A toolbox of immunoprecipitation-grade monoclonal antibodies to human transcription factors.
ABSTRACT: A key component of efforts to address the reproducibility crisis in biomedical research is the development of rigorously validated and renewable protein-affinity reagents. As part of the US National Institutes of Health (NIH) Protein Capture Reagents Program (PCRP), we have generated a collection of 1,406 highly validated immunoprecipitation- and/or immunoblotting-grade mouse monoclonal antibodies (mAbs) to 737 human transcription factors, using an integrated production and validation pipeline. We used HuProt human protein microarrays as a primary validation tool to identify mAbs with high specificity for their cognate targets. We further validated PCRP mAbs by means of multiple experimental applications, including immunoprecipitation, immunoblotting, chromatin immunoprecipitation followed by sequencing (ChIP-seq), and immunohistochemistry. We also conducted a meta-analysis that identified critical variables that contribute to the generation of high-quality mAbs. All validation data, protocols, and links to PCRP mAb suppliers are available at http://proteincapture.org.
Project description:Generating recombinant monoclonal antibodies (R-mAbs) from mAb-producing hybridomas offers numerous advantages that increase the effectiveness, reproducibility, and transparent reporting of research. We report here the generation of a novel resource in the form of a library of recombinant R-mAbs validated for neuroscience research. We cloned immunoglobulin G (IgG) variable domains from cryopreserved hybridoma cells and input them into an integrated pipeline for expression and validation of functional R-mAbs. To improve efficiency over standard protocols, we eliminated aberrant Sp2/0-Ag14 hybridoma-derived variable light transcripts using restriction enzyme treatment. Further, we engineered a plasmid backbone that allows for switching of the IgG subclasses without altering target binding specificity to generate R-mAbs useful in simultaneous multiplex labeling experiments not previously possible. The method was also employed to rescue IgG variable sequences and generate functional R-mAbs from a non-viable cryopreserved hybridoma. All R-mAb sequences and plasmids will be archived and disseminated from open source suppliers.
Project description:Immunoaffinity enrichment of peptides coupled to targeted, multiple reaction monitoring-mass spectrometry (immuno-MRM) has recently been developed for quantitative analysis of peptide and protein expression. As part of this technology, antibodies are generated to short, linear, tryptic peptides that are well-suited for detection by mass spectrometry. Despite its favorable analytical performance, a major obstacle to widespread adoption of immuno-MRM is a lack of validated affinity reagents because commercial antibody suppliers are reluctant to commit resources to producing anti-peptide antibodies for immuno-MRM while the market is much larger for conventional technologies, especially Western blotting and ELISA. Part of this reluctance has been the concern that affinity reagents generated to short, linear, tryptic peptide sequences may not perform well in traditional assays that detect full-length proteins. In this study, we test the feasibility and success rates of generating immuno-MRM monoclonal antibodies (mAbs) (targeting tryptic peptide antigens) that are also compatible with conventional, protein-based immuno-affinity technologies. We generated 40 novel, peptide immuno-MRM assays and determined that the cross-over success rates for using immuno-MRM monoclonals for Western blotting is 58% and for ELISA is 43%, which compare favorably to cross-over success rates amongst conventional immunoassay technologies. These success rates could most likely be increased if conventional and immuno-MRM antigen design strategies were combined, and we suggest a workflow for such a comprehensive approach. Additionally, the 40 novel immuno-MRM assays underwent fit-for-purpose analytical validation, and all mAbs and assays have been made available as a resource to the community via the Clinical Proteomic Tumor Analysis Consortium's (CPTAC) Antibody (http://antibodies.cancer.gov) and Assay Portals (http://assays.cancer.gov), respectively. This study also represents the first determination of the success rate (92%) for generating mAbs for immuno-MRM using a recombinant B cell cloning approach, which is considerably faster than the traditional hybridoma approach.
Project description:We report the applicability of multiple PCRP mAbs in ChIP-seq applications in human cell-lines using standard ENCODE protocols. Overall design: mAbs were tested in 1-4 ENCODE's default human cell-lines. Input control for each mAb and biological replicates for some mAbs are included.
Project description:The precise function of C-reactive protein (CRP) as a regulator of inflammation in health and disease continues to evolve. The true understanding of its role in host defense responses has been hampered by numerous reports of comparable systems with contradictory interpretations of CRP as a stimulator, suppressor, or benign contributor to such processes. These discrepancies may be explained in part by the existence of a naturally occurring CRP isoform, termed modified CRP (i.e., mCRP), that is expressed when CRP subunits are dissociated into monomeric structures. The free mCRP subunit undergoes a non-proteolytic conformational change that has unique solubility, antigenicity, and bioactivity compared to the subunits that remain associated in the native, pentameric CRP molecule (i.e., pCRP). As specific reagents have been developed to identify and quantify mCRP, it has become apparent that this isoform can be formed spontaneously in calcium-free solutions. Furthermore, mCRP can be expressed on perturbed cell membranes with as little as 24-48 h incubation in tissue culture. Because mCRP has the same size as pCRP subunits as evaluated by SDS-PAGE, its presence in a pCRP reagent would not be apparent using this technique to evaluate purity. Finally, because many antibody reagents purported to be specific for "CRP" contains some, or substantial specificity to mCRP, antigen-detection techniques using such reagents may fail to distinguish the specific CRP isoform detected. All these caveats concerning CRP structures and measurements suggest that the aforementioned contradictory studies may reflect to some extent on distinctive bioactivities of mCRP rather than on pCRP. To provide a reliable, abundant supply of mCRP for separate and comparable studies, a recombinant protein was engineered and expressed in E. coli (i.e., recombinant mCRP or rmCRP). Synthesized protein was produced as inclusion bodies which proved difficult to solubilize for purification and characterization. Herein, we describe a method using anhydride reagents to effectively solubilize rmCRP and allow for chromatographic purification in high yield and free of contaminating endotoxin. Furthermore, the purified rmCRP reagent represents an excellent comparable protein to the biologically produced mCRP and as a distinctive reagent from pCRP. Deciphering the true function of CRP in both health and disease requires a knowledge, understanding, and reliable supply of each of its structures so to define the distinctive effects of each on the body's response to tissue damaging events.
Project description:RAS genes are frequently mutated in cancer and have for decades eluded effective therapeutic attack. The National Cancer Institute's RAS Initiative has a focus on understanding pathways and discovering therapies for RAS-driven cancers. Part of these efforts is the generation of novel reagents to enable the quantification of RAS network proteins. Here we present a dataset describing the development, validation (following consensus principles developed by the broader research community), and distribution of 104 monoclonal antibodies (mAbs) enabling detection of 27 phosphopeptides and 69 unmodified peptides from 20 proteins in the RAS network. The dataset characterizes the utility of the antibodies in a variety of applications, including Western blotting, immunoprecipitation, protein array, immunohistochemistry, and targeted mass spectrometry. All antibodies and characterization data are publicly available through the CPTAC Antibody Portal, Panorama Public Repository, and/or PRIDE databases. These reagents will aid researchers in discerning pathways and measuring expression changes in the RAS signaling network.
Project description:Human parainfluenza virus 3 (HPIV3) commonly causes respiratory disorders in infants and young children. Monoclonal antibodies (MAbs) have been produced to several components of HPIV3 and commercially available. However, the utility of these antibodies for several immunological and proteomic assays for understanding the nature of HPIV3 infection remain to be characterized. Herein, we report the development and characterization of MAbs against hemagglutinin-neuraminidase (HN) of HPIV3. A recombinant full-length HPIV3-HN was successfully synthesized using the wheat-germ cell-free protein production system. After immunization and cell fusion, 36 mouse hybridomas producing MAbs to HPIV3-HN were established. The MAbs obtained were fully characterized using ELISA, immunoblotting, and immunofluorescent analyses. Of the MAbs tested, single clone was found to be applicable in both flow cytometry and immunoprecipitation procedures. By utilizing the antibody, we identified HPIV3-HN binding host proteins via immunoprecipitation-based mass spectrometry analysis. The newly-developed MAbs could thus be a valuable tool for the study of HPIV3 infection as well as the several diagnostic tests of this virus.
Project description:C-reactive protein (CRP) was first recognized in the 1940s as a protein that appeared in blood during acute episodes of infectious disease. Its presence and pharmacodynamics were found in essentially all diseases that involved tissue damage and inflammation. Identified as a major component of the innate, unlearned immunity, it became a useful diagnostic marker for the extent of inflammation during disease exacerbation or remission. Efforts to define its true biological role has eluded clear definition for over a half-century. Herein, a unifying concept is presented that explains both pro-inflammatory and anti-inflammatory activities of CRP. This concept involves the recognition and understanding that CRP can be induced to undergo a pronounced, non-proteolytic reorganization of its higher-level protein structures into conformationally distinct isomers with distinctive functional activities. This process occurs when the non-covalently associated globular subunits of the pentameric isoform ("pCRP") are induced to dissociate into a monomeric isoform ("mCRP"). mCRP consistently and potently provides pro-inflammatory activation and amplification activities. pCRP provides weak anti-inflammatory activities consistent with low-level chronic inflammation. mCRP can spontaneously form in purified pCRP reagents in ways that are not immediately recognized during purification and certification analyses. By now understanding the factors that influence pCRP dissociate into mCRP, many published reports investigating CRP as a biological response modifier of host defense can be reevaluated to include a discussion of how each CRP isoform may have affected the generated results. Specific attention is given to <i>in vitro</i> and <i>in vivo</i> studies of CRP as an anti-cancer agent.
Project description:Owing to their high affinities and specificities, rabbit monoclonal antibodies (mAbs) have demonstrated value and potential primarily as basic research and diagnostic reagents, but, in some cases, also as therapeutics. To accelerate access to rabbit mAbs bypassing immunization, we generated a large naïve rabbit antibody repertoire represented by a phage display library encompassing >10 billion independent antibodies in chimeric rabbit/human Fab format and validated it by next-generation sequencing. Panels of rabbit mAbs selected from this library against two emerging cancer targets, ROR1 and ROR2, revealed high diversity, affinity, and specificity. Moreover, ROR1- and ROR2-targeting rabbit mAbs demonstrated therapeutic utility as components of chimeric antigen receptor-engineered T cells, further corroborating the value of the naïve rabbit antibody library as a rich and virtually unlimited source of rabbit mAbs.
Project description:Histidine phosphorylation (pHis) is well studied in bacteria; however, its role in mammalian signaling remains largely unexplored due to the lack of pHis-specific antibodies and the lability of the phosphoramidate (P-N) bond. Both imidazole nitrogens can be phosphorylated, forming 1-phosphohistidine (1-pHis) or 3-phosphohistidine (3-pHis). We have developed monoclonal antibodies (mAbs) that specifically recognize 1-pHis or 3-pHis; they do not cross-react with phosphotyrosine or the other pHis isomer. Assays based on the isomer-specific autophosphorylation of NME1 and phosphoglycerate mutase were used with immunoblotting and sequencing IgG variable domains to screen, select, and characterize anti-1-pHis and anti-3-pHis mAbs. Their sequence independence was determined by blotting synthetic peptide arrays, and they have been tested for immunofluorescence staining and immunoaffinity purification, leading to putative identification of pHis-containing proteins. These reagents should be broadly useful for identification of pHis substrates and functional study of pHis using a variety of immunological, proteomic, and biological assays.
Project description:The connexin43 (Cx43)-interacting protein of 85 kDa CIP85 has been identified as an interacting partner for the cytoplasmically located, carboxyl-terminal tail of Cx43. Further characterization has shown that the interaction between Cx43 and CIP85 is associated with increased turnover of Cx43 that may be lysosome-mediated. This suggests that CIP85 may regulate the endocytic trafficking of Cx43 from the plasma membrane and its degradation, and thus, indirectly influence gap junction function. This study reports the first successful production of monoclonal antibodies (MAbs) against CIP85. These antibodies are useful in detecting CIP85 expressed in several species in immunoblotting, immunoprecipitation, and immunofluorescence microscopy experiments. These MAbs will assist in defining the functional roles of CIP85, including its influence on Cx43 trafficking and intercellular communication through Cx43-containing gap junctions.