Correlates of physical activity and sedentary time in young adults: the Western Australian Pregnancy Cohort (Raine) Study.
ABSTRACT: The socioecological model proposes a wide array of factors that influence behaviours. There is a need to understand salient correlates of these activity behaviours in a specific population. However, few studies identified socio-demographic, behavioural, physical, and psychological correlates of objectively-assessed physical activity and sedentary time in young adults.This was a cross-sectional analysis of participants in the Raine Study (a pregnancy cohort started in 1989). Australian young adults (mean 22.1 years ± SD 0.6) wore Actigraph GT3X+ accelerometers on the hip 24 h/day for seven days to assess moderate-to-vigorous physical activity (MVPA) and sedentary time (n?=?256 women, n?=?219 men). Potential correlates were assessed via clinical assessment and questionnaire and included socio-demographic variables (ethnicity, relationship status, work/study status, education, mothers education), health behaviours (food intake, alcohol consumption, smoking status, sleep quality), and physical and psychological health aspects (anthropometrics, diagnosed disorders, mental health, cognitive performance). Backwards elimination (p?
Project description:BACKGROUND:Sedentary time increases and total physical activity decreases with age. The magnitude and correlates of changes in sedentary time, light-intensity physical activity (LPA), moderate-to-vigorous intensity physical activity (MVPA), and overall physical activity remain unclear. We quantified these changes and identified their individual and sociodemographic correlates. METHODS:We used data from 1259 adults (67.8?±?6.9 years; 41.9% women) who participated in the EPIC-Norfolk Study. Activity was assessed at baseline (2004-2011) and follow-up (2012-2016) for 7 days using accelerometers. Potential correlates of change were specified a priori. We used unadjusted and adjusted sex-stratified linear regressions to identify correlates of change. RESULTS:Only 3.7% of adults met the current MVPA recommendations. Sedentary time increased by 3.0 min/day/year (SD?=?12.3). LPA, MVPA, and overall PA decreased by 1.7 min/day/year (SD?=?5.4), 3.0 min/day/year (SD?=?6.0), and 8.8 cpm/year (SD?=?18.8), respectively. Correlates of greater rates of increase in sedentary time included older age and higher BMI in men, and older age, higher BMI, smoking, and urban dwelling in women. Correlates of greater rates of decrease in physical activity included older age, higher BMI, living alone, depression, car use, and/or fair/poor self-rated health in men, and older age, higher BMI, depression, smoking, and/or urban dwelling in women (e.g. depressed women had a 1.0 min/day/year greater rate of decline in MVPA than non-depressed women, 95% CI -1.8, -?0.2). CONCLUSIONS:Most (>?95%) adults are insufficiently active. Sedentary time increases and LPA, MVPA and overall physical activity decreases over time, with more pronounced rates of change observed in specific sub-groups (e.g. among older and depressed adults). To promote active living, the correlates of these changes should be considered in future interventions.
Project description:OBJECTIVES:To describe the active commuting (AC) patterns of adults with type 2 diabetes and how these relate to physical activity and sedentary behaviour in UK Biobank. Social and environmental correlates of AC will also be explored. DESIGN:Cross-sectional analysis of a cohort study. SETTINGS:This is a population cohort of over 500?000 people recruited from 22 centres across the UK. Participants aged between 37 and 73?years were recruited between 2006 and 2010. PARTICIPANTS:6896 participants with a self-reported type 2 diabetes diagnosis who reported commuting to work and had complete covariate data were included in the analysis. EXPOSURE MEASURES:Exposure measures were AC to work, measured as usual mode of transport. OUTCOME MEASURES:Outcome measures were weekly minutes of moderate to vigorous physical activity (MVPA), hours/day of sedentary time and participation in active travel. RESULTS:AC (reporting walking or cycling to work only) was reported by 5.5% of participants, with the great majority using the car to commute (80%). AC was associated with an additional 73 (95% CI 10.8 to 134.9) and 105 (95% CI 41.7 to 167.2) weekly minutes of MVPA for men and women, respectively. AC was associated with reduced sedentary time (? -1.1, 95%?CI -1.6 to -0.7?hours/day for men; and ? -0.8, 95%?CI -1.2 to -0.3?hours/day for women). Deprivation and distance from home to work were identified as correlates of AC behaviour. CONCLUSIONS:Rates of AC are very low in adults with type 2 diabetes. However, AC offers a potentially sustainable solution to increasing physical activity and reducing sedentary behaviour. Therefore, strategies to improve the environment and encourage AC may help to increase population levels of physical activity and reduce the disease burden associated with type 2 diabetes.
Project description:BACKGROUND:Few studies examined the individual and conjoint associations of accelerometer-measured physical activity (PA) and sedentary times with the prevalence of chronic kidney disease (CKD) among older adults. METHODS:We evaluated 1,268 Framingham Offspring Study participants (mean age 69.2 years, 53.8% women) between 2011 and 2014. CKD was defined as an estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR) <60 ml/min/1.732 and/or urine albumin-to-creatinine ratio (UACR) ?25/35 ?g/mg (men/women). We used multivariable logistic regression models to relate time spent being sedentary and active with the odds of CKD. We then performed compositional data analysis to estimate the change in the eGFR and UACR when a fixed proportion of time in one activity behavior (among the following: moderate to vigorous physical activity [MVPA], light intensity physical activity [LIPA], and sedentary) is reallocated to another activity behavior. RESULTS:Overall, 258 participants had prevalent CKD (20.4%; 120 women). Higher total PA ([MVPA+LIPA], adjusted-odds ratio [OR] per 30 minutes/day increase, 0.86; 95% CI, 0.78-0.96) and higher LIPA (OR per 30 minutes/day increase, 0.87; 95% CI, 0.76-0.99) were associated with lower odds of CKD. Additionally, higher sedentary time (OR per 30 minutes/day increase, 1.16; 95% CI, 1.04-1.29) was associated with higher odds of CKD. Reallocating 5% of the time from LIPA to sedentary was associated with the largest predicted difference in eGFR (-1.06 ml/min/1.73m2). Reallocating 1% of time spent in MVPA to sedentary status predicted the largest difference in UACR (14.37 ?g/mg). CONCLUSION:The findings suggest that increasing LIPA and maintaining MVPA at the expense of sedentary time may be associated with a lower risk of CKD in community-based older adults.
Project description:To examine the validity of the Recent Physical Activity Questionnaire (RPAQ) which assesses physical activity (PA) in 4 domains (leisure, work, commuting, home) during past month.580 men and 1343 women from 10 European countries attended 2 visits at which PA energy expenditure (PAEE), time at moderate-to-vigorous PA (MVPA) and sedentary time were measured using individually-calibrated combined heart-rate and movement sensing. At the second visit, RPAQ was administered electronically. Validity was assessed using agreement analysis.RPAQ significantly underestimated PAEE in women [median(IQR): 34.9 (22.3, 52.8) vs. 40.6 (32.4, 50.9) kJ/kg/day, 95%LoA: -44.4, 66.1 kJ/kg/day) and overestimated PAEE in men [45.9 (30.6, 71.1) vs. 45.5 (34.1, 57.6) kJ/kg/day, 95%LoA: -44.8, 102.6 kJ/kg/day]. Using individualised definition of 1MET, RPAQ significantly underestimated MVPA in women [median(IQR): 63.7 (30.5, 126.9) vs. 73.6 (47.8, 107.2) min/day, 95%LoA: -127.4, 311.9 min/day] and overestimated MVPA in men [90.0 (42.3, 188.6) vs. 83.3 (55.1, 125.0) min/day, 95%LoA: -134.8, 427.3 min/day]. Correlations (95%CI) between subjective and objective estimates were statistically significant [PAEE: women, rho?=?0.20 (0.15-0.26); men, rho?=?0.37 (0.30-0.44); MVPA: women, rho?=?0.18 (0.13-0.24); men, rho?=?0.31 (0.24-0.38)]. When using non-individualised definition of 1MET (3.5 mlO2/kg/min), MVPA was substantially overestimated (16 min/day, and 32 min/day in women and men, respectively). Revisiting occupational intensity assumptions in questionnaire estimation algorithms with occupational group-level empirical distributions reduced median PAEE-bias in manual (38.8 kJ/kg/day vs. 6.8 kJ/kg/day, p<0.001) and heavy manual workers (63.6 vs. -2.8 kJ/kg/day, p<0.001) in an independent hold-out sample [corrected].Relative validity of RPAQ-derived PAEE and MVPA is comparable to previous studies but underestimation of PAEE is smaller. Electronic RPAQ may be used in large-scale epidemiological studies including surveys, providing information on all domains of PA.
Project description:BACKGROUND:Physical activity has beneficial effects on the health of cancer survivors. We aimed to investigate accelerometer-assessed physical activity and sedentary time in cancer survivors, and describe activity profiles. Additionally, we identify demographic and clinical correlates of physical activity, sedentary time and activity profiles. METHODS:Accelerometer, questionnaire and clinical data from eight studies conducted in four countries (n = 1447) were pooled. We calculated sedentary time and time spent in physical activity at various intensities using Freedson cut-points. We used latent profile analysis to identify activity profiles, and multilevel linear regression analyses to identify demographic and clinical variables associated with accelerometer-assessed moderate to vigorous physical activity (MVPA), sedentary time, the highly active and highly sedentary profile, adjusting for confounders identified using a directed acyclic graph. RESULTS:Participants spent on average 26 min (3%) in MVPA and 568 min (66%) sedentary per day. We identified six activity profiles. Older participants, smokers and participants with obesity had significantly lower MVPA and higher sedentary time. Furthermore, men had significantly higher MVPA and sedentary time than women and participants who reported less fatigue had higher MVPA time. The highly active profile included survivors with high education level and normal body mass index. Haematological cancer survivors were less likely to have a highly active profile compared to breast cancer survivors. The highly sedentary profile included older participants, males, participants who were not married, obese, smokers, and those < 12 months after diagnosis. CONCLUSIONS:Cancer survivors engage in few minutes of MVPA and spend a large proportion of their day sedentary. Correlates of MVPA, sedentary time and activity profiles can be used to identify cancer survivors at risk for a sedentary and inactive lifestyle.
Project description:To compare physical activity (PA) subcomponents from EPIC Physical Activity Questionnaire (EPAQ2) and combined heart rate and movement sensing in older adults.Participants aged 60-64y from the MRC National Survey of Health and Development in Great Britain completed EPAQ2, which assesses self-report PA in 4 domains (leisure time, occupation, transportation and domestic life) during the past year and wore a combined sensor for 5 consecutive days. Estimates of PA energy expenditure (PAEE), sedentary behaviour, light (LPA) and moderate-to-vigorous PA (MVPA) were obtained from EPAQ2 and combined sensing and compared. Complete data were available in 1689 participants (52% women).EPAQ2 estimates of PAEE and MVPA were higher than objective estimates and sedentary time and LPA estimates were lower [bias (95% limits of agreement) in men and women were 32.3 (-61.5 to 122.6) and 29.0 (-39.2 to 94.6) kJ/kg/day for PAEE; -4.6 (-10.6 to 1.3) and -6.0 (-10.9 to -1.0) h/day for sedentary time; -171.8 (-454.5 to 110.8) and -60.4 (-367.5 to 246.6) min/day for LPA; 91.1 (-159.5 to 341.8) and 55.4 (-117.2 to 228.0) min/day for MVPA]. There were significant positive correlations between all self-reported and objectively assessed PA subcomponents (rho=?0.12 to 0.36); the strongest were observed for MVPA (rho?=?0.30 men; rho?=?0.36 women) and PAEE (rho?=?0.26 men; rho?=?0.25 women).EPAQ2 produces higher estimates of PAEE and MVPA and lower estimates of sedentary and LPA than objective assessment. However, both methodologies rank individuals similarly, suggesting that EPAQ2 may be used in etiological studies in this population.
Project description:Limited data exists on the interrelationships between physical activity (PA), sedentary behaviors and sleep concerning cardiometabolic risk factors in aged adults at high cardiovascular disease risk. Our aim was to examine independent and joint associations between time spent in leisure-time PA, sedentary behaviors and sleep on the prevalence of obesity, type 2 diabetes (T2D) and components of the metabolic syndrome (MetS) in Mediterranean individuals at high cardiovascular risk. Cross-sectional analyses were performed on baseline data from 5776 Spanish adults (aged 55-75y in men; 60-75y in women) with overweight/obesity and MetS, from October 2013 to October 2016, in the PREDIMED-PLUS trial. Employing multivariable-adjusted Cox regression with robust variance and constant time (given the cross-sectional design), higher prevalence of obesity, T2D and abdominal obesity as component of the MetS were associated with greater time in TV-viewing (Relative Risk, RR: 1.02, 95%CI: 1.01, 1.03; RR:1.04, 95%CI: 1.02, 1.06 and RR: 1.01 95%CI: 1.00, 1.02; respectively, all P < .01). Conversely, greater time in moderate-vigorous PA (MVPA) was associated with lower prevalence of obesity, T2D, abdominal obesity and low HDL-cholesterol (RR: 0.95, 95%CI: 0.93, 0.97; RR: 0.94, 95%CI: 0.89, 0.99; RR: 0.97, 95%CI: 0.96, 0.98; and RR: 0.95, 95%CI: 0.91, 0.99, respectively, all P < .05). For these outcomes, theoretically substituting 1-h/day of MVPA for 1-h/day TV-viewing was also significantly associated with lower prevalence (RR 0.91 to 0.97, all P < .05). Similar lower RR in these outcomes was observed when substituting 1-h/day of MVPA for 1-h/day of sleeping. Longer time watching TV and not meeting MVPA recommendations were jointly associated with higher RR of the prevalence of obesity and T2D. We concluded that, in senior individuals at high cardiovascular risk, greater time spent on MVPA and fewer on sedentary behaviors was inversely associated with prevalence of obesity, T2D, and some of the components of MetS.
Project description:OBJECTIVES:To objectively assess light physical activity (PA), moderate-to-vigorous PA (MVPA), step counts and number of 10?min MVPA bouts and their association with physical function among older adults. DESIGN:Cross-sectional design. SETTING:Urban community setting in Taiwan. PARTICIPANTS:127 Taiwanese older adults aged over 65 years (mean age=70.8±5.3 years; 72% women). PRIMARY AND SECONDARY OUTCOME MEASURES:Triaxial accelerometers were used to measure PA variables for 10?hours/day for seven consecutive days. Then, five physical function components (handgrip strength, single-leg stance, 5-metre walk speed, timed up and go and sit-to-stand test) were measured. Multiple linear regressions were used to perform separate analyses for older men and women. RESULTS:For older women, daily MVPA time (?: 0.39, 95% CI: 0.12, 0.64; p=0.004), daily step counts (?: 0.46, 95%?CI: 0.12, 0.78; p=0.009) and number of 10?min MVPA bouts (?: 0.27, 95%?CI: 0.001, 0.53; p=0.049) were positively associated with handgrip strength after adjusting for accelerometer wear time, sedentary time and other confounders. Furthermore, daily MVPA time was positively associated with a single-leg stance (?: 0.25, 95%?CI: 0.02, 0.49; p=0.036) and higher daily step counts were associated with shorter walking speed performance (?: -0.31, 95%?CI: -0.57, -0.001; p=0.049). None of the variables of the objectively assessed PA patterns was associated with physical function outcomes among older men due to their small sample size. CONCLUSIONS:Daily MVPA, MVPA bouts of at least 10?min and accumulated daily steps are important for improving physical function among older women. Future prospective research should establish causal associations between PA patterns and functional ability among older adults.
Project description:To investigate whether light exposure was associated with objectively measured physical activity (PA) and sedentary behaviour in young people.Participants (n=229, 46.7% female) were young people (mean 8.8 years [SD±2.2]) from the borough of Camden, UK. Daily sedentary time, moderate and vigorous PA (MVPA) and light exposure were measured using a tri-axial accelerometer with an ambient light sensor during the summer. Multiple linear regression models examined associations between average daily light exposure, sedentary time and time in MVPA. Models were repeated investigating weekdays and weekend days separately. Analyses were adjusted for pre-specified covariables, including age, sex, device wear time, ethnic group, school and body fat.There were significant associations between average daily light exposure and time sedentary (? coefficient=-11.2, 95% CI, -19.0 to -3.4) and in MVPA (? coefficient=3.5, 95% CI, 1.2 to 5.9). Light exposure was significantly associated with weekend sedentary time (? coefficient=-10.0, 95% CI, -17.6, -2.4), weekend MVPA (? coefficient=3.7, 95% CI, 1.7, 5.7), weekday sedentary time (? coefficient=-15.0, 95% CI, -22.7 to -7.2), but not weekday MVPA (? coefficient=2.0, 95% CI, -0.5 to 4.5).Average daily light exposure is positively associated with time in MVPA and negatively associated with sedentary time. Increasing daylight exposure may be a useful intervention strategy for promoting physical activity.
Project description:This study investigated associations between objectively measured physical activity (PA) with sarcopenia and sarcopenic obesity in older British men. Participants were men aged 70-92years (n=1286) recruited from UK Primary Care Centres. Outcomes included (i) sarcopenia, defined as low muscle mass (lowest two fifths of the mid-upper arm muscle circumference distribution) accompanied by low muscular strength (hand grip strength <30kg) or low physical performance (gait speed?0.8m/s); (ii) severe sarcopenia, required all three conditions; (iii) sarcopenic obesity defined as sarcopenia or severe sarcopenia and a waist circumference of >102cm. Independent variables included time spent in PA intensities measured by GT3x accelerometers, worn during one week in 2010-12. Multinomial regression models were used for cross-sectional analyses relating PA and sarcopenia. In total, 14.2% (n=183) of men had sarcopenia and a further 5.4% (n=70) had severe sarcopenia. 25.3% of sarcopenic or severely sarcopenic men were obese. Each extra 30min per day of moderate-to-vigorous PA (MVPA) was associated with a reduced risk of severe sarcopenia (relative risk [RR] 0.53, 95% confidence interval [CI] 0.30, 0.93) and sarcopenic obesity (RR 0.47 [95% CI 0.27, 0.84]). Light PA (LPA) and sedentary breaks were marginally associated with a reduced risk of sarcopenic obesity. Sedentary time was marginally associated with an increased risk of sarcopenic obesity independent of MVPA (RR 1.18 [95% CI 0.99, 1.40]). MVPA may reduce the risk of severe sarcopenia and sarcopenic obesity among older men. Reducing sedentary time and increasing LPA and sedentary breaks may also protect against sarcopenic obesity.