Comprehensive Transcriptome Analysis Reveals Competing Endogenous RNA Networks During Avian Leukosis Virus, Subgroup J-Induced Tumorigenesis in Chickens.
ABSTRACT: Avian leukosis virus subgroup J (ALV-J) is an avian oncogenic retrovirus that induces myeloid tumors and hemangiomas in chickens and causes severe economic losses with commercial layer chickens and meat-type chickens. High-throughput sequencing followed by quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction and bioinformatics analyses were performed to advance the understanding of regulatory networks associated with differentially expressed non-coding RNAs and mRNAs that facilitate ALV-J infection. We examined the expression of mRNAs, long non-coding RNAs (lncRNAs), and miRNAs in the spleens of 20-week-old chickens infected with ALV-J and uninfected chickens. We found that 1723 mRNAs, 7,883 lncRNAs and 13 miRNAs in the spleen were differentially expressed between the uninfected and infected groups (P < 0.05). Transcriptome analysis showed that, compared to mRNA, chicken lncRNAs shared relatively fewer exon numbers and shorter transcripts. Through competing endogenous RNA and co-expression network analyses, we identified several tumor-associated or immune-related genes and lncRNAs. Along transcripts whose expression levels significantly decreased in both ALV-J infected spleen and tumor tissues, BCL11B showed the greatest change. These results suggest that BCL11B may be mechanistically involved in tumorigenesis in chicken and neoplastic diseases, may be related to immune response, and potentially be novel biomarker for ALV-J infection. Our results provide new insight into the pathology of ALV-J infection and high-quality transcriptome resource for in-depth study of epigenetic influences on disease resistance and immune system.
Project description:Avian leukosis virus subgroup J (ALV-J) can induce myeloid tumors and hemangiomas in chickens and causes severe economic losses with commercial layer chickens and meat-type chickens. Here, we generated ribominus RNA sequencing data from three normal chicken spleen tissues and three ALV-J-infected chicken spleen tissues. Structure analysis of transcripts showed that, compared to mRNAs and lncRNAs, chicken circRNAs shared relatively shorter transcripts and similar GC content. Differentially expression analysis showed 152 differentially expressed circRNAs with 106 circRNAs up regulated and 46 circRNAs down regulated. Through comparing differentially expressed circRNA host genes and mRNAs and performed ceRNA network analysis, we found several tumor or immune-related genes, in which, there were four genes existed in both differentially expressed mRNAs and circRNA host genes (Dock4, Fmr1, Zfhx3, Ralb) and two genes (Mll, Aoc3) involved in ceRNA network. We further characterized one exon-intron circRNA derived from HRH4 gene in the ceRNA network, termed circHRH4, which is an abundant and stable circRNA expressed in various tissues and cells in chicken and localizes in cytoplasm. Our results provide new insight into the pathology of ALV-J infection and circRNAs may also mediate tumorigenesis in chicken.
Project description:Purpose: The goals of this study are to investigate the differentially expressed miRNAs between ALV-J infected (WRR+) and uninfected (WRR-)chickens spleens by Illumina deep sequencing. Methods: 140-day-old female chickens of White Recessive Rock (WRR) were confirmed as J subgroup avian leukosis virus (ALV-J) infection. Total RNA from three ALV-J-infected spleens (designated: WRR1+, WRR2+, WRR3+) and three uninfected normal spleen samples (designated: WRR1-, WRR2-, WRR3-) was isolated by TRIzol following the manufacturer’s instruction (Invitrogen, CA, USA). RNA samples of three individuals within each group were pooled with equal amounts, and then were subjected to Illumina deep sequencing by Illumina Hiseq 2500. Results: After raw data filtered, 12,150,275 and 15,227,930 reads of 18-32 bp, representing 569,847 and 543,062 unique sequences, were obtained for WRR- and WRR+ libraries, respectively. Through blasting with the chicken reference genome, 360,180 WRR- sequences and 327,391 WRR+ sequences, which accounted for more than 60% of the unique sequences, were perfectly matched.To analyze the miRNA detection efficiency of Illimuna deep sequencing, all the clean reads were blasted with the Rfam data base 10.1, annotated and then removed rRNA, tRNA, snoRNA and other snRNAs. The annotation results revealed that miRNAs accounted for more than 68% of all clean reads in the WRR− and WRR+ libraries. In this study, a total of 476 miRNAs were identified after compared the unique sequences against the chicken miRNAs precursors in miRBase 18.0. Base on unique sequences matched counts, 167 differential expression miRNAs were identified by DEGseq package using Benjamini-q-value of 0.001 as a cut-off. In ALV-J infected spleens, 83 miRNAs showed up-regulated expression and 84 were down-regulated when compared to uninfected samples. Conclusions: Our study represents the first time to analysis of miRNA Expression in Spleen of J Subgroup Avian Leukosis Virus (ALV-J) Infected (WRR+) and Uninfected (WRR-) Broilers. A total of 167 miRNAs were found to be differentially expressed in ALV-J infected spleens when compared to uninfected chickens. These miRNAs can be considered as candidates for further study ALV-J invasion. Overall design: Spleen miRNA profiles of 140-day-old ALV-J infected (WRR+) and uninfected (WRR-) female chickens of White Recessive Rock were generated by deep sequencing, using Illumina Hiseq 2500.
Project description:Purpose: The goals of this study are to investigate the differentially expressed mRNAs and lncRNAs between ALV-J infected MDM and uninfected MDM in chickens by Illumina deep sequencing. Methods: Total RNA from two ALV-J-infected MDM (designated: J3h_1, J3h_2, J36h_1 and J36h_2) and two uninfected MDM samples (designated: NC3h_1, NC3h_2, NC36h_1 and NC36h_2) was isolated by TRIzol following the manufacturer’s instruction at 3 h post infection (hpi) and 36 hpi. RNA samples were subjected to Illumina deep sequencing by Illumina Hiseq 2000. Results:Compared to the uninfected control, a total of 1568 and 550 up-regulated genes were identified in chicken MDM at 3 hpi and 36 hpi respectively, and 1227 and 397 down-regulated genes were identified at 3 hpi and 36 hpi, respectively.128 and 30 DE lncRNAs were identified in MDM at 3 hpi and 36 hpi, respectively. Conclusions: Strong immune response induced by ALV-J infection in MDM at 3 hpi. Many genes, lncRNAs involved in immune response such as PRRs signaling pathway and Jak-STAT signaling pathway at 3 hpi. Specifically, 78 ISGs expression significantly increased in ALV-J-infected MDM at 3 hpi. We speculated that host innate immune response could inhibit ALV-J replication in chicken MDM. These results provide valuable insights into the game of host antiviral immune response and ALV-J infection. Overall design: Chicken mRNAs and lncRNAs profiles of ALV-J infected MDM and uninfected MDM were generated by deep sequencing, using Illumina Hiseq 2000.
Project description:Avian leukosis virus subgroup J (ALV-J) can cause several different leukemia-like proliferative diseases in the hemopoietic system of chickens. Here, we investigated the transcriptome profiles and miRNA expression profiles of ALV-J-infected and uninfected chicken spleens to identify the genes and miRNAs related to ALV-J invasion. In total, 252 genes and 167 miRNAs were differentially expressed in ALV-J-infected spleens compared to control uninfected spleens. miR-23b expression was up-regulated in ALV-J-infected spleens compared with the control spleens, and transcriptome analysis revealed that the expression of interferon regulatory factor 1 (IRF1) was down-regulated in ALV-J-infected spleens compared to uninfected spleens. A dual-luciferase reporter assay showed that IRF1 was a direct target of miR-23b. miR-23b overexpression significantly (P = 0.0022) decreased IRF1 mRNA levels and repressed IRF1-3'-UTR reporter activity. In vitro experiments revealed that miR-23b overexpression strengthened ALV-J replication, whereas miR-23b loss of function inhibited ALV-J replication. IRF1 overexpression inhibited ALV-J replication, and IRF1 knockdown enhanced ALV-J replication. Moreover, IRF1 overexpression significantly (P = 0.0014) increased IFN-β expression. In conclusion, these results suggested that miR-23b may play an important role in ALV-J replication by targeting IRF1.
Project description:Avian leukosis virus (ALV) causes substantial economic losses from mortality and decreased performance in poultry industry. To characterize the response to ALV challenge, we developed a novel methodology that combines four datasets: mRNA expression and their associated regulatory factors of miRNA and lncRNA, and ALV gene expression. Specific Pathogen-Free (SPF) layer chickens were assigned to the ALV-infected or control group. Spleen samples (n=6) were collected at 40 days post injection (dpi), and sequenced. Comparing the infected and non-infected groups, 864 genes, 7 miRNAs and 17 lncRNAs were differentially expressed.
Project description:Avian leukosis virus subgroup J (ALV-J) infection can cause tumors and immunosuppression in infected chickens. Macrophages play a central role in host defense against invading pathogens. In this study, we discovered an interesting phenomenon: ALV-J replication is weakened from 3 hours post-infection (hpi) to 36 hpi, which was verified using Western blotting and RT-PCR. To further investigate the interaction between ALV-J and macrophages, transcriptome analysis was performed to analyze the host genes' function in chicken primary monocyte-derived macrophages (MDM). Compared to the uninfected control, 624 up-regulated differentially expressed genes (DEG) and 341 down-regulated DEG at 3 hpi, and 174 up-regulated DEG and 87 down-regulated DEG at 36 hpi were identified in chicken MDM, respectively. ALV-J infection induced strong innate immune responses in chicken MDM at 3 hpi, instead of 36 hpi, according to the analysis results of Gene Ontology and KEGG pathway. Importantly, the host factors, such as up-regulated MIP-3?, IL-1?, iNOS, K60, IRG1, CH25H, NFKBIZ, lysozyme and OASL were involved in the host defense response during the course of ALV-J infection. On the contrary, up-regulated EX-FABP, IL4I1, COX-2, NFKBIA, TNFAIP3 and the Jak STAT pathway inhibitors including CISH, SOCS1 and SOCS3 are beneficial to ALV-J survival in chicken macrophages. We speculated that ALV-J tropism for macrophages helps to establish a latent infection in chicken MDM from 6 to 36 hpi. The present study provides a comprehensive view of the interactions between macrophages and ALV-J. It suggests the mechanisms of defense of chicken macrophages against ALV-J invasion and how ALV-J escape the host innate immune responses.
Project description:Avian leukosis virus subgroup K (ALV-K) is an emerging ALV tumor virus of chickens. We developed a SYBR green-based real-time polymerase chain reaction (PCR) assay for the rapid and economical detection of ALV-K in chicken flocks. The assay was specific for ALV-K and did not cross-react with other ALV subgroup or avian influenza virus, Newcastle disease virus, or Marek's Disease virus. The method was 100 times more sensitive than conventional PCR and 10 times more sensitive than the enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) for the P27 antigen. The assay was also more sensitive than conventional PCR in tests of 86 clinical plasma samples. DF-1 tissue culture cells infected with 1 TCID50 ALV-K particle were identified as negative using ELISA but tested positive with the real-time PCR method. The viral loads in organs and tissues in infected chickens were highest in kidney, lungs, and glandular stomach, and these results matched ELISA findings.
Project description:Purpose: The goals of this study are to investigate the differentially expressed genes between ALV-J infected (WRR+) and uninfected (WRR-)chickens spleens by Illumina deep sequencing. Methods: 140-day-old female chickens of White Recessive Rock (WRR) were confirmed as J subgroup avian leukosis virus (ALV-J) infection. Total RNA from three ALV-J-infected spleens (designated: WRR1+, WRR2+, WRR3+) and three uninfected normal spleen samples (designated: WRR1-, WRR2-, WRR3-) was isolated by TRIzol following the manufacturer’s instruction (Invitrogen, CA, USA). RNA samples of three individuals within each group were pooled with equal amounts, and then were subjected to Illumina deep sequencing by Illumina Genome Analyzer IIx. Results: Through raw data processed, 49,979,648 and 43,704,401 clean reads with an average length of 101 bp, which represented total residues of 4,859,084,087 and 4,238,826,168 bp, were obtained for WRR- and WRR+ libraries, respectively. Subsequently, the clean reads in the two libraries were assembled. Altogether, 121,493 contigs were assembled with an average length of 927 bp (ranged from 300 bp to 23,402 bp), leading to generation of 82,829 unigenes. The length of unigenes varied from 351 bp to 28,928 bp, with an average length of 1,155 bp. Based on the FPKM value of each gene, 252 DEGs were identified by DEGseq package using Benjamini-q-value of 0.05 as a cut-off. In ALV-J infected spleens, 90 genes showed up-regulated and 162 showed down-regulated expression when compared to uninfected samples. Conclusions: Our study represents the first time to elucidate the ALV-J infected chickens’spleens at the transcription level by RNA-seq technology. A total of 252 genes were found to be differentially expressed in ALV-J infected spleens when compared to uninfected chickens. These genes can be considered as candidates for further study ALV-J invasion. Spleen mRNA profiles of 140-day-old ALV-J infected (WRR+) and uninfected (WRR-) female chickens of White Recessive Rock were generated by deep sequencing, using Illumina Genome Analyzer IIx.
Project description:Avian leukosis virus (ALV) is detrimental to poultry health and causes substantial economic losses from mortality and decreased performance. Because tumorigenesis is a complex mechanism, the regulatory architecture of the immune system is likely to include the added dimensions of modulation by miRNAs and long-noncoding RNA (lncRNA). To characterize the response to ALV challenge, we developed a novel methodology that combines four datasets: mRNA expression and the associated regulatory factors of miRNA and lncRNA, and ALV gene expression. Specific Pathogen-Free (SPF) layer chickens were infected with ALV-J or maintained as non-injected controls. Spleen samples were collected at 40 days post injection (dpi), and sequenced. There were 864 genes, 7 miRNAs and 17 lncRNAs differentially expressed between infected and non-infected birds. The combined analysis of the 4 RNA expression datasets revealed that ALV infection is detected by pattern-recognition receptors (TLR9 and TLR3) leading to a type-I IFN mediated innate immune response that is modulated by IRF7 and IRF1. Co-expression network analysis of mRNA with miRNA, lncRNA and virus genes identified key elements within the complex networks utilized during ALV response. The integration of information from the host transcriptomic, epigenetic and virus response also has the potential to provide deeper insights into other host-pathogen interactions.
Project description:The interactions between the subgroup A avian leukosis virus [ALV(A)] envelope glycoproteins and soluble forms of the ALV(A) receptor Tva were analyzed both in vitro and in vivo by quantitating the ability of the soluble Tva proteins to inhibit ALV(A) entry into susceptible cells. Two soluble Tva proteins were tested: the 83-amino-acid Tva extracellular region fused to two epitope tags (sTva) or fused to the constant region of the mouse immunoglobulin G heavy chain (sTva-mIgG). Replication-competent ALV-based retroviral vectors with subgroup B or C env were used to deliver and express the two soluble tv-a (stva) genes in avian cells. In vitro, chicken embryo fibroblasts or DF-1 cells expressing sTva or sTva-mIgG proteins were much more resistant to infection by ALV(A) ( approximately 200-fold) than were control cells infected by only the vector. The antiviral effect was specific for ALV(A), which is consistent with a receptor interference mechanism. The antiviral effect of sTva-mIgG was positively correlated with the amount of sTva-mIgG protein. In vivo, the stva genes were delivered and expressed in line 0 chicken embryos by the ALV(B)-based vector RCASBP(B). Viremic chickens expressed relatively high levels of stva and stva-mIgG RNA in a broad range of tissues. High levels of sTva-mIgG protein were detected in the sera of chickens infected with RCASBP(B)stva-mIgG. Viremic chickens infected with RCASBP(B) alone, RCASBP(B)stva, or RCASBP(B)stva-mIgG were challenged separately with ALV(A) and ALV(C). Both sTva and sTva-mIgG significantly inhibited infection by ALV(A) (95 and 100% respectively) but had no measurable effect on ALV(C) infection. The results of this study indicate that a soluble receptor can effectively block infection of at least some retroviruses and demonstrates the utility of the ALV experimental system in characterizing the mechanism(s) of viral entry.