Comparison of iTRAQ and SWATH in a clinical study with multiple time points.
ABSTRACT: Background:Advances in mass spectrometry have accelerated biomarker discovery in many areas of medicine. The purpose of this study was to compare two mass spectrometry (MS) methods, isobaric tags for relative and absolute quantitation (iTRAQ) and sequential window acquisition of all theoretical fragment ion spectra (SWATH), for analytical efficiency in biomarker discovery when there are multiple methodological constraints such as limited sample size and several time points for each patient to be analyzed. Methods:A total of 140 tear samples were collected from 28 glaucoma patients at 5 time points in a glaucoma drug switch study. Samples were analyzed with iTRAQ and SWATH methods using NanoLC-MSTOF mass spectrometry. Results:We discovered that even though iTRAQ is faster than SWATH with respect to analysis time per sample, it loses in sensitivity, reliability and robustness. While SWATH analysis yielded complete data of 456 proteins in all samples, with iTRAQ we were able to quantify 477 proteins in total but on average only 125 proteins were quantified in a sample. 283 proteins were common in the datasets produced by the two methods. Repeatability of the methods was assessed by calculating percent relative standard deviation (% RSD) between replicate MS analyses: SWATH was more repeatable (56% of proteins?
Project description:Insulin resistance (IR) is associated with increased production of triglyceride-rich lipoproteins of intestinal origin. In order to assess whether insulin resistance affects the proteins involved in lipid metabolism, we used two mass spectrometry based quantitative proteomics techniques to compare the intestinal proteome of 14 IR patients to that of 15 insulin sensitive (IS) control patients matched for age and waist circumference. A total of 3886 proteins were identified by the iTRAQ (Isobaric Tags for Relative and Absolute Quantitation) mass spectrometry approach and 2290 by the SWATH-MS strategy (Serial Window Acquisition of Theoretical Spectra). Using these two methods, 208 common proteins were identified with a confidence corresponding to FDR < 1%, and quantified with p-value < 0.05. The quantification of those 208 proteins has a Pearson correlation coefficient (r2) of 0.728 across the two techniques. Gene Ontology analyses of the differentially expressed proteins revealed that annotations related to lipid metabolic process and oxidation reduction process are overly represented in the set of under-expressed proteins in IR subjects. Furthermore, both methods quantified proteins of relevance to IR. These data also showed that SWATH-MS is a promising and compelling alternative to iTRAQ for protein quantitation of complex mixtures.
Project description:Atropine, a non-selective muscarinic antagonist, is known to slow down myopia progression in human adolescents and in several animal models. However, its underlying molecular mechanism is unclear. The present work built a monocular form-deprivation myopia (FDM) guinea pig model, using facemasks as well as atropine treatment on FDM eyes for 2 and 4 weeks. Retinal protein changes in response to the FDM and effects of topical administration of atropine were screened for the two periods using fractionated isobaric tags for a relative and absolute quantification (iTRAQ) approach coupled with nano-liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (nano-LC-MS/MS) (<i>n</i>=24, 48 eyes). Retinal tissues from another cohort receiving 4-weeks FDM with atropine treatment (<i>n</i>=12, 24 eyes) with more significant changes were subjected to sequential window acquisition of all theoretical mass spectra (SWATH-MS) proteomics for further protein target confirmation. A total of 1695 proteins (8875 peptides) and 5961 proteins (51871 peptides) were identified using iTRAQ and SWATH approaches, respectively. Using the Paragon algorithm in the ProteinPilot<sup>TM</sup> software, the three most significantly up-regulated and down-regulated proteins that were commonly found in both ITRAQ and SWATH experiments are presented. All raw data generated from the work were submitted and published in the Peptide Atlas public repository (http://www.peptideatlas.org/) for general release (Data ID PASS01507).
Project description:Nasopharyngeal carcinoma (NPC) is a serious threat to public health, and the biomarker discovery is of urgent needs. The data-independent mode (DIA) based sequential window acquisition of all theoretical fragment-ion spectra (SWATH) mass spectrometry (MS) has been proved to be precise in protein quantitation and efficient for cancer biomarker researches. In this study, we performed the first SWATH-MS analysis comparing the NPC and normal tissues. Spike-in stable isotope labeling by amino acids in cell culture (super-SILAC) MS was used as a shotgun reference. We identified and quantified 1414 proteins across all SWATH-MS analyses. We found that SWATH-MS had a unique feature to preferentially detect proteins with smaller molecular weights than either super-SILAC MS or human proteome background. With SWATH-MS, 29 significant differentially express proteins (DEPs) were identified. Among them, carbonic anhydrase 2 (CA2) was selected for further validation per novelty, MS quality and other supporting rationale. With the tissue microarray analysis, we found that CA2 had an AUC of 0.94 in differentiating NPC from normal tissue samples. In conclusion, SWATH-MS has unique features in proteome analysis, and it leads to the identification of CA2 as a potentially new diagnostic biomarker for NPC.
Project description:Background:Femtosecond laser-assisted in situ keratomileusis (LASIK) has proven to be an efficacious, predictable, and safe procedure for the correction of refractive errors. We examined the early tear protein changes of patients undergoing LASIK surgery in order to better understand the mechanisms and proteins related to laser corneal surgery and initial recovery. Methods:Corneal flaps were created with Ziemer FEMTO LDV Z6 I femtosecond laser and stroma was ablated using Wavelight EX500 excimer laser. Tear samples were collected preoperatively as well as 1.5 h and 1 month after LASIK treatment using glass microcapillary tubes. Relative quantification of tear proteins was performed with sequential window acquisition of all theoretical fragment ion spectra mass spectrometry (SWATH-MS). Results:SWATH-MS revealed that 158 proteins had altered expression levels 1.5 h after the operation. Two-thirds of these proteins, mostly connected to migration and inflammation response, returned to preoperative levels within the first postoperative month. The other proteins, which did not return to baseline levels, included proteins connected to for example epithelial barrier function. We also identified several proteins, which correlated with surgical variables, such as the amount of correction, flap thickness and flap diameter. Conclusions:The present study showed that an uneventful femtosecond LASIK refractive surgery induced a significant immune cell migration and inflammation-associated changes in tear proteomics profile quickly after the operation, but the expression of most proteins recovered almost completely to the preoperative levels within the first month. The individual proteins identified in our study are potential targets for the follow-up and modification of LASIK-induced biochemical processes.
Project description:Glaucoma patients are prone to concomitant ocular surface diseases; however, switching from preserved to preservative-free medication can often alleviate these symptoms. The objective of this study was to examine how the adverse effects and tear proteome change for glaucoma patients (n?=?28) during a 12-month drug switch from preserved latanoprost (Xalatan) to preservative-free tafluprost (Taflotan). We hypothesized that patient stratification could help identify novel recovery patterns in both tear proteomics and clinical data. In order to accomplish patient stratification, we implemented sequential window acquisition of all theoretical mass spectrometry (SWATH-MS) as a tool for quantitative analysis of individual tear protein profiles. During each visit (baseline and four follow-up visits), the patients' tears were sampled and the state of their ocular surface was evaluated clinically. Altogether 785 proteins were quantified from each tear sample using SWATH strategy and as these protein expression levels were compared between baseline and 12-month follow-up, three distinct patient groups were identified. We evaluated how these patient groups differed in their protein expression levels at baseline and discovered that the patients with increased levels of pro-inflammatory proteins and decreased levels of protective proteins benefitted most from the medication switch.
Project description:Dendritic cells are key immune cells that respond to pathogens and co-ordinate many innate and adaptive immune responses. Quantitative mass spectrometry using Sequential Window Acquisition of all THeoretical fragment-ion spectra-Mass Spectrometry (SWATH-MS) was performed here to determine the global alterations in monocyte-derived dendritic cells (moDCs) in response to stimulation with lipopolysaccharide (LPS). A moDC library of 4,666 proteins was generated and proteins were quantified at 0, 6 and 24?h post-LPS stimulation using SWATH-MS. At 6?h and 24?h post-LPS exposure, the relative abundance of 227 and 282 proteins was statistically significantly altered (p-value???0.05), respectively. Functional annotation of proteins exhibiting significant changes in expression between the various time points led to the identification of clusters of proteins implicated in distinct cellular processes including interferon and interleukin signalling, endocytosis, the ER-phagosome pathway and antigen-presentation. In SWATH-MS major histocompatibility complex (MHC) class I proteins were highly upregulated at 24?h, whilst MHC class II proteins exhibited comparatively fewer changes over this period. This study provides new detailed insight into the global proteomic changes that occur in moDCs during antigen processing and presentation and further demonstrates the potential of SWATH-MS for the quantitative study of proteins involved in cellular processes.
Project description:Targeted mass spectrometry by selected reaction monitoring (S/MRM) has proven to be a suitable technique for the consistent and reproducible quantification of proteins across multiple biological samples and a wide dynamic range. This performance profile is an important prerequisite for systems biology and biomedical research. However, the method is limited to the measurements of a few hundred peptides per LC-MS analysis. Recently, we introduced SWATH-MS, a combination of data independent acquisition and targeted data analysis that vastly extends the number of peptides/proteins quantified per sample, while maintaining the favorable performance profile of S/MRM. Here we applied the SWATH-MS technique to quantify changes over time in a large fraction of the proteome expressed in Saccharomyces cerevisiae in response to osmotic stress. We sampled cell cultures in biological triplicates at six time points following the application of osmotic stress and acquired single injection data independent acquisition data sets on a high-resolution 5600 tripleTOF instrument operated in SWATH mode. Proteins were quantified by the targeted extraction and integration of transition signal groups from the SWATH-MS datasets for peptides that are proteotypic for specific yeast proteins. We consistently identified and quantified more than 15,000 peptides and 2500 proteins across the 18 samples. We demonstrate high reproducibility between technical and biological replicates across all time points and protein abundances. In addition, we show that the abundance of hundreds of proteins was significantly regulated upon osmotic shock, and pathway enrichment analysis revealed that the proteins reacting to osmotic shock are mainly involved in the carbohydrate and amino acid metabolism. Overall, this study demonstrates the ability of SWATH-MS to efficiently generate reproducible, consistent, and quantitatively accurate measurements of a large fraction of a proteome across multiple samples.
Project description:Proteomic analysis of extracellular matrix (ECM) and ECM-associated proteins, collectively known as the matrisome, is a challenging task due to the inherent complexity and insolubility of these proteins. Here we present sequential window acquisition of all theoretical fragment ion spectra mass spectrometry (SWATH MS) as a tool for the quantitative analysis of matrisomal proteins in both non-enriched and ECM enriched tissue without the need for prior fractionation. Utilising a spectral library containing 201 matrisomal proteins, we compared the performance and reproducibility of SWATH MS over conventional data-dependent analysis mass spectrometry (DDA MS) in unfractionated murine lung and liver. SWATH MS conferred a 15-20% increase in reproducible peptide identification across replicate experiments in both tissue types and identified 54% more matrisomal proteins in the liver versus DDA MS. We further use SWATH MS to evaluate the quantitative changes in matrisome content that accompanies ECM enrichment. Our data shows that ECM enrichment led to a systematic increase in core matrisomal proteins but resulted in significant losses in matrisome-associated proteins including the cathepsins and proteins of the S100 family. Our proof-of-principle study demonstrates the utility of SWATH MS as a versatile tool for in-depth characterisation of the matrisome in unfractionated and non-enriched tissues. SIGNIFICANCE: The matrisome is a complex network of extracellular matrix (ECM) and ECM-associated proteins that provides scaffolding function to tissues and plays important roles in the regulation of fundamental cellular processes. However, due to its inherent complexity and insolubility, proteomic studies of the matrisome typically require the application of enrichment workflows prior to MS analysis. Such enrichment strategies often lead to losses in soluble matrisome-associated components. In this study, we present sequential window acquisition of all theoretical fragment ion spectra mass spectrometry (SWATH MS) as a tool for the quantitative analysis of matrisomal proteins. We show that SWATH MS provides a more reproducible coverage of the matrisome compared to data-dependent analysis (DDA) MS. We also demonstrate that SWATH MS is capable of accurate quantification of matrisomal proteins without prior ECM enrichment and fractionation, which may simplify sample handling workflows and avoid losses in matrisome-associated proteins commonly linked to ECM enrichment.
Project description:There are no reliable biomarkers to predict thyroid eye disease (TED) in patients with autoimmune thyroid disease (AITD) currently. Several evidences support the involvement of the lacrimal gland in TED. The aim of our study was to quantitatively correlate the changes in tear protein profile with increasing severity of TED. Tear samples were collected from four groups of patients; AITD without TED (AITD), AITD with mild TED (mild TED), AITD with severe TED (severe TED) and normal controls. A total of 72 patients were recruited for the study. In discovery phase, isobaric tags for relative and absolute quantification (iTRAQ) 4-plex was used for quantitative proteomics analysis. For verification of results from discovery phase, sequential window acquisition of all theoretical fragment ion spectra (SWATH) was used to analyze an independent cohort from normal controls, AITD, mild TED and severe TED. Two proteins, S100A4 and PIP showed consistent dysregulation trends in the discovery and validation phase experiments. Our study demonstrated the differences in tear proteome across the spectrum of different severity and activity of TED in patients with AITD. Two tear proteins, S100A4 and PIP may serve as potential biomarkers to predict progression to severe TED in patients with AITD.
Project description:Pancreatic carcinoma (PC) is an aggressive malignancy that lacks strategies for early detection. This study aimed to develop a coherent, high-throughput and non-discriminatory pipeline for the novel clinical biomarker discovery of PC.We combined mass spectrometry (MS)-intensive methods such as isobaric tags for relative and absolute quantitation with two-dimensional liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (iTRAQ-2DLC-MS/MS), 1D-targeted LC-MS/MS, prime MRM (P-MRM) and stable isotope dilution-based MRM (SID-MRM) to analyse serum samples from healthy people (normal control, NC), patients with benign diseases (BD) and PC patients to identify novel biomarkers of PC.On the basis of the newly developed pipeline, we identified >1000 proteins, verified 142 differentially expressed proteins and finally targeted four proteins for absolute quantitation in 100 serum samples. The novel biomarker panel of apolipoprotein E (APOE), inter-alpha-trypsin inhibitor heavy chain H3 (ITIH3), apolipoprotein A-I (APOA1), apolipoprotein L1 (APOL1), combining with CA19-9, statistically-significantly improved the sensitivity (95%) and specificity (94.1%), outperforming CA19-9 alone, for the diagnosis of PC.We developed a highly efficient pipeline for biomarker discovery, verification and validation, with each step systematically informing the next. A panel of proteins that might be clinically relevant biomarkers for PC was found.