroborates proceeds readily in moderate to excellent yields. The resulting diols are efficient coupling partners in Suzuki-Miyaura-type reactions with both alkenyl and aryl bromides.
Project description:The solution-phase parallel synthesis of a 121-member library of multi-substituted benzo[ b]furans is described. 2,3,5-Trisubstituted benzo[ b]furans have been prepared by the palladium-catalyzed substitution of 3-iodobenzofurans by Suzuki-Miyaura, carbonylative Suzuki, Sonogashira, Heck, and carboalkoxylation chemistry. The 3-iodobenzofurans are readily prepared in good to excellent yields by the palladium/copper-catalyzed cross-coupling of various o-iodoanisoles and terminal alkynes, followed by electrophilic cyclization with ICl.