Rational design and optimization of selenophenes with basic side chains as novel potent selective estrogen receptor modulators (SERMs) for breast cancer therapy.
ABSTRACT: To increase the diversity of estrogen receptor (ER) ligands having novel structures and activities, series of selenophene derivatives with a basic side chain (BSC) were synthesized and their biological activity as subtype-selective antagonists for the ER was explored. Compared with the selenophenes without a BSC, most compounds showed an increase in binding affinity, and several compounds displayed enhanced antagonist potency and antiproliferative activity. Especially, compound 16c exhibited excellent transcriptional activity for ER? (IC50 = 13 nM) which made this compound the most potent antagonist for ER? of the whole series and is 66-fold better than the best selenophene compound without a BSC. Moreover, several compounds showed values of IC50 better than that of 4-hydroxytamoxifen in breast cancer MCF-7 cells. The modeling study indicated that the basic side chain might contribute to their increased antagonist potency and antiproliferative activity. These new ligands have the potential to be further developed as novel agents to improve therapeutics that target the estrogen receptor.
Project description:The importance of the heterocyclic core elements with peripheral phenolic and alkyl substituents as a dominant structural motif of ligands for the estrogen receptor (ER) has been well recognized. In this study we expanded the structural diversity of core elements by preparing selenium-containing heterocycles and exploring the activities of these selenophenes on the two ERs, ER? and ER?. Careful structure-activity relationship (SAR) analysis of their ER binding affinities showed that most selenophenes are ER?-selective, with the position of the phenol substituents on the selenophene core and the nature of these substituents having a marked effect on their binding affinities. The compound bis(2-fluoro-4-hydroxyphenyl)selenophene (2?f) has the highest relative binding affinity (RBA) of 24.3 for ER?. In transcription assays, most selenophenes were found to exhibit partial to full agonist activity for both ER subtypes, with compounds bis(2-methyl-4-hydroxyphenyl)selenophene (2?b), bis(4-fluoro-3-hydroxyphenyl)3-bromoselenophene (6?f), and 2,3,5-tris(hydroxyphenyl)thiophenes (8?b and 8?d) profiling as superagonists for ER?; however, several compounds display a range of ER? or ER? antagonistic activities. A few selenophenes exhibited antiproliferative activity, with compound 8?c showing antiproliferative effects similar to that of 4-hydroxytamoxifen in breast cancer MCF-7 cells while being nontoxic to normal VERO cells. These new ligands could act as models for the development of novel agents leading to improved therapeutics that target the estrogen receptor.
Project description:Herein, we report the first synthesis of chlorinated benzo[b]selenophenes via environmentally friendly electrophilic chlorocyclization reaction using "table salt" as a source of "electrophilic chlorine" and ethanol as a solvent. In addition, the synthesis of diverse halogenated heterocycles, including 3-chloro, 3-bromo and 3-iodo thiophenes, selenophenes, and benzo[b]selenophenes was successfully accomplished under the same environmentally benign reaction conditions. This methodology has several advantages over other previously reported reactions as it employs simple starting compounds, an environmentally friendly solvent, ethanol, and non-toxic inorganic reagents under mild reaction conditions, resulting in the high product yields.
Project description:The reactivity of 2-bromo- and 2,5-dibromoselenophenes in Pd-catalyzed direct heteroarylation was investigated. From 2-bromoselenophene, only the most reactive heteroarenes could be employed to prepare 2-heteroarylated selenophenes; whereas, 2,5-dibromoselenophene generally gave 2,5-di(heteroarylated) selenophenes in high yields using both thiazole and thiophene derivatives. Moreover, sequential catalytic C2 heteroarylation, bromination, catalytic C5 arylation reactions allowed the synthesis of unsymmetrical 2,5-di(hetero)arylated selenophene derivatives in three steps from selenophene.
Project description:Nuclear receptors such as the estrogen receptors (ER? and ER?) modulate the effects of the estrogen hormones and are important targets for design of innovative chemotherapeutic agents for diseases such as breast cancer and osteoporosis. Conjugate and bifunctional compounds which incorporate an ER ligand offer a useful method of delivering cytotoxic drugs to tissue sites such as breast cancers which express ERs. A series of novel conjugate molecules incorporating both the ER ligands endoxifen and cyclofenil-endoxifen hybrids covalently linked to the antimitotic and tubulin targeting agent combretastatin A-4 were synthesised and evaluated as ER ligands. A number of these compounds demonstrated pro-apoptotic effects, with potent antiproliferative activity in ER-positive MCF-7 breast cancer cell lines and low cytotoxicity. These conjugates displayed binding affinity towards ER? and ER? isoforms at nanomolar concentrations e.g., the cyclofenil-amide compound 13e is a promising lead compound of a clinically relevant ER conjugate with IC50 in MCF-7 cells of 187 nM, and binding affinity to ER? (IC50 = 19 nM) and ER? (IC50 = 229 nM) while the endoxifen conjugate 16b demonstrates antiproliferative activity in MCF-7 cells (IC50 = 5.7 nM) and binding affinity to ER? (IC50 = 15 nM) and ER? (IC50 = 115 nM). The ER binding effects are rationalised in a molecular modelling study in which the disruption of the ER helix-12 in the presence of compounds 11e, 13e and 16b is presented These conjugate compounds have potential application for further development as antineoplastic agents in the treatment of ER positive breast cancers.
Project description:BACKGROUND:In view of wide range of biological activities of oxazole, a new series of oxazole analogues was synthesized and its chemical structures were confirmed by spectral data (Proton/Carbon-NMR, IR, MS etc.). The synthesized oxazole derivatives were screened for their antimicrobial and antiproliferative activities. RESULTS AND DISCUSSION:The antimicrobial activity was performed against selected fungal and bacterial strains using tube dilution method. The antiproliferative potential was evaluated against human colorectal carcinoma (HCT116) and oestrogen- positive human breast carcinoma (MCF7) cancer cell lines using Sulforhodamine B assay and, results were compared to standard drugs, 5-fluorouracil and tamoxifen, respectively. CONCLUSION:The performed antimicrobial activity indicated that compounds 3, 5, 6, 8 and 14 showed promising activity against selected microbial species. Antiproliferative screening found compound 14 to be the most potent compound against HCT116 (IC50?=?71.8 µM), whereas Compound 6 was the most potent against MCF7 (IC50?=?74.1 µM). Further, the molecular docking study has been carried to find out the interaction between active oxazole compounds with CDK8 (HCT116) and ER-? (MCF7) proteins indicated that compound 14 and 6 showed good dock score with better potency within the ATP binding pocket and may be used as a lead for rational drug designing of the anticancer molecule.
Project description:The two new lignans 3?-O-(?-D-glucopyranosyl)desoxypodophyllotoxin (1) and 4-O-(?-D-glucopyranosyl)dehydropodophyllotoxin (2) were isolated from Cleistanthus boivinianus, together with the known lignans deoxypicropodophyllotoxin (3), (±)-?-apopicropodophyllin (4), (-)-desoxypodophyllotoxin (5), (-)-yatein (6), and ?-peltatin-5-O-?-D-glucopyranoside (7). The structures of all compounds were characterized by spectroscopic techniques. Compounds 1, 4, and 5 showed potent antiproliferative activities against the A2780 ovarian cancer cell line, with IC50 values of 33.0 ± 3.6, 63.1 ± 6.7, and 230 ± 1 nM, respectively. Compounds 2 and 7 showed only modest A2780 activities, with IC50 values of 2.1 ± 0.3 and 4.9 ± 0.1 ?M, respectively, while compounds 3 and 6 had IC50 values of >10 ?M. Compound 1 also had potent antiproliferative activity against the HCT-116 human colon carcinoma cell line, with an IC50 value of 20.5 nM, and compound 4 exhibited modest antiproliferative activity against the A2058 human caucasian metastatic melanoma and MES-SA human uterine sarcoma cell lines, with IC50 values of 4.6 and 4.0 ?M, respectively.
Project description:2,3-Disubstituted benzo[b]selenophenes have been prepared by the electrophilic cyclization of various 1-(1-alkynyl)-2-(methylseleno)arenes by Br2, NBS, I2, ICl, PhSeCl, PhSeBr, and Hg(OAc)2. This method tolerates a wide variety of functional groups, including alcohol, ester, nitrile, nitro, and silyl groups, and proceeds under exceptionally mild reaction conditions.
Project description:Most breast and prostate tumors are hormone-dependent, making it possible to use hormone therapy in patients with these tumors. The design of effective endocrine drugs that block the growth of tumors and have no severe side effects is a challenge. Thereupon, synthetic steroids are promising therapeutic drugs for the treatment of diseases such as hormone-dependent breast and prostate cancers. Here, we describe novel series of steroidal pyrimidines and dihydrotriazines with anticancer activities. A flexible approach to unknown pyrimidine and dihydrotriazine derivatives of steroids with selective control of the heterocyclization pattern is disclosed. A number of 18-nor-5?-androsta-2,13-diene[3,2-d]pyrimidine, androsta-2-ene[3,2-d]pyrimidine, ?1, 3, 5(10)-estratrieno[16,17-d]pyrimidine, and 17-chloro-16-dihydrotriazine steroids were synthesized by condensations of amidines with ?-chlorovinyl aldehydes derived from natural hormones. The synthesized compounds were screened for cytotoxicity against breast cancer cells and showed IC50 values of 7.4 ?M and higher. Compounds were tested against prostate cancer cells and exhibited antiproliferative activity with IC50 values of 9.4 ?M and higher comparable to that of cisplatin. Lead compound 4a displayed selectivity in ER?-positive breast cancer cells. At 10 ?M concentration, this heterosteroid inhibited 50% of the E2-mediated ER? activity and led to partial ER? down-regulation. The ER? reporter assay and immunoblotting were supported by the docking study, which showed the probable binding mode of compound 4a to the estrogen receptor pocket. Thus, heterosteroid 4a proved to be a selective ER? modulator with the highest antiproliferative activity against hormone-dependent breast cancer and can be considered as a candidate for further anticancer drug development. In total, the synthesized heterosteroids may be considered as new promising classes of active anticancer agents.
Project description:In our present research, we synthesised new thiazolidine-2,4-diones (12-28). All the newly synthesised compounds were evaluated for antiproliferative and antibacterial activity. Antiproliferative evaluation was carried out using normal human skin fibroblasts and tumour cell lines: A549, HepG2, and MCF-7. The IC50 values were determined for tested compounds revealing antiproliferative activity. Moreover, safety index (SI) was calculated. Among all tested derivatives, the compound 18 revealed the highest antiproliferative activity against human lung, breast, and liver cancer cells. More importantly, the derivative 18 showed meaningfully lower IC50 values when compared to the reference substance, irinotecan, and relatively high SI values. Moreover, newly synthesised compounds were screened for the bacteria growth inhibition in vitro. According to our screening results, most active compound was the derivative 18 against Gram-positive bacteria. Therefore, it may be implied that the novel compound 18 appears to be a very promising agent for anticancer treatment.
Project description:We report a series of tubulin targeting agents, some of which demonstrate potent antiproliferative activities. These analogs were designed to optimize the antiproliferative activity of 1 by varying the heteroatom substituent at the 4'-position, the basicity of the 4-position amino moiety, and conformational restriction. The potential metabolites of the active compounds were also synthesized. Some compounds demonstrated single digit nanomolar IC50 values for antiproliferative effects in MDA-MB-435 melanoma cells. Particularly, the S-methyl analog 3 was more potent than 1 in MDA-MB-435 cells (IC50?=?4.6?nM). Incubation of 3 with human liver microsomes showed that the primary metabolite of the S-methyl moiety of 3 was the methyl sulfinyl group, as in analog 5. This metabolite was equipotent with the lead compound 1 in MDA-MB-435 cells (IC50?=?7.9?nM). Molecular modeling and electrostatic surface area were determined to explain the activities of the analogs. Most of the potent compounds overcome multiple mechanisms of drug resistance and compound 3 emerged as the lead compound for further SAR and preclinical development.