Delphi Analysis of Science Gaps in the 2015 American Heart Association Cardiac Arrest Guidelines.
ABSTRACT: Current cardiac arrest guidelines have limited high-quality scientific evidence to support recommendations for care. The quality of scientific evidence on which guidelines are based may correlate with improved patient outcomes and meaningful survival. We sought to develop a prioritized list of knowledge gaps in resuscitation to assist researchers, policy makers, and funding agencies in their decision-making process.A 4-stage modified Delphi method was used with a panel of cardiac arrest experts. Experts addressed the prompt: "What are the top 3 gaps in knowledge involving cardiac arrest care that should be research priorities for National Institutes of Health/American Heart Association funding to have the greatest impact on public health?" Knowledge gaps were identified in the initial round, rated in a second round, and rank ordered in the third round, and they underwent final review and consensus (final round). The outcome was 10 knowledge gaps, with prioritization of the top 3 gaps. A total of 61 gaps, with 19 distinct themes, were identified by participants. The 10 knowledge gaps most likely to affect public health identified by the expert panel included, in order, the following: telecommunicator cardiopulmonary resuscitation, hemodynamic monitoring for goal-directed resuscitation, reasons why bystanders fail to respond, optimization of postarrest care, out-of-hospital cardiac arrest identification and response, individualizing resuscitation strategies, predicting patients at risk, tools for neuroprognostication, optimal airway management, and optimizing educational strategies.Ten priorities for cardiac arrest research were identified, but consensus was not reached on the prioritized top 3. Future research should address these gaps to potentially improve resuscitation guideline evidence quality.
Project description:<h4>Background</h4>The private health sector is an important source of sick child care, yet evidence gaps persist in best practices for integrated management of private sector child health services. Further, there is no prioritized research agenda to address these gaps. We used a Child Health and Nutrition Research Initiative (CHNRI) process to identify priority research questions in response to these evidence gaps. CHNRI is a consultative approach that entails prioritizing research questions by evaluating them against standardized criteria.<h4>Methods</h4>We engaged geographically and occupationally diverse experts in the private health sector and child health. Eighty-nine experts agreed to participate and provided 150 priority research questions. We consolidated submitted questions to reduce duplication into a final list of 50. We asked participants to complete an online survey to rank each question against 11 pre-determined criteria in four categories: (i) answerability, (ii) research feasibility, (iii) sustainability/equity, and (iv) importance/potential impact. Statistical data analysis was conducted in SAS 9.4 (SAS Institute Inc, Cary NC, USA). We weighted all 11 evaluation criteria equally to calculate the research priority score and average expert agreement for each question. We disaggregated results by location in high-income vs low- and middle-income countries.<h4>Results</h4>Forty-nine participants (55.1%) completed the online survey, including 33 high-income and 16 low- and middle-income country respondents. The top, prioritized research question asks whether accreditation or regulation of private clinical and non-clinical sources of care would improve integrated management of childhood illness services. Four of the top ten research priorities were related to adherence to case management protocols. Other top research priorities were related to training and supportive supervision, digital health, and infant and newborn care. Research priorities among high-income and low- and middle-income country respondents were highly correlated.<h4>Conclusion</h4>To our knowledge, this is the first systematic exercise conducted to define research priorities for the management of childhood illness in the private sector. The research priorities put forth in this CHNRI exercise aim to stimulate interest from policy makers, program managers, researchers, and donors to respond to and help close evidence gaps hindering the acceleration of reductions in child mortality through private sector approaches.
Project description:<h4>Background</h4>Research priority setting in health care has historically been done by expert health care providers and researchers and has not involved patients, family or the public. Survivors & family members have been particularly absent from this process in the field of resuscitation research and specifically adult out of hospital cardiac arrest (OHCA). As such, we sought to conduct a priority setting exercise in partnership with survivors, lay responders and their families in order to ensure that their priorities were visible. We partnered with the James Lind Alliance (UK) and used their commonly used consensus methodology for Public Priority Setting Partnerships (PSPs) to identify research priorities that reflected the perspectives of all stakeholders.<h4>Methods</h4>We used two rounds of public and health care professional surveys to create the initial priority lists. The initial survey collected open-ended questions while the second round consolidated the list of initial questions into a refined list for prioritization. This was done by reviewing existing evidence and thematic categorization by the multi-disciplinary steering committee. An in-person consensus workshop was conducted to come to consensus on the top ten priorities from all perspectives. The McMaster PPEET tool was used to measure engagement.<h4>Results</h4>The initial survey yielded more than 425 responses and 1450 "questions" from survivors and family members (18%), lay responders, health care providers and others. The second survey asked participants to rank a short list of 125 questions. The final top 25 questions were brought to the in-person meeting, and a top ten were selected through the JLA consensus process. The final list of top ten questions included how to improve the rate of lay responder CPR, what interventions used at the scene of an arrest can improve resuscitation and survival, how survival can be improved in rural areas of Canada, what resuscitation medications are most effective, what care patient's family members need, what post-discharge support is needed for survivors, how communication should work for everyone involved with a cardiac arrest, what factors best predict neurologically intact survival, whether biomarkers/genetic tests are effective in predicting OHCA and more research on the short and long-term psycho-social impacts of OHCA on survivors. The PPEET showed overwhelmingly positive results for the patient and family engagement experience during the final workshop.<h4>Conclusions</h4>This inclusive research priority setting provides essential information for those doing resuscitation research internationally. The results provide a guide for priority areas of research and should drive our community to focus on questions that matter to survivors and their families in our work. In particular the Canadian Resuscitation Outcomes Consortium will be incorporating the top ten list into its strategic plan for the future.
Project description:<h4>Background</h4>Suicide is a significant public health concern in Nepal and there is a need for an evidence-based suicide prevention programme to facilitate stakeholders working towards suicide prevention in Nepal. Collaborative research between stakeholders focussing on shared priorities can help to prevent and control suicide. Hence, we aimed to develop a consensus list of research priorities for suicide prevention in Nepal.<h4>Methods</h4>The Delphi expert consensus method was used to elicit the prioritized research questions for suicide prevention in Nepal. Participants comprised suicide prevention experts (psychologists, psychiatrists, psychiatric nurses, researchers and advocates) and people with lived experience. Three rounds of Delphi were conducted; round 1: one to one interviews involving open ended questions used to generate research questions; round 2: ranking of the research questions using a 5-point Likert scale, and round 3: re-ranking of research questions in light of individual and group responses.<h4>Results</h4>Forty-two participants participated in round 1 followed by 38 in round 2 and 39 in round 3 . 522 research questions were generated through round 1 which were grouped together and reduced to 33 research questions sent for ranking in round 2. Using a cut off of at least 70% of the panel ranking questions as 'very important' or 'important', 22 questions were retained. These research questions were sent for re-rating in round 3 resulting in a final list of prioritized questions.<h4>Conclusions</h4>This is the first expert consensus study to identify the top research priorities for suicide prevention in Nepal, and used experts in suicide prevention and those with lived experience. A consensus was reached regarding the studies needed to improve suicide data quality, assess the burden and identify factors associated with suicide. A priority driven approach to suicide prevention research may ensure that the research endeavour provides the most useful information for those whose day-to-day work involves trying to prevent suicide.
Project description:<h4>Objective</h4>To identify research priorities in the management, epidemiology, outcome and underlying causes of sepsis and septic shock.<h4>Design</h4>A consensus committee of 16 international experts representing the European Society of Intensive Care Medicine and Society of Critical Care Medicine was convened at the annual meetings of both societies. Subgroups had teleconference and electronic-based discussion. The entire committee iteratively developed the entire document and recommendations.<h4>Methods</h4>Each committee member independently gave their top five priorities for sepsis research. A total of 88 suggestions (ESM 1 - supplemental table 1) were grouped into categories by the committee co-chairs, leading to the formation of seven subgroups: infection, fluids and vasoactive agents, adjunctive therapy, administration/epidemiology, scoring/identification, post-intensive care unit, and basic/translational science. Each subgroup had teleconferences to go over each priority followed by formal voting within each subgroup. The entire committee also voted on top priorities across all subgroups except for basic/translational science.<h4>Results</h4>The Surviving Sepsis Research Committee provides 26 priorities for sepsis and septic shock. Of these, the top six clinical priorities were identified and include the following questions: (1) can targeted/personalized/precision medicine approaches determine which therapies will work for which patients at which times?; (2) what are ideal endpoints for volume resuscitation and how should volume resuscitation be titrated?; (3) should rapid diagnostic tests be implemented in clinical practice?; (4) should empiric antibiotic combination therapy be used in sepsis or septic shock?; (5) what are the predictors of sepsis long-term morbidity and mortality?; and (6) what information identifies organ dysfunction?<h4>Conclusions</h4>While the Surviving Sepsis Campaign guidelines give multiple recommendations on the treatment of sepsis, significant knowledge gaps remain, both in bedside issues directly applicable to clinicians, as well as understanding the fundamental mechanisms underlying the development and progression of sepsis. The priorities identified represent a roadmap for research in sepsis and septic shock.
Project description:This article describes the results of the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) and sexually transmitted infections (STI) prevention in the emergency department (ED) component of the 2009 Academic Emergency Medicine Consensus Conference entitled "Public Health in the ED: Surveillance, Screening, and Intervention." The objectives were to use experts to define knowledge gaps and priority research questions related to the performance of HIV and STI surveillance, screening, and intervention in the ED. A four-step nominal group technique was applied using national and international experts in HIV and STI prevention. Using electronic mail, an in-person meeting, and a Web-based survey, specific knowledge gaps and research questions were identified and prioritized. Through two rounds of nomination and refinement, followed by two rounds of election, consensus was achieved for 11 knowledge gaps and 14 research questions related to HIV and STI prevention in EDs. The overarching themes of the research priority questions were related to effectiveness, sustainability, and integration. While the knowledge gaps appear disparate from one another, they are related to the research priority questions identified. Using a consensus approach, we developed a set of priorities for future research related to HIV and STI prevention in the ED. These priorities have the potential to improve future clinical and health services research and extramural funding in this important public health sector.
Project description:<h4>Background</h4>In 2013, an estimated 2.8 million newborns died and 2.7 million were stillborn. A much greater number suffer from long term impairment associated with preterm birth, intrauterine growth restriction, congenital anomalies, and perinatal or infectious causes. With the approaching deadline for the achievement of the Millennium Development Goals (MDGs) in 2015, there was a need to set the new research priorities on newborns and stillbirth with a focus not only on survival but also on health, growth and development. We therefore carried out a systematic exercise to set newborn health research priorities for 2013-2025.<h4>Methods</h4>We used adapted Child Health and Nutrition Research Initiative (CHNRI) methods for this prioritization exercise. We identified and approached the 200 most productive researchers and 400 program experts, and 132 of them submitted research questions online. These were collated into a set of 205 research questions, sent for scoring to the 600 identified experts, and were assessed and scored by 91 experts.<h4>Results</h4>Nine out of top ten identified priorities were in the domain of research on improving delivery of known interventions, with simplified neonatal resuscitation program and clinical algorithms and improved skills of community health workers leading the list. The top 10 priorities in the domain of development were led by ideas on improved Kangaroo Mother Care at community level, how to improve the accuracy of diagnosis by community health workers, and perinatal audits. The 10 leading priorities for discovery research focused on stable surfactant with novel modes of administration for preterm babies, ability to diagnose fetal distress and novel tocolytic agents to delay or stop preterm labour.<h4>Conclusion</h4>These findings will assist both donors and researchers in supporting and conducting research to close the knowledge gaps for reducing neonatal mortality, morbidity and long term impairment. WHO, SNL and other partners will work to generate interest among key national stakeholders, governments, NGOs, and research institutes in these priorities, while encouraging research funders to support them. We will track research funding, relevant requests for proposals and trial registers to monitor if the priorities identified by this exercise are being addressed.
Project description:<h4>Background</h4>The EU 6th Framework Program (FP)-funded Health and Environment Network (HENVINET) aimed to support informed policy making by facilitating the availability of relevant knowledge on different environmental health issues. An approach was developed by which scientific agreement, disagreement, and knowledge gaps could be efficiently identified, and expert advice prepared in a way that is usable for policy makers. There were two aims of the project: 1) to apply the tool to a relevant issue; the potential health impacts of the widely used plasticizers, phthalates, and 2) to evaluate the method and the tool by asking both scientific experts and the target audience, namely policy makers and stakeholders, for their opinions.<h4>Methods</h4>The tool consisted of an expert consultation in several steps on the issue of phthalates in environmental health. A diagram depicting the cause-effect chain, from the production and use of phthalates to potential health impacts, was prepared based on existing reviews. This was used as a basis for an online questionnaire, through which experts in the field were consulted. The results of this first round of consultation laid the foundation for a new questionnaire answered by an expert panel that, subsequently, also discussed approaches and results in a workshop. One major task of the expert panel was to pinpoint priorities from the cause-effect chain according to their impact on the extent of potential health risks and their relevance for reducing uncertainty. The results were condensed into a policy brief that was sent to policy makers and stakeholders for their evaluation.<h4>Results</h4>The experts agreed about the substantial knowledge gaps within the field of phthalates. The top three priorities for further research and policy action were: 1) intrauterine exposure, 2) reproductive toxicology, and 3) exposure from medical devices. Although not all relevant information from the cause-effect chain is known for phthalates, most experts thought that there are enough indications to justify a precautionary approach and to restrict their general use. Although some of the experts expressed some scepticism about such a tool, most felt that important issues were highlighted.<h4>Conclusions</h4>The approach used was an efficient way at summarising priority knowledge gaps as a starting point for health risk assessment of compounds, based on their relevance for the risk assessment outcome. We conclude that this approach is useful for supporting policy makers with state-of-the-art scientific knowledge weighed by experts. The method can assist future evidence-based policy making.
Project description:The International Liaison Committee on Resuscitation initiated a continuous review of new, peer-reviewed published cardiopulmonary resuscitation science. This is the fifth annual summary of the International Liaison Committee on Resuscitation International Consensus on Cardiopulmonary Resuscitation and Emergency Cardiovascular Care Science With Treatment Recommendations; a more comprehensive review was done in 2020. This latest summary addresses the most recently published resuscitation evidence reviewed by International Liaison Committee on Resuscitation task force science experts. Topics covered by systematic reviews in this summary include resuscitation topics of video-based dispatch systems; head-up cardiopulmonary resuscitation; early coronary angiography after return of spontaneous circulation; cardiopulmonary resuscitation in the prone patient; cord management at birth for preterm and term infants; devices for administering positive-pressure ventilation at birth; family presence during neonatal resuscitation; self-directed, digitally based basic life support education and training in adults and children; coronavirus disease 2019 infection risk to rescuers from patients in cardiac arrest; and first aid topics, including cooling with water for thermal burns, oral rehydration for exertional dehydration, pediatric tourniquet use, and methods of tick removal. Members from 6 International Liaison Committee on Resuscitation task forces have assessed, discussed, and debated the quality of the evidence, according to the Grading of Recommendations Assessment, Development, and Evaluation criteria, and their statements include consensus treatment recommendations or good practice statements. Insights into the deliberations of the task forces are provided in Justification and Evidence-to-Decision Framework Highlights sections. In addition, the task forces listed priority knowledge gaps for further research.
Project description:<h4>Background</h4>Brain injury can occur after cardiac arrest due to the effects of ischaemia and reperfusion. In serious cases this can lead to permanent disability. This risk must be considered when making decisions about terminating resuscitation. There are very specific rules for termination of resuscitation in the prehospital setting however a similar rule for resuscitation in hospital does not exist. The aim of this review was to explore the effects of duration of cardiopulmonary resuscitation on neurological outcome in survivors of both in-hospital and out-of-hospital cardiac arrest achieving return of spontaneous circulation in hospital.<h4>Methods</h4>A systematic review was conducted. Five databases were searched in addition to hand searching the journals Resuscitation and Circulation and reference lists, quality of the selected studies was assessed and a narrative summary of the data presented. Studies reporting relevant outcomes were included if the participants were adults achieving return of spontaneous circulation in the hospital setting. Studies looking at additional interventions such as extracorporeal resuscitation and therapeutic hypothermia were not included. Case studies were excluded. The study period was from January 2010 to March 2016.<h4>Results</h4>Seven cohort studies were included for review. Quality scores ranged from eight to 11 out of 12. Five of the studies found a significant association between shorter duration of resuscitation and favourable neurological outcome.<h4>Conclusions</h4>There is generally a better neurological outcome with a shorter duration of CPR in survivors of cardiac arrest however a cut-off beyond which resuscitation is likely to lead to unfavourable outcome could not be determined and is unlikely to exist. The findings of this review could be considered by clinicians making decisions about terminating resuscitation. This review has highlighted many gaps in the knowledge where future research is needed; a validated and reliable measure of neurological outcome following cardiac arrest, more focused research on the effects of duration on neurological outcome and further research into the factors leading to brain damage in cardiac arrest.
Project description:<h4>Background</h4>Infection prevention and control (IPC) is one of the most cost-effective interventions against antimicrobial resistance (AMR). Yet, IPC knowledge gaps often receive little prominence in AMR research agendas. In this article, we construct IPC research priorities, in order to draw attention to these critical research needs.<h4>Methods</h4>We developed a 4-step framework to identify IPC knowledge gaps from literature (narrative review). These gaps were then translated into research priorities and sent to two groups of European IPC experts for validation and critique through an online survey.<h4>Results</h4>Seventy-nine publications were retrieved from the literature review, identifying fifteen IPC research gaps. Forty-four IPC experts, clustered in two groups, vetted them. The experts classified all research gaps as medium or high priority. Overall agreement between both groups was average (Kendall's τ = 0.43), with strong alignment on the highest priorities: (i) the assessment of organizational, socio-economic, and behavioural barriers/facilitators for the implementation of IPC programmes, (ii) the impact of overcrowding on the spread of infections and (iii) the impact of infrastructural changes, at facility level, on the reduction of infections. Feedback from experts also identified an additional research gap on the interaction between the human and hospital microbiomes.<h4>Conclusions</h4>We formulated a list of sixteen research priorities and identified three urgent needs. Now, we encourage researchers, funding agencies, policymakers and relevant stakeholders to start addressing the identified gaps.