Multifunctional CdSNPs@ZIF-8: Potential Antibacterial Agent against GFP-Expressing Escherichia coli and Staphylococcus aureus and Efficient Photocatalyst for Degradation of Methylene Blue.
ABSTRACT: Multifunctional novel core-shell composites, CdSNPs@ZIF-8, have been synthesized by in situ encapsulation of different amounts of CdSNPs (150, 300, and 500 ?L suspension of CdSNPs in methanol) in ZIF-8 at room temperature. These composites have been characterized by powder X-ray diffraction, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), field emission scanning electron microscopy, high-resolution transmission electron microscopy (HRTEM), and diffuse reflectance spectroscopy techniques and Brunauer-Emmett-Teller surface analysis. XPS and HRTEM indicate the encapsulation of CdSNPs within ZIF-8 crystal without disturbing the crystal order of ZIF-8. The average size of embedded CdSNPs (determined by the particle size distribution from HRTEM) is found to be 16.34 nm. CdSNPs@ZIF-8 showed potential to be used as an antibacterial agent against the broad spectrum of bacterial strains such as Gram-positive Staphylococcus aureus and Gram-negative green fluorescent protein-expressing Escherichia coli in aqueous medium, as evident by various biophysical experiments, viz., 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide assay, optical density and fluorescence spectroscopic studies, fluorescence and optical microscopic image analysis, disk diffusion assay, field emission scanning electron microscopy, and flow cytometry for reactive oxygen species induction assay. Further, the composite has been used as an efficient photocatalyst for the degradation of organic pollutants, such as methylene blue dye, in aqueous medium and found that the core-shell composite, CdSNPs@ZIF-8 (150 ?L) (abbreviated as NC-1) (5 mg), exhibited higher photocatalytic activity (?1.8 times) than CdSNPs for degradation of 90% of methylene blue (10 mL of 10 ppm) at pH ? 7 due to the synergetic effect. Therefore, in situ encapsulation of CdSNPs in ZIF-8 provides an easy executable measure for purification of wastewater effluents for the effective photocatalytic degradation of organic pollutants as well as to remove the bacterial contamination under sunlight.
Project description:Semiconductor materials have been shown to have good photocatalytic behavior and can be utilized for the photodegradation of organic pollutants. In this work, three-dimensional flower-like SnS? (tin sulfide) was synthesized by a facile hydrothermal method. Core-shell structured SiO?@α-Fe?O? nanocomposites were then deposited on the top of the SnS? flowers. The as-synthesized nanocomposites were characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD), Raman spectroscopy, field emission scanning electron microscopy (FE-SEM), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), UV?Vis Spectroscopy, Brunauer?Emmett?Teller (BET) surface area analysis, and photoluminescence (PL) spectroscopy. The photocatalytic behavior of the SnS?-SiO?@α-Fe?O? nanocomposites was investigated by observing the degradation of methylene blue (MB). The results show an effective enhancement of photocatalytic activity for the degradation of MB especially for the 15 wt % SiO?@α-Fe?O? nanocomposites on SnS? flowers.
Project description:In this study, uniform Fe3O4 magnetic nanorings (Fe3O4-MNRs) were prepared through a simple hydrothermal method. The morphology, magnetic properties, and structure of the product were characterized by transmission electron microscope (TEM), scanning electron microscope (SEM), high resolution transmission electron microscopy (HRTEM), vibrating sample magnetometer (VSM), X-ray powder diffraction (XRD), and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), respectively. The Fe3O4-MNRs were used as Fenton-like catalysts in the presence of hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) and showed excellent Fenton-catalytic activity for degradation of organic dyes such as Methylene blue (MB), Rhodamine B (RhB), and Bromophenol blue (BPB). Furthermore, the obtained Fe3O4-MNRs could be recycled after used for several times and still remained in a relative high activity and could rapidly be separated from the reaction medium using a magnet without considerable loss. All results reveal that Fe3O4-MNRs have potential for the treatment of dyes pollutants.
Project description:This study synthesized and characterized composites of graphene oxide and TiO2 (GO-TiO2). GO-TiO2 thin films were deposited using the doctor blade technique. Subsequently, the thin films were sensitized with a natural dye extracted from a Colombian source (Bactris guineensis). Thermogravimetric analysis, X-ray diffraction, Raman spectroscopy, scanning electron microscopy (SEM), X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) and diffuse reflectance measurements were used for physico-chemical characterization. All the samples were polycrystalline in nature, and the diffraction signals corresponded to the TiO2 anatase crystalline phase. Raman spectroscopy and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) verified the synthesis of composite thin films, and the SEM analysis confirmed the TiO2 films morphological modification after the process of GO incorporation and sensitization. XPS results suggested a possibility of appearance of titanium (III) through the formation of oxygen vacancies (Ov). Furthermore, the optical results indicated that the presence of the natural sensitizer and GO improved the optical properties of TiO2 in the visible range. Finally, the photocatalytic degradation of methylene blue was studied under visible irradiation in aqueous solution, and pseudo-first-order model was used to obtain kinetic information about photocatalytic degradation. These results indicated that the presence of GO has an important synergistic effect in conjunction with the natural sensitizer, reaching a photocatalytic yield of 33%.
Project description:Compositing nanoparticles photo-catalyst with enormous surface areas metal-organic framework (MOF) will greatly improve photocatalytic performances. Herein, WO3 nanoparticles are partly embedded into pores of MIL-101 or only supported on the outside of representative MIL-101, which were defined as embedded structure WO3@MIL-101@WO3 and coating structure WO3&MIL-101 respectively. Different pH, concentration and loading percentage were researched. XRD, TEM and BET were carried to analyze the composites. Compared with the pristine WO3, all WO3 loaded MOF nanocomposites exhibited remarkable enhancing for the efficiency of photocatalytic degradation methylene blue under visible light. Their activity of the same loading percentage WO3 in embedded structure and coating structure have increased for 9 and 3 times respectively compared with pure WO3. The WO3@MIL-101@WO3 has 3 times higher efficiency than WO3&MIL-101, because the shorter electron-transport distance can make a contribution to electron-hole separation. The further mechanism involved has been investigated by radical quantify experiment, XPS and photoluminescence spectroscopy.
Project description:A facile two-step method was developed to prepare core/shell ZnO/rGO particles from ZIF-8/rGO composites. ZIF-8 particles were first grown at the surface of rGO sheets. Next, ZIF-8 particles were transformed into ZnO particles by thermal decomposition under air at 500 °C. All materials were characterized by scanning electron microscopy, transmission electron microscopy, X-ray diffraction, Raman spectroscopy, thermogravimetric analysis, and Brunauer-Emmett-Teller analyses. Results obtained show that ZIF-8 particles strongly associate with rGO sheets and that the calcination of this material produces porous core/shell ZnO/rGO particles with an average diameter of ca. 40 nm. The wt % of rGO associated with ZIF-8 particles was varied from 5 to 20%. The ZnO/rGO (10%) particles exhibit the highest photocatalytic activity for the degradation of the Orange II dye under simulated solar light irradiation of weak intensity (5 mW/cm2). This high photocatalytic activity was demonstrated to originate from superoxide O2 •- radicals due to the efficient trapping of photogenerated electrons in ZnO by rGO.
Project description:TiO2/graphene (TiO2-x/GR) composites, which are Ti(3+) self-doped TiO2 nanorods decorated on boron doped graphene sheets, were synthesized via a simple one-step hydrothermal method using low-cost NaBH4 as both a reducing agent and a boron dopant on graphene. The resulting TiO2 nanorods were about 200 nm in length with exposed (100) and (010) facets. The samples were characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD), UV-visible diffuse reflectance spectroscopy, X-band electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR), X-ray photoelectron spectra (XPS), transmission electron microscope (TEM), Raman, and Fourier-transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR). The XRD results suggest that the prepared samples have an anatase crystalline structure. All of the composites tested exhibited improved photocatalytic activities as measured by the degradation of methylene blue and phenol under visible light irradiation. This improvement was attributed to the synergistic effect of Ti(3+) self-doping on TiO2 nanorods and boron doping on graphene.
Project description:Poly(lactic acid) (PLA) electrospun membranes immobilized with Zeolitic imidazole framework/graphene oxide hybrid (ZIF-8@GO) are fabricated via electrospinning. At first, ZIF-8@GO is synthesized by the in situ growth method. The UV-visible light (UV-vis) result demonstrates that ZIF-8@GO has a narrower band gap than ZIF-8. The performance of the obtained composite membrane is investigated by scanning electron microscope, Fourier transform IR spectroscopy, tensile test, water contact angle, and methylene blue (MB) removal test. The results demonstrate that the degradable PLA/ZIF-8@GO electrospun membrane shows enhanced tensile strength than neat PLA. The composite membrane also shows great MB removal ability by adsorption and photocatalytic degradation. The MB removal efficiency could reach over 90% at very low ZIF-8@GO concentration (0.06 mg/mL).
Project description:TiO2/TiOF2 nanohybrids were quickly synthesized through a hydrothermal process using titanium n-butoxide (TBOT), ethanol (C2H5OH) and hydrofluoric acid as precursors. The prepared nanohybrids underwent additional NaOH treatment (OH-TiO2/TiOF2) to enhance their photocatalytic performance. In this paper, the mechanism of NaOH affecting the pathway of transformation from TBOT (Ti precursor) to TiO2 nanosheets was discussed. The synthesized TiO2/TiOF2 and OH-TiO2/TiOF2 were characterized by field emission scanning electron microscopy (FE-SEM), high-resolution transmission electron microscopy (HRTEM), X-ray diffraction pattern (XRD), Fourier infrared spectroscopic analysis (FT-IR), Photoluminescence (PL) emission spectra and UV-visible diffuse reflection spectra (UV-vis DRS). The photocatalytic activity and stability of synthesized samples were evaluated by degradation of methylene blue (MB) under the simulated solar light. The results showed that a larger ratio of TiO2 to TiOF2 in TiO2/TiOF2 and OH-TiO2/TiOF2 nanohybrids could allow for even higher MB conversion compared with only TiO2 nanosheets. NaOH treatment can wash off the F ions from TiOF2 and induce this larger ratio. The highest efficiency of MB removal was just above 90% in 1?h. Lower electron-hole pairs recombination rate is the dominant factor that induces the photocatalytic performance enhancement of TiO2/TiOF2 nanohybrids. The synthesized OH-TiO2/TiOF2 nanohybrids exhibit great potential in the abatement of organic pollutants.
Project description:In this work, we have successfully synthesized a bimetallic (Zinc and Cobalt) Zeolitic Imidazolate Framework (Zn50Co50-ZIF), a class in a wider microporous Metal-Organic Framework (MOF) family. The synthesized nanostructures maintain both water stability like ZIF-8 (solely Zn containing) and charge transfer electronic band in the visible optical spectrum as ZIF-67 (solely Co containing). Crystal structure from XRD, high resolution transmission electron microscopy (HRTEM) followed by elemental mapping (EDAX) confirm structural stability and omnipresence of the metal atoms (Zn and Co) across the nanomaterial with equal proportion. Existence of charge transfer state consistent with ZIF67 and intact ultrafast excited state dynamics of the imidazolate moiety in both ZIF-8 and ZIF-67, is evidenced from steady state and time resolved optical spectroscopy. The thermal and aqueous stabilities of Zn50Co50-ZIF are found to be better than ZIF-67 but comparable to ZIF-8 as evidenced by solubility, scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and XRD studies of the material in water. We have evaluated the photoinduced ROS generation by the mixed ZIF employing dichloro-dihydro-fluorescein diacetate (DCFH-DA) assay. We have also explored the potentiality of the synthesized material for the alternate remediation of methicillin resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) infection through the photoinduced reactive oxygen species (ROS) generation and methylene blue (MB) degradation kinetics.
Project description:The rational approach motivated the design of novel antimicrobial silver and silver–copper bimetallic nanoparticles contained within zeolitic imidazolate framework-8 supported on graphene oxide (GO), Ag@ZIF-8@GO, and AgCu@ZIF8@GO. In the resultant composites, ZIF-8 was able to prevent the stacking of GO sheets and also acted as a carrier for the nanoparticles within its cavities. GO, on the other hand, acted as an anchoring support enabling uniform dispersion of the nanocomposites, thus eliminating their aggregation. The morphological and physicochemical properties of the composites were determined through a variety of characterization techniques, for example, transmission electron microscopy, scanning electron microscopy, Fourier-transform infrared spectroscopy, p-X-ray diffraction (XRD), nitrogen sorption, and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS). The energy-dispersive system and XPS supplied evidence of the presence of all expected components in the composites. The XRD provided proof of a crystalline, distorted ZIF-8 structure. Ag@ZIF8@GO and Ag–Cu@ZIF-8@GO composites were effective against both Gram-negative (Escherichia coli) and Gram-positive (Staphylococcus aureus) bacteria as determined by the disc diffusion method. The role of silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) in the antibacterial activity of both Ag@ZIF8@GO and AgCu@ZIF8@GO was highlighted as crucial in the probable pathway in the antimicrobial activity of the composites.