The coffee bean transcriptome explains the accumulation of the major bean components through ripening.
ABSTRACT: The composition of the maturing coffee bean determines the processing performance and ultimate quality of the coffee produced from the bean. Analysis of differences in gene expression during bean maturation may explain the basis of genetic and environmental variation in coffee quality. The transcriptome of the coffee bean was analyzed at three stages of development, immature (green), intermediate (yellow) and mature (red). A total of more than 120 million 150?bp paired-end reads were collected by sequencing of transcripts of triplicate samples at each developmental stage. A greater number of transcripts were expressed at the yellow stage. As the beans matured the types of highly expressed transcripts changed from transcripts predominantly associated with galactomannan, triacylglycerol (TAG), TAG lipase, 11?S and 7S-like storage protein and Fasciclin-like arabinogalactan protein 17 (FLA17) in green beans to transcripts related to FLA1 at the yellow stage and TAG storage lipase SDP1, and SDP1-like in red beans. This study provides a genomic resource that can be used to investigate the impact of environment and genotype on the bean transcriptome and develop coffee varieties and production systems that are better adapted to deliver quality coffee despite climate variations.
Project description:Coffee is prepared by the extraction of a complex array of organic molecules from the roasted bean, which has been ground into fine particulates. The extraction depends on temperature, water chemistry and also the accessible surface area of the coffee. Here we investigate whether variations in the production processes of single origin coffee beans affects the particle size distribution upon grinding. We find that the particle size distribution is independent of the bean origin and processing method. Furthermore, we elucidate the influence of bean temperature on particle size distribution, concluding that grinding cold results in a narrower particle size distribution, and reduced mean particle size. We anticipate these results will influence the production of coffee industrially, as well as contribute to how we store and use coffee daily.
Project description:The common dry bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) is a nutrient-dense pulse crop that is produced globally for direct human consumption and is an important source of protein and micronutrients for millions of people across Latin America, the Caribbean and Sub-Saharan Africa. Dry beans require large amounts of heat energy and time to cook, which can deter consumers worldwide from using beans. In regions where consumers rely on expensive fuelwood for food preparation, the yellow bean is often marketed as fast cooking. This study evaluated the cooking time and health benefits of five major market classes within the yellow bean seed type (Amarillo, Canary, Manteca, Mayocoba, Njano) over two field seasons. This study shows how the Manteca yellow bean possesses a fast cooking phenotype, which could serve as genetic resource for introducing fast cooking properties into a new generation of dry beans with cooking times <20 min when pre-soaked and <80 min unsoaked. Mineral analysis revealed fast cooking yellow beans have high iron retention (>80%) after boiling. An in vitro digestion/Caco-2 cell culture bioassay revealed a strong negative association between cooking time and iron bioavailability in yellow beans with r values = -0.76 when pre-soaked and -0.64 when unsoaked across the two field seasons. When either pre-soaked or left unsoaked, the highest iron bioavailability scores were measured in the fast cooking Manteca genotypes providing evidence that this yellow market class is worthy of germplasm enhancement through the added benefit of improved iron quality after cooking.
Project description:The common dry bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) is a globally produced pulse crop and an important source of micronutrients for millions of people across Latin America and Africa. Many of the preferred black and red seed types in these regions have seed coat polyphenols that inhibit the absorption of iron. Yellow beans are distinct from other market classes because they accumulate the antioxidant kaempferol 3-glucoside in their seed coats. Due to their fast cooking tendencies, yellow beans are often marketed at premium prices in the same geographical regions where dietary iron deficiency is a major health concern. Hence, this study compared the iron bioavailability of three faster cooking yellow beans with contrasting seed coat colors from Africa (Manteca, Amarillo, and Njano) to slower cooking white and red kidney commercial varieties. Iron status and iron bioavailability was assessed by the capacity of a bean based diet to generate and maintain total body hemoglobin iron (Hb-Fe) during a 6 week in vivo (Gallus gallus) feeding trial. Over the course of the experiment, animals fed yellow bean diets had significantly (p ≤ 0.05) higher Hb-Fe than animals fed the white or red kidney bean diet. This study shows that the Manteca yellow bean possess a rare combination of biochemical traits that result in faster cooking times and improved iron bioavailability. The Manteca yellow bean is worthy of germplasm enhancement to address iron deficiency in regions where beans are consumed as a dietary staple.
Project description:A cup of coffee is the final product of a complex chain of operations. Wet postharvest processing of coffee is one of these operations, which involves a fermentation that inevitably has to be performed on-farm. During wet coffee processing, the interplay between microbial activities and endogenous bean metabolism results in a specific flavor precursor profile of the green coffee beans. Yet, how specific microbial communities and the changing chemical compositions of the beans determine the flavor of a cup of coffee remains underappreciated. Through a multiphasic approach, the establishment of the microbial communities, as well as their prevalence during wet processing of Coffea arabica, was followed at an experimental farm in Ecuador. Also, the metabolites produced by the microorganisms and those of the coffee bean metabolism were monitored to determine their influence on the green coffee bean metabolite profile over time. The results indicated that lactic acid bacteria were prevalent well before the onset of fermentation and that the fermentation duration entailed shifts in their communities. The fermentation duration also affected the compositions of the beans, so that longer-fermented coffee had more notes that are preferred by consumers. As a consequence, researchers and coffee growers should be aware that the flavor of a cup of coffee is determined before as well as during on-farm processing and that under the right conditions, longer fermentation times can be favorable, although the opposite is often believed.IMPORTANCE Coffee needs to undergo a long chain of events to transform from coffee cherries to a beverage. The coffee postharvest processing is one of the key phases that convert the freshly harvested cherries into green coffee beans before roasting and brewing. Among multiple existing processing methods, the wet processing has been usually applied for Arabica coffee and produces decent quality of both green coffee beans and the cup of coffee. In the present case study, wet processing was followed by a multiphasic approach through both microbiological and metabolomic analyses. The impacts of each processing step, especially the fermentation duration, were studied in detail. Distinct changes in microbial ecosystems, processing waters, coffee beans, and sensory quality of the brews were found. Thus, through fine-tuning of the parameters in each step, the microbial diversity and endogenous bean metabolism can be altered during coffee postharvest processing and hence provide potential to improve coffee quality.
Project description:Snap beans are a significant source of micronutrients in the human diet. Among the micronutrients present in snap beans are phenolic compounds with known beneficial effects on human health, potentially via their metabolism by the gut-associated microbiome. The genetic pathways leading to the production of phenolics in snap bean pods remain uncertain. In this study, we quantified the level of total phenolic content (TPC) in the Bean Coordinated Agriculture Program (CAP) snap bean diversity panel of 149 accessions. The panel was characterized spectrophotometrically for phenolic content with a Folin-Ciocalteu colorimetric assay. Flower, seed and pod color were also quantified, as red, purple, yellow and brown colors are associated with anthocyanins and flavonols in common bean. Genotyping was performed through an Illumina Infinium Genechip BARCBEAN6K_3 single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) array. Genome-Wide Association Studies (GWAS) analysis identified 11 quantitative trait nucleotides (QTN) associated with TPC. An SNP was identified for TPC on Pv07 located near the P gene, which is a major switch in the flavonoid biosynthetic pathway. Candidate genes were identified for seven of the 11 TPC QTN. Five regulatory genes were identified and represent novel sources of variation for exploitation in developing snap beans with higher phenolic levels for greater health benefits to the consumer.
Project description:We report on the analysis of volatile compounds by SPME-GC-MS for individual roasted coffee beans. The aim was to understand the relative abundance and variability of volatile compounds between individual roasted coffee beans at constant roasting conditions. Twenty-five batches of Arabica and robusta species were sampled from 13 countries, and 10 single coffee beans randomly selected from each batch were individually roasted in a fluidised-bed roaster at 210?°C for 3?min. High variability (CV?=?14.0-53.3%) of 50 volatile compounds in roasted coffee was obtained within batches (10 beans per batch). Phenols and heterocyclic nitrogen compounds generally had higher intra-batch variation, while ketones were the most uniform compounds (CV?<?20%). The variation between batches was much higher, with the CV ranging from 15.6 to 179.3%. The highest variation was observed for 2,3-butanediol, 3-ethylpyridine and hexanal. It was also possible to build classification models based on geographical origin, obtaining 99.5% and 90.8% accuracy using LDA or MLR classifiers respectively, and classification between Arabica and robusta beans. These results give further insight into natural variation of coffee aroma and could be used to obtain higher quality and more consistent final products. Our results suggest that coffee volatile concentration is also influenced by other factors than simply the roasting degree, especially green coffee composition, which is in turn influenced by the coffee species, geographical origin, ripening stage and pre- and post-harvest processing.
Project description:Staple food crops tend to be low in micronutrients; therefore, individuals whose diets rely heavily on them can suffer from micronutrient deficiency. Biofortification addresses this issue through the breeding of staple crops that are micronutrient-dense and high yielding. One such crop is iron-biofortified beans. Ten iron-biofortified bean varieties were released between 2010 and 2012 in Rwanda, a country with high rates of bean production and consumption, to address iron deficiency. This study evaluates the effect of the most widely adopted of these varieties, RWR2245, on household yield, land cultivated under beans, bean consumption, purchases, and sales. Because the adoption decision could be endogenous, we use a control function approach to quantify the impacts of adoption. RWR2245 provides a yield gain of 20%-49% over traditional bush bean varieties. In our preferred model specification, we find that over a 12-month period, growing RWR2245 for at least one out of two annual growing seasons increases the length of time beans are consumed from own production by 0.64 months (19-20 days), reduces the length of time beans are purchased for consumption by 0.73 months (22-23 days), and increases the probability of selling beans by 12%. Adoption can thus improve household nutrition via two channels: primarily by increasing iron intake via substituting biofortified harvested beans for less nutrient-dense beans from the market, and additionally by increasing household income that can be spent on nutritious foods through the reduction in bean purchases and increased likelihood of selling beans. Moreover, the sale of iron-biofortified beans implies the availability of iron-dense food in markets, also benefiting households that purchase beans. These findings are promising for the continued adoption of iron-biofortified beans in Rwanda and elsewhere and provide evidence that biofortified crops are an effective investment for nutrition, food security, and poverty reduction.
Project description:The postharvest treatment and processing of fresh coffee cherries can impact the quality of the unroasted green coffee beans. In the present case study, freshly harvested Arabica coffee cherries were processed through two different wet and dry methods to monitor differences in the microbial community structure and in substrate and metabolite profiles. The changes were followed throughout the postharvest processing chain, from harvest to drying, by implementing up-to-date techniques, encompassing multiple-step metagenomic DNA extraction, high-throughput sequencing, and multiphasic metabolite target analysis. During wet processing, a cohort of lactic acid bacteria (i.e., Leuconostoc, Lactococcus, and Lactobacillus) was the most commonly identified microbial group, along with enterobacteria and yeasts (Pichia and Starmerella). Several of the metabolites associated with lactic acid bacterial metabolism (e.g., lactic acid, acetic acid, and mannitol) produced in the mucilage were also found in the endosperm. During dry processing, acetic acid bacteria (i.e., Acetobacter and Gluconobacter) were most abundant, along with Pichia and non-Pichia (Candida, Starmerella, and Saccharomycopsis) yeasts. Accumulation of associated metabolites (e.g., gluconic acid and sugar alcohols) took place in the drying outer layers of the coffee cherries. Consequently, both wet and dry processing methods significantly influenced the microbial community structures and hence the composition of the final green coffee beans. This systematic approach to dissecting the coffee ecosystem contributes to a deeper understanding of coffee processing and might constitute a state-of-the-art framework for the further analysis and subsequent control of this complex biotechnological process. IMPORTANCE:Coffee production is a long process, starting with the harvest of coffee cherries and the on-farm drying of their beans. In a later stage, the dried green coffee beans are roasted and ground in order to brew a cup of coffee. The on-farm, postharvest processing method applied can impact the quality of the green coffee beans. In the present case study, freshly harvested Arabica coffee cherries were processed through wet and dry processing in four distinct variations. The microorganisms present and the chemical profiles of the coffee beans were analyzed throughout the postharvest processing chain. The up-to-date techniques implemented facilitated the investigation of differences related to the method applied. For instance, different microbial groups were associated with wet and dry processing methods. Additionally, metabolites associated with the respective microorganisms accumulated on the final green coffee beans.
Project description:The growth of filamentous fungi during the spontaneous cocoa bean fermentation leads to inferior cocoa bean quality and poses a health risk for consumers due to the potential accumulation of mycotoxins. We recently developed anti-fungal cultures with the capacity to inhibit the growth of mycotoxigenic filamentous fungi on cocoa beans. However, it is not clear how these anti-fungal cultures affect the fermentation process and cocoa bean quality. For that, the anti-fungal co-cultures, Lactobacillus fermentum M017-Saccharomyces cerevisiae H290 (A) and Lb. fermentum 223-S. cerevisiae H290 (B), were applied to 180-kg box fermentations in Honduras in three time-independent replications each including a spontaneous control fermentation. The comparison of inoculated and spontaneous fermentation processes revealed that the co-cultures only marginally affected the fermentation process and cocoa bean quality. Microorganisms reached maximal levels of 6.2-7.6 log CFU/g of yeasts and acetic acid bacteria and 7.9-9.5 log CFU/g of lactic acid bacteria during all fermentations and led to maximal metabolite concentrations in bean cotyledons of 4-12 mg/g ethanol, 2-6 mg/g lactic acid and 6-14 mg/g acetic acid. The fermentation and drying processes resulted in 38-90 mg epicatechin equivalents/g in the cotyledons of dried beans. However, the co-cultures led to up to ten times higher mannitol levels in cotyledons of inoculated beans compared to beans during spontaneous fermentation, and caused a slower fermentation process, detectable as up to 8-12 °C lower temperatures in the centre of the fermenting pulp-bean mass and up to 22% lower proportions of well-fermented beans after drying. Co-culture B-with Lb. fermentum 223 -led to improved cocoa bean quality compared to co-culture A-with Lb. fermentum M017 -, i.e. cocoa beans with 0.5-1.9 mg/g less acetic acid, 4-17% higher shares of well-fermented beans and, on a scale from 0 to 10, to 0.2-0.6 units lower astringency, up to 1.1 units lower off-flavours, and 0.2-0.9 units higher cocoa notes. Therefore, the anti-fungal co-culture B is recommended for future applications and its capacity to limit fungal growth and mycotoxin production during industrial-scale cocoa bean fermentation should be investigated in further studies.
Project description:Post-harvest wet coffee processing is a commonly applied method to transform coffee cherries into green coffee beans through depulping or demucilaging, fermentation, washing, soaking, drying, and dehulling. Multiple processing parameters can be modified and thus influence the coffee quality (green coffee beans and cup quality). The present study aimed to explore the impacts of these parameters, including processing type (depulping or demucilaging), fermentation duration, and application of soaking, on the microbial community dynamics, metabolite compositions of processing waters (fermentation and soaking) and coffee beans, and resulting cup quality through a multiphasic approach. A large-scale wet coffee processing experiment was conducted with Coffea arabica var. Catimor in Yunnan (China) in duplicate. The fermentation steps presented a dynamic interaction between constant nutrient release (mainly from the cherry mucilage) into the surrounding water and active microbial activities led by lactic acid bacteria, especially Leuconostoc and Lactococcus. The microbial communities were affected by both the processing type and fermentation duration. At the same time, the endogenous coffee bean metabolism remained active at different stages along the processing, as could be seen through changes in the concentrations of carbohydrates, organic acids, and free amino acids. Among all the processing variants tested, the fermentation duration had the greatest impact on the green coffee bean compositions and the cup quality. A long fermentation duration resulted in a fruitier and more acidic cup. As an ecological alternative for the depulped processing, the demucilaged processing produced a beverage quality comparable to the depulped one. The application of soaking, however, tempered the positive fermentation effects and standardized the green coffee bean quality, regardless of the preceding processing practices applied. Lastly, the impact strength of each processing parameter would also depend on the coffee variety used and the local geographical conditions. All these findings provide a considerable margin of opportunities for future coffee research.