Fatal and Nonfatal Overdose Among Pregnant and Postpartum Women in Massachusetts.
ABSTRACT: OBJECTIVE:To estimate fatal and nonfatal opioid overdose events in pregnant and postpartum women in Massachusetts, comparing rates in individuals receiving and not receiving pharmacotherapy for opioid use disorder (OUD). METHODS:We conducted a population-based retrospective cohort study using linked administrative and vital statistics databases in Massachusetts to identify women with evidence of OUD who delivered a liveborn neonate in 2012-2014. We described maternal sociodemographic, medical, and substance use characteristics, computed rates of opioid overdose events in the year before and after delivery, and compared overdose rates by receipt of pharmacotherapy with methadone or buprenorphine in the prenatal and postpartum periods. RESULTS:Among 177,876 unique deliveries, 4,154 (2.3%) were to women with evidence of OUD in the year before delivery, who experienced 242 total opioid-related overdose events (231 nonfatal, 11 fatal) in the year before or after delivery. The overall overdose rate was 8.0 per 100,000 person-days. Overdoses were lowest in the third trimester (3.3/100,000 person-days in the third trimester) and then increased in the postpartum period with the highest overdose rate 7-12 months after delivery (12.3/100,000 person-days). Overall, 64.3% of women with evidence of OUD in the year before delivery received any pharmacotherapy in the year before delivery. Women receiving pharmacotherapy had reduced overdose rates in the early postpartum period. CONCLUSION:Pregnant women in Massachusetts have high rates of OUD. The year after delivery is a vulnerable period for women with OUD. Additional longitudinal supports and interventions tailored to women in the first year postpartum are needed to prevent and reduce overdose events.
Project description:OBJECTIVE:To classify and compare US nationwide opioid-related hospital inpatient discharges over time by discharge type: 1) opioid use disorder (OUD) diagnosis without opioid overdose, detoxification, or rehabilitation services, 2) opioid overdose, 3) OUD diagnosis or opioid overdose with detoxification services, and 4) OUD diagnosis or opioid overdose with rehabilitation services. METHODS:Survey-weighted national analysis of hospital discharges in the Healthcare Cost and Utilization Project National Inpatient Sample yielded age-adjusted annual rates per 100,000 population. Annual percentage change (APC) in the rate of opioid-related discharges by type during 1993-2016 was assessed. RESULTS:The annual rate of hospital discharges documenting OUD without opioid overdose, detoxification, or rehabilitation services quadrupled during 1993-2016, and at an increased rate (8% annually) during 2003-2016. The discharge rate for all types of opioid overdose increased an average 5-9% annually during 1993-2010; discharges for non-heroin overdoses declined 2010-2016 (3-12% annually) while heroin overdose discharges increased sharply (23% annually). The rate of discharges including detoxification services among OUD and overdose patients declined (-4% annually) during 2008-2016 and rehabilitation services (e.g., counselling, pharmacotherapy) among those discharges decreased (-2% annually) during 1993-2016. CONCLUSIONS:Over the past two decades, the rate of both OUD diagnoses and opioid overdoses increased substantially in US hospitals while rates of inpatient detoxification and rehabilitation services identified by diagnosis codes declined. It is critical that inpatients diagnosed with OUD or treated for opioid overdose are linked effectively to substance use disorder treatment at discharge.
Project description:The opioid crisis presents substantial challenges to public health in New England's rural states, where access to pharmacotherapy for opioid use disorder (OUD), harm reduction, HIV and hepatitis C virus (HCV) services vary widely. We present an approach to characterizing the epidemiology, policy and resource environment for OUD and its consequences, with a focus on eleven rural counties in Massachusetts, New Hampshire and Vermont between 2014 and 2018. We developed health policy summaries and logic models to facilitate comparison of opioid epidemic-related polices across the three states that could influence the risk environment and access to services. We assessed sociodemographic factors, rates of overdose and infectious complications tied to OUD, and drive-time access to prevention and treatment resources. We developed GIS maps and conducted spatial analyses to assess the opioid crisis landscape. Through collaborative research, we assessed the potential impact of available resources to address the opioid crisis in rural New England. Vermont's comprehensive set of policies and practices for drug treatment and harm reduction appeared to be associated with the lowest fatal overdose rates. Franklin County, Massachusetts had good access to naloxone, drug treatment and SSPs, but relatively high overdose and HIV rates. New Hampshire had high proportions of uninsured community members, the highest overdose rates, no HCV surveillance data, and no local access to SSPs. This combination of factors appeared to place PWID in rural New Hampshire at elevated risk. Study results facilitated the development of vulnerability indicators, identification of locales for subsequent data collection, and public health interventions.
Project description:Background: Opioid use disorder (OUD) during pregnancy has increased dramatically over the past decade, as have associated adverse maternal health outcomes. Although Medicaid has long been the largest payer for deliveries in the United States, states' decisions to expand Medicaid eligibility to low-income adults has the potential to increase access to care for women in the postpartum period. This study aimed to determine the impact of the 2015 Pennsylvania Medicaid expansion on postpartum insurance coverage and preventive care utilization among pregnant women with opioid use disorder (OUD). Methods: In 2017, we conducted a retrospective cohort study using 2013-2015 administrative Medicaid data provided by the Pennsylvania Department of Human Services. We identified 1562 women with opioid use disorder who had a live birth delivery in a pre-Medicaid expansion or post-expansion study period. We compared length of continuous enrollment in Medicaid following delivery, postpartum visit attendance, and contraception initiation between groups. Results: More women in the post-expansion group remained enrolled in Medicaid at 300?days postpartum, relative to the pre-expansion group (87% vs. 81%). Medicaid expansion was not associated with differences in postpartum visit attendance or contraceptive use. However, women who remained enrolled in Medicaid for at least 300?days post delivery had an increased odds of postpartum visit attendance (odds ratio [OR]: 1.6, 95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.04, 2.4). Conclusion: The rate of continuous Medicaid enrollment among postpartum women with OUD was significantly higher after expansion, whereas rates of preventive care utilization were unaffected. Although improving insurance coverage for women with OUD is an important step to improve access to recommended preventive care, additional efforts are needed to ensure utilization of such care.
Project description:BACKGROUND:Opioid use disorder (OUD) is associated with substantial morbidity and mortality for women, especially during the perinatal period. Opioid overdose has become a significant cause of maternal death in the United States, with rates highest in the immediate postpartum year. While pregnancy is a time of high motivation for healthcare engagement, unique challenges exist for pregnant women with OUD seeking both substance use treatment and maternity care, including managing change after birth. How women successfully navigate these barriers, engage in treatment, and abstain from substance use during pregnancy and postpartum is poorly understood. The aim of this study is to explore the experiences of postpartum women with OUD who successfully engaged in both substance use treatment and maternity care during pregnancy, to understand factors contributing to their ability to access care and social support. METHODS:We conducted semi-structured, in-depth interviews with postpartum women in sustained recovery (n?=?10) engaged in a substance use treatment program in northern New England. Interviews were analyzed using grounded theory methodology. RESULTS:Despite multiple barriers, women identified pregnancy as a change point from which they were able to develop self-efficacy and exercise agency in seeking care. A shift in internal motivation enabled women to disclose need for OUD treatment to maternity care providers, a profoundly significant moment. Concurrently, women developed a new capacity for self-care, demonstrated through managing relationships with providers and family members, and overcoming logistical challenges which had previously seemed overwhelming. This transformation was also expressed in making decisions based on pregnancy risk, engaging with and caring for others, and providing peer support. Women developed resilience through the interaction of inner motivation and their ability to positively utilize or transform external factors. CONCLUSIONS:Complex interactions occurred between individual-level changes in treatment motivation due to pregnancy, emerging self-efficacy in accessing resources, and engagement with clinicians and peers. This transformative process was identified by women as a key factor in entering recovery during pregnancy and sustaining it postpartum. Clinicians and policymakers should target the provision of services which promote resilience in pregnant women with OUD.
Project description:To evaluate the impact of state supported overdose education and nasal naloxone distribution (OEND) programs on rates of opioid related death from overdose and acute care utilization in Massachusetts.Interrupted time series analysis of opioid related overdose death and acute care utilization rates from 2002 to 2009 comparing community-year strata with high and low rates of OEND implementation to those with no implementation.19 Massachusetts communities (geographically distinct cities and towns) with at least five fatal opioid overdoses in each of the years 2004 to 2006.OEND was implemented among opioid users at risk for overdose, social service agency staff, family, and friends of opioid users.OEND programs equipped people at risk for overdose and bystanders with nasal naloxone rescue kits and trained them how to prevent, recognize, and respond to an overdose by engaging emergency medical services, providing rescue breathing, and delivering naloxone.Adjusted rate ratios for annual deaths related to opioid overdose and utilization of acute care hospitals.Among these communities, OEND programs trained 2912 potential bystanders who reported 327 rescues. Both community-year strata with 1-100 enrollments per 100,000 population (adjusted rate ratio 0.73, 95% confidence interval 0.57 to 0.91) and community-year strata with greater than 100 enrollments per 100,000 population (0.54, 0.39 to 0.76) had significantly reduced adjusted rate ratios compared with communities with no implementation. Differences in rates of acute care hospital utilization were not significant.Opioid overdose death rates were reduced in communities where OEND was implemented. This study provides observational evidence that by training potential bystanders to prevent, recognize, and respond to opioid overdoses, OEND is an effective intervention.
Project description:BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES:Perioperative exposure to opioids is associated with adverse outcomes. We aim to determine the associations between surgery and subsequent opioid overdose, an acute event, and a new diagnosis of opioid use disorder (OUD), a chronic relapsing disease, in parallel. METHODS:This retrospective cohort study of US veterans used surgery as exposure and the two outcomes were (1) occurrence of overdose and (2) new diagnosis of OUD in the first postoperative year. Surgical group was matched to the reference controls based on the propensity score of having surgery, and matched logistic regression was used to calculate the odds ratio (OR). RESULTS:A total of 261?208 surgical patients were matched to 479?531 controls. Overdose occurred in 1893 (0.7%) of the surgical patients and in 518 (0.1%) of the matched controls in the first postoperative year (OR, 6.71; 95% confidence interval [CI], 5.80-7.75; P?<?.001). Among patients with no history of OUD, surgery was also associated with a new diagnosis of OUD in the first postoperative year (OR, 1.13; 95% CI, 1.02-1.24; P?=?.015). DISCUSSION AND CONCLUSIONS:The postoperative period is strongly associated with opioid overdose, but only weakly associated with new diagnosis of OUD. This is likely due to the difficulty of diagnosing OUD in the postoperative period. SCIENTIFIC SIGNIFICANCE:This is the first study that has examined opioid overdose and new-onset OUD in the postoperative period in parallel. Our analysis suggests different risk factors for each, as well as different strengths of association with surgery. More sensitive diagnostic criteria for postoperative OUD are needed to promptly diagnose and treat this condition. (Am J Addict 2020;00:00-00).
Project description:BACKGROUND:With governments' increasing efforts to curb opioid prescription use and limit dose below the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC)-recommended threshold of 90 morphine milligram equivalents per day, little is known about prescription opioid patterns preceding opioid use disorder (OUD) or overdose. This study aimed to determine prescribed opioid fills and dose trajectories in the year before an incident OUD or overdose diagnosis using a 2005-2016 commercial healthcare database. METHODS AND FINDINGS:This cross-sectional study identified individuals aged 18 to 64 years with incident OUD or overdose in the United States. We measured the prevalence of opioid prescription fills and trajectories of opioid morphine equivalent dose (MED) prescribed during the 12-month period before the diagnosis. Of 227,038 adults with incident OUD or overdose, 33.1% were aged 18 to 30 years, 52.9% were males, and 85.0% were metropolitan residents. Half (50.5%) of the patients had a diagnosis of chronic pain, 32.7% had depression, and 20.3% had anxiety. Overall, 79,747 (35.1%) patients filled no opioid prescription in the 12 months before OUD or overdose diagnosis, with the proportion significantly increasing between 2006 and 2016 (adjusted prevalence ratio, 1.86; 95% CI 1.79-1.93; P < 0.001). Patients without (versus with) prescribed opioids tended to be younger males and metropolitan and Northeast US residents. Of 145,609 patients who filled opioid prescriptions, 5 distinct prescribed daily dose trajectories preceding diagnosis emerged: consistent low dose (<3 mg MED, 34.6%), consistent moderate dose (20 mg MED, 27.3%), consistent high dose (150 mg MED, 15.0%), escalating dose (from <3 to 20 mg MED, 13.7%), and de-escalating dose (from 20 to <3mg MED, 9.4%). Overall, over two-thirds of patients with OUD or overdose with prescription opioids were prescribed a mean daily dose below 90 mg MED before diagnosis. Major limitations include the limited generalizability of the study findings and lack of information on out-of-pocket drug spending, race/ethnicity, and socioeconomic status of participants, which prevents analyses addressing these characteristics. CONCLUSIONS:In this study, we found that absence of opioid prescription fills in the year before incident OUD or overdose diagnosis was prevalent, and the majority of the patients received prescription opioid doses below the risk threshold of 90 mg MED. An increasing proportion of high-risk patients could be missed by current programs solely based on opioid prescribing and dispensing information in this new era of limited access to prescription opioids.
Project description:BACKGROUND:Worldwide opioid-related overdose has become a major public health crisis. People with opioid use disorder (OUD) are overrepresented in the criminal justice system and at higher risk for opioid-related mortality. However, correctional facilities frequently adopt an abstinence-only approach, seldom offering the gold standard opioid agonist treatment (OAT) to incarcerated persons with OUD. In an attempt to inform adequate management of OUD among incarcerated persons, we conducted a systematic review of opioid-related interventions delivered before, during, and after incarceration. METHODS AND FINDINGS:We systematically reviewed 8 electronic databases for original, peer-reviewed literature published between January 2008 and October 2019. Our review included studies conducted among adult participants with OUD who were incarcerated or recently released into the community (?90 days post-incarceration). The search identified 2,356 articles, 46 of which met the inclusion criteria based on assessments by 2 independent reviewers. Thirty studies were conducted in North America, 9 in Europe, and 7 in Asia/Oceania. The systematic review included 22 randomized control trials (RCTs), 3 non-randomized clinical trials, and 21 observational studies. Eight observational studies utilized administrative data and included large sample sizes (median of 10,419 [range 2273-131,472] participants), and 13 observational studies utilized primary data, with a median of 140 (range 27-960) participants. RCTs and non-randomized clinical trials included a median of 198 (range 15-1,557) and 44 (range 27-382) participants, respectively. Twelve studies included only men, 1 study included only women, and in the remaining 33 studies, the percentage of women was below 30%. The majority of study participants were middle-aged adults (36-55 years). Participants treated at a correctional facility with methadone maintenance treatment (MMT) or buprenorphine (BPN)/naloxone (NLX) had lower rates of illicit opioid use, had higher adherence to OUD treatment, were less likely to be re-incarcerated, and were more likely to be working 1 year post-incarceration. Participants who received MMT or BPN/NLX while incarcerated had fewer nonfatal overdoses and lower mortality. The main limitation of our systematic review is the high heterogeneity of studies (different designs, settings, populations, treatments, and outcomes), precluding a meta-analysis. Other study limitations include the insufficient data about incarcerated women with OUD, and the lack of information about incarcerated populations with OUD who are not included in published research. CONCLUSIONS:In this carefully conducted systematic review, we found that correctional facilities should scale up OAT among incarcerated persons with OUD. The strategy is likely to decrease opioid-related overdose and mortality, reduce opioid use and other risky behaviors during and after incarceration, and improve retention in addiction treatment after prison release. Immediate OAT after prison release and additional preventive strategies such as the distribution of NLX kits to at-risk individuals upon release greatly decrease the occurrence of opioid-related overdose and mortality. In an effort to mitigate the impact of the opioid-related overdose crisis, it is crucial to scale up OAT and opioid-related overdose prevention strategies (e.g., NLX) within a continuum of treatment before, during, and after incarceration.
Project description:Importance:Racial and ethnic disparities persist across key health and substance use treatment outcomes for mothers and infants. The use of medications, such as methadone or buprenorphine, for the treatment of opioid use disorder (OUD) has been associated with improvements in the outcomes of mothers and infants; however, only half of all pregnant women with OUD receive these medications. The extent to which maternal race or ethnicity is associated with the use of medication to treat OUD, the duration of the use of medication to treat OUD, and the type of medication used to treat OUD during pregnancy are unknown. Objective:To examine the extent to which maternal race and ethnicity is associated with the use of medications for the treatment of OUD in the year before delivery among pregnant women with OUD. Design, Setting, and Participants:This retrospective cohort study used a linked population-level statewide data set of pregnant women with OUD who delivered a live infant in Massachusetts between October 1, 2011, and December 31, 2015. Of 274?234 total deliveries identified, 5247 deliveries among women with indicators of having OUD were included in the analysis. Maternal race and ethnicity were defined as white non-Hispanic, black non-Hispanic, or Hispanic based on self-reported data on birth certificates. Main Outcomes and Measures:Main outcomes were the receipt of any medication for OUD, the consistency of the use of medication (at least 6 continuous months of use before delivery, inconsistent use, or no use) for the treatment of OUD, and the type of medication (methadone or buprenorphine) used to treat OUD. Multivariable models were adjusted for maternal sociodemographic characteristics, comorbidities, and any significant interactions between the covariates and race and ethnicity. Results:The sample included 5247 pregnant women with OUD who delivered a live infant in Massachusetts during the study period. The mean (SD) maternal age at delivery was 28.7 (5.0) years; 4551 women (86.7%) were white non-Hispanic, 462 women (8.8%) were Hispanic, and 234 women (4.5%) were black non-Hispanic. A total of 3181 white non-Hispanic women (69.9%) received any type of medication for the treatment of OUD in the year before delivery compared with 228 Hispanic women (49.4%) and 108 black non-Hispanic women (46.2%). Compared with white non-Hispanic women, black non-Hispanic and Hispanic women had a substantially lower likelihood (adjusted odds ratio [aOR], 0.37; 95% CI, 0.28-0.49 and aOR, 0.42; 95% CI, 0.35-0.52, respectively) of receiving any medication for the treatment of OUD. Stratification by maternal age identified greater disparities among younger women. Black non-Hispanic and Hispanic women also had a lower likelihood (aOR, 0.24; 95% CI, 0.17-0.35 and aOR, 0.34; 95% CI, 0.27-0.44, respectively) of consistent use of medication for the treatment of OUD compared with white non-Hispanic women. With respect to the type of medication used to treat OUD, black non-Hispanic and Hispanic women had a lower likelihood (aOR, 0.60; 95% CI, 0.40-0.90 and aOR, 0.77; 95% CI, 0.58-1.01, respectively) than white non-Hispanic women of receiving buprenorphine treatment compared with methadone treatment. Conclusions and Relevance:This study found racial and ethnic disparities in the use of medications to treat OUD during pregnancy, with black non-Hispanic and Hispanic women significantly less likely to use medications consistently or at all compared with white non-Hispanic women. Further investigation of patient, clinician, treatment program, and system-level factors associated with these findings is warranted.
Project description:<h4>Background</h4>The U.S. experienced nearly 48,000 opioid overdose deaths in 2017. Treatment of opioid use disorder (OUD) with buprenorphine is a recommended part of primary care, yet little is known about current U.S. practices in this setting. This observational study reports the prevalence of documented OUD and OUD treatment with buprenorphine among primary care patients in six large health systems.<h4>Methods</h4>Adults with ?2 primary care visits during a three-year period (10/1/2013-9/30/2016) in six health systems were included. Data were obtained from electronic health record and claims data, with measures, assessed over the three-year period, including indicators for documented OUD from ICD 9 and 10 codes and OUD treatment with buprenorphine. The prevalence of OUD treatment was adjusted for age, gender, race/ethnicity, and health system.<h4>Results</h4>Among 1,368,604 primary care patients, 13,942 (1.0 %) had documented OUD, and among these, 21.0 % had OUD treatment with buprenorphine. For those with documented OUD, the adjusted prevalence of OUD treatment with buprenorphine varied across demographic and clinical subgroups. OUD treatment was lower among patients who were older, women, Black/African American and Hispanic (compared to white), non-commercially insured, and those with non-cancer pain, mental health disorders, greater comorbidity, and more opioid prescriptions, emergency department visits or hospitalizations.<h4>Conclusions</h4>Among primary care patients in six health systems, one in five with an OUD were treated with buprenorphine, with disparities across demographic and clinical characteristics. Less buprenorphine treatment among those with greater acute care utilization highlights an opportunity for systems-level changes to increase OUD treatment.