Modifications of H3K9me2, H3K36me3 and H4K20me2 may be involved in arsenic-induced genetic damage.
ABSTRACT: Endemic arsenic poisoning is a worldwide disease and many studies show that arsenic has obvious genetic toxicity. However, the mechanism of arsenic-induced genetic damage is unclear. In this study, coal-fired arsenic poisoning patients in the Guizhou Province, China, were selected as research subjects. Through an analysis of the relationship between genetic damage and histone modification levels and by comparing the control and arsenic poisoning groups, further analysis of their relationship was carried out, the aim being to explore the role of histone modification in arsenic-induced genetic damage. The result shows that arsenic may inhibit the modification level of H4K20me2 and H3K9me2, and increase the modification of H3K36me3, involved in the repair of DNA damage induced by arsenic. This study could provide a new pathway for studies of the genetic toxicity of arsenic.
Project description:DNA double-strand breaks (DSBs) activate the DNA damage checkpoint machinery to pause or halt the cell cycle. Telomeres, the specific DNA-protein complexes at linear eukaryotic chromosome ends, are capped DSBs that do not activate DNA damage checkpoints. This "checkpoint privileged" status of telomeres was previously investigated in the yeast Schizosaccharomyces pombelacking the major double-stranded telomere DNA binding protein Taz1. Telomeric DNA repeats in cells lacking Taz1 are 10 times longer than normal and contain single-stranded DNA regions. DNA damage checkpoint proteins associate with these damaged telomeres, but the DNA damage checkpoint is not activated. This severing of the DNA damage checkpoint signaling pathway was reported to stem from exclusion of histone H4 lysine 20 dimethylation (H4K20me2) from telomeric nucleosomes in both wild type cells and cells lacking Taz1. However, experiments to identify the mechanism of this exclusion failed, prompting our re-evaluation of H4K20me2 levels at telomeric chromatin. In this short report, we used an extensive series of controls to identify an antibody specific for the H4K20me2 modification and show that the level of this modification is the same at telomeres and internal loci in both wild type cells and those lacking Taz1. Consequently, telomeres must block activation of the DNA Damage Response by another mechanism that remains to be determined.
Project description:Ultraviolet (UV) irradiation triggers the recruitment of DNA repair factors to the lesion sites and the deposition of histone marks as part of the DNA damage response. The major DNA repair pathway removing DNA lesions caused by exposure to UV light is nucleotide excision repair (NER). We have previously demonstrated that the endoribonuclease DICER facilitates chromatin decondensation during lesion recognition in the global-genomic branch of NER. Here, we report that DICER mediates the recruitment of the methyltransferase MMSET to the DNA damage site. We show that MMSET is required for efficient NER and that it catalyzes the dimethylation of histone H4 at lysine 20 (H4K20me2). H4K20me2 at DNA damage sites facilitates the recruitment of the NER factor XPA. Our work thus provides evidence for an H4K20me2-dependent mechanism of XPA recruitment during lesion recognition in the global-genomic branch of NER.
Project description:The bivalent histone modification reader 53BP1 accumulates around DNA double-strand breaks (DSBs), where it dictates repair pathway choice decisions by limiting DNA end resection. How this function is regulated locally and across the cell cycle to channel repair reactions toward non-homologous end joining (NHEJ) in G1 and promote homology-directed repair (HDR) in S/G2 is insufficiently understood. Here, we show that the ability of 53BP1 to accumulate around DSBs declines as cells progress through S phase and reveal that the inverse relationship between 53BP1 recruitment and replicated chromatin is linked to the replication-coupled dilution of 53BP1's target mark H4K20me2. Consistently, premature maturation of post-replicative chromatin restores H4K20me2 and rescues 53BP1 accumulation on replicated chromatin. The H4K20me2-mediated chromatin association of 53BP1 thus represents an inbuilt mechanism to distinguish DSBs in pre- versus post-replicative chromatin, allowing for localized repair pathway choice decisions based on the availability of replication-generated template strands for HDR.
Project description:The recognition of distinctly modified histones by specialized 'effector' proteins constitutes a key mechanism for transducing molecular events at chromatin to biological outcomes. Effector proteins influence DNA-templated processes, including transcription, DNA recombination and DNA repair; however, no effector functions have yet been identified within the mammalian machinery that regulate DNA replication. Here we show that ORC1--a component of ORC (origin of replication complex), which mediates pre-DNA replication licensing--contains a bromo adjacent homology (BAH) domain that specifically recognizes histone H4 dimethylated at lysine 20 (H4K20me2). Recognition of H4K20me2 is a property common to BAH domains present within diverse metazoan ORC1 proteins. Structural studies reveal that the specificity of the BAH domain for H4K20me2 is mediated by a dynamic aromatic dimethyl-lysine-binding cage and multiple intermolecular contacts involving the bound peptide. H4K20me2 is enriched at replication origins, and abrogating ORC1 recognition of H4K20me2 in cells impairs ORC1 occupancy at replication origins, ORC chromatin loading and cell-cycle progression. Mutation of the ORC1 BAH domain has been implicated in the aetiology of Meier-Gorlin syndrome (MGS), a form of primordial dwarfism, and ORC1 depletion in zebrafish results in an MGS-like phenotype. We find that wild-type human ORC1, but not ORC1-H4K20me2-binding mutants, rescues the growth retardation of orc1 morphants. Moreover, zebrafish depleted of H4K20me2 have diminished body size, mirroring the phenotype of orc1 morphants. Together, our results identify the BAH domain as a novel methyl-lysine-binding module, thereby establishing the first direct link between histone methylation and the metazoan DNA replication machinery, and defining a pivotal aetiological role for the canonical H4K20me2 mark, via ORC1, in primordial dwarfism.
Project description:Fanconi anemia (FA) is an inherited disease characterized by bone marrow failure and increased cancer risk. FA is caused by mutation of any 1 of 22 genes, and the FA proteins function cooperatively to repair DNA interstrand cross-links (ICLs). A central step in the activation of the FA pathway is the monoubiquitination of the FANCD2 and FANCI proteins, which occurs within chromatin. How FANCD2 and FANCI are anchored to chromatin remains unknown. In this study, we identify and characterize a FANCD2 histone-binding domain (HBD) and embedded methyl-lysine-binding domain (MBD) and demonstrate binding specificity for H4K20me2. Disruption of the HBD/MBD compromises FANCD2 chromatin binding and nuclear focus formation and its ability to promote error-free DNA interstrand cross-link repair, leading to increased error-prone repair and genome instability. Our study functionally describes the first FA protein chromatin reader domain and establishes an important link between this human genetic disease and chromatin plasticity.
Project description:Goal of this project was the identification of chromatin interacting proteins whose binding is differentially regulated by di-methylation of lysine 20 on histone H4 (H4K20me2). To achieve this unodified and H4K20me2-modified histone H4 were generated by native chemical ligation and assembled into recombinant di-nucleosomes. The di-nucleosomes were immobilized on streptavidin-coated beads via the biotinylated di-nucleosomal DNA and used for nucleosome affinity purifications to identify proteins regulated by H4K20me2 from SILAC-labelled HeLaS3 nuclear extracts (Arg10 and Lys8). SILAC affinity purifications were carried out in "forward" (heavy extract on modified nucleosome and light extract on unmodified nucleosome) and "reverse" (light extract on modified nucleosome and heavy extract on unmodified nucleosome) label-swap experiments and protein abundances were quantified by MaxQuant.
Project description:Arsenic exposure from burning high arsenic-containing coal has been associated with human skin lesion and cancer. However, the mechanisms of arsenic-related carcinogenesis are not fully understood. Inactivation of critical tumor suppression genes by epigenetic regulation or genetic modification might contribute to arsenic-induced carcinogenicity. This study aims to clarify the correlation between arsenic pollution and functional defect of p15INK4b gene in arsenic exposure residents from a region of Guizhou Province, China. To this end, 103 arsenic exposure residents and 105 control subjects were recruited in this study. The results showed that the exposure group exhibited higher levels of urinary and hair arsenic compared with the control group (55.28 vs 28.87 ?g/L, 5.16 vs 1.36 ?g/g). Subjects with higher arsenic concentrations are more likely to have p15INK4b methylation and gene deletion (?2 = 4.28, P = 0.04 and ?2 = 4.31, P = 0.04). We also found that the degree of p15INK4b hypermethylation and gene deletion occurred at higher incidence in the poisoning cases with skin cancer (3.7% and 14.81% in non-skin cancer group, 41.18% and 47.06 in skin cancer group), and were significantly associated with the stage of skin lesions (?2 = 12.82, P < 0.01 and ?2 = 7.835, P = 0.005). These observations indicate that inactivation of p15INK4b through genetic alteration or epigenetic modification is a common event that is associated with arsenic exposure and the development of arsenicosis.
Project description:p53-binding protein 1 (53BP1) is known to be an important mediator of the DNA damage response, with dimethylation of histone H4 lysine 20 (H4K20me2) critical to the recruitment of 53BP1 to double-strand breaks (DSBs). However, it is not clear how 53BP1 is specifically targeted to the sites of DNA damage, as the overall level of H4K20me2 does not seem to increase following DNA damage. It has been proposed that DNA breaks may cause exposure of methylated H4K20 previously buried within the chromosome; however, experimental evidence for such a model is lacking. Here we found that H4K20 methylation actually increases locally upon the induction of DSBs and that methylation of H4K20 at DSBs is mediated by the histone methyltransferase MMSET (also known as NSD2 or WHSC1) in mammals. Downregulation of MMSET significantly decreases H4K20 methylation at DSBs and the subsequent accumulation of 53BP1. Furthermore, we found that the recruitment of MMSET to DSBs requires the ?H2AX-MDC1 pathway; specifically, the interaction between the MDC1 BRCT domain and phosphorylated Ser?102 of MMSET. Thus, we propose that a pathway involving ?H2AX-MDC1-MMSET regulates the induction of H4K20 methylation on histones around DSBs, which, in turn, facilitates 53BP1 recruitment.
Project description:Tumor suppressor p53-binding protein 1 (53BP1) is a DNA repair protein essential for the detection, assessment, and resolution of DNA double strand breaks (DSBs). The presence of a DSB is signaled to 53BP1 via a local histone modification cascade that triggers the binding of 53BP1 dimers to chromatin flanking this type of lesion. While biochemical studies have established that 53BP1 exists as a dimer, it has never been shown in a living cell when or where 53BP1 dimerizes upon recruitment to a DSB site, or upon arrival at this nuclear location, how the DSB histone code to which 53BP1 dimers bind regulates retention and self-association into higher-order oligomers. Thus, here in live-cell nuclear architecture we quantify the spatiotemporal dynamics of 53BP1 oligomerization during a DSB DNA damage response by coupling fluorescence fluctuation spectroscopy (FFS) with the DSB inducible via AsiSI cell system (DIvA). From adopting this multiplexed approach, we find that preformed 53BP1 dimers relocate from the nucleoplasm to DSB sites, where consecutive recognition of ubiquitinated lysine 15 of histone 2A (H2AK15ub) and di-methylated lysine 20 of histone 4 (H4K20me2), leads to the assembly of 53BP1 oligomers and a mature 53BP1 foci structure.
Project description:IMPACT STATEMENT:Arsenic-induced respiratory inflammatory damage is an important occupational hazard in many areas of the world, particularly in underdeveloped and developing countries. Effective treatments are lacking and expensive. Therefore, the aim of the study was to examine the anti-inflammatory effects of proanthocyanidin (PC) and the molecular mechanisms in vivo and in vitro. The present study showed that PC extracted from grape seed could attenuate the lung damage in a mouse model of arsenic poisoning. The effects were observed at the level of lung histology and inflammasome expression. This study suggests that a natural compound is effective in mitigating the toxic effects of arsenic in the lungs, providing an inexpensive and more readily accessible method for treating arsenic exposure in some parts of the world.