Comparison of continuous-flow ventricular assist device therapy with intensive medical therapy in fixed pulmonary hypertension secondary to advanced left heart failure.
ABSTRACT: AIMS:Both ventricular assist device (VAD) and pulmonary vasodilator therapy have been shown in uncontrolled studies to improve pulmonary hypertension secondary to advanced left heart failure (Group 2 PH). This study aimed to compare haemodynamic benefits and survival in patients with fixed Group 2 PH treated with continuous-flow VAD to intensive medical therapy. METHODS AND RESULTS:Ninety-five patients listed for heart transplantation with sequential right heart catheters were studied, 24 patients having fixed Group 2 PH (as defined by cardiac index < 2.8 L/min/m2 , pulmonary capillary wedge pressure > 15 mmHg, and transpulmonary gradient ≥ 15 mmHg or pulmonary vascular resistance > 3.0 WU, unresponsive to vasodilator challenge). Ten patients received VAD therapy, and 14 patients received standard heart failure therapy with or without sildenafil, nitrates, or endothelin receptor antagonists. At repeat right heart catheterization, patients treated with VAD therapy demonstrated significant improvement in both transpulmonary gradient (19 vs. 12 mmHg, P = 0.046) and pulmonary vascular resistance (6.5 vs. 2.9 WU, P = 0.003) compared with baseline, while those treated with medical therapy did not (20.9 vs. 20.3 mmHg and 6.5 vs. 6.4 WU, P = NS for both). Patients who received VAD therapy were significantly more likely to achieve normalized transpulmonary gradient (8/10 vs. 4/14, P = 0.013) and were more likely to be listed for orthotopic heart transplantation (7/10 vs. 4/14, P < 0.05). There were no significant differences between groups in terms of all-cause mortality. CONCLUSIONS:Continuous-flow VAD therapy more effectively reverses fixed Group 2 PH compared with medical therapy alone and may allow a higher rate of listing for orthotopic heart transplantation.
Project description:OBJECTIVE:The objective of this randomized, placebo-controlled, double-blind, parallel group, trial was to assess the effect of ambrisentan on mean pulmonary arterial pressure (mPAP) in patients with systemic sclerosis (SSc) and mildly elevated pulmonary hypertension (PH). METHODS:Thirty-eight SSc patients with mildly elevated mPAP at rest between 21 and 24?mmHg and/or >?30?mmHg during low-dose exercise were randomly assigned to treatment with either ambrisentan 5-10?mg/day or placebo. Right heart catheterization and further clinical parameters were assessed at baseline and after 6?months. The primary endpoint was the difference of mPAP change at rest between groups. RESULTS:After 6?months, the two groups did not differ in the primary endpoint (ambrisentan mPAP -?1?±?6.4?mmHg vs. placebo -?0.73?±?3.59?mmHg at rest, p?=?0.884). However, three patients from the placebo group but none of the ambrisentan group progressed to SSc-associated pulmonary arterial hypertension. Furthermore, ambrisentan treatment showed significant improvements in the secondary endpoints cardiac index (CI) and pulmonary vascular resistance (PVR) at rest (CI 0.36?±?0.66?l/min/m2 vs. -?0.31?±?0.71?l/min/m2, p?=?0.010; PVR -?0.70?±?0.78 WU vs. 0.01?±?0.71 WU, p?=?0.012) and during exercise (CI 0.7?±?0.81?l/min/m2 vs. -?0.45?±?1.36?l/min/m2, p?=?0.015; PVR -?0.84?±?0.48 WU vs. -?0.0032?±?0.34 WU, p?<?0.0001). CONCLUSION:This is the first randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled study testing the effect of ambrisentan in patients with mildly elevated mPAP and/or exercise PH. The primary endpoint change in mPAP did only tendentially improve in the ambrisentan group, but the significant improvement of other hemodynamic parameters points to a possible benefit of ambrisentan and will be helpful to design future trials. TRIAL REGISTRATION:www.ClinicalTrials.gov, unique identifier NCT: NCT02290613 , registered 14th of November 2014.
Project description:BACKGROUND:In pulmonary hypertension (PH), both wedge pressure elevation (PAWP) and a precapillary component may affect right ventricular (RV) afterload. These changes may contribute to RV failure and prognosis. We aimed at describing the different haemodynamic phenotypes of patients with PH due to left heart disease (LHD) and at characterizing the impact of pulmonary haemodynamics on RV function and outcome PH-LHD. METHODS:Patients with PH-LHD were compared with treatment-naïve idiopathic/heritable pulmonary arterial hypertension (PAH, n = 35). PH-LHD patients were subdivided in Isolated post-capillary PH (IpcPH: diastolic pressure gradient, DPG<7 mmHg and pulmonary vascular resistance, PVR?3 WU, n = 37), Combined post- and pre-capillary PH (CpcPH: DPG?7 mmHg and PVR>3 WU, n = 27), and "intermediate" PH-LHD (either DPG <7 mmHg or PVR ?3 WU, n = 29). RESULTS:Despite similar PAWP and cardiac index, haemodynamic severity and prevalence of RV dysfunction increased from IpcPH, to "intermediate" and CpcPH. PVR and DPG (but not compliance, Ca) were linearly correlated with RV dysfunction. CpcPH had worse prognosis (p<0.05) than IpcPH and PAH, but similar to "intermediate" patients. Only NTproBNP and Ca independently predicted survival in PH-LHD. CONCLUSIONS:In PH-LHD, haemodynamic characterization according to DPG and PVR provides important information on disease severity, predisposition to RV failure and prognosis. Patients presenting the CpcPH phenotype appear to have haemodynamic profile closer to PAH but with worse prognosis. In PH-LHD, Ca and NTproBNP were independent predictors of survival.
Project description:Regression of pulmonary hypertension (PH) is often incomplete after successful left-sided valve replacement (LSVR). Proximal pulmonary arterial (PPA) wall disease can be involved in patients with persistent-PH after LSVR, affecting the right ventricular to pulmonary arterial (RV-PA) coupling. Fifteen patients underwent successful LSVR at least one year ago presenting PH by echo (>?50?mmHg). Prosthesis-patient mismatch and left ventricular dysfunction were discarded. All patients underwent hemodynamic and intravascular ultrasound (IVUS) study. We estimated PPA stiffness (elastic modulus [EM]) and the relative area wall thickness (AWT). Acute vasoreactivity was assessed by inhaled nitric oxide (iNO) testing. RV-PA coupling was estimated by the tricuspid annular plane systolic excursion to systolic pulmonary arterial pressure ratio. Patients were classified as isolated post-capillary PH (Ipc-PH; pulmonary vascular resistance [PVR]???3 WU and/or diastolic pulmonary gradient [DPG]?<?7?mmHg) and combined post- and pre-capillary PH (Cpc-PH; PVR?>?3 WU and DPG???7?mmHg). Both Ipc-PH and Cpc-PH showed a significant increase of EM and AWT. Despite normal PVR and DPG, Ipc-PH had a significant decrease in pulmonary arterial capacitance and RV-PA coupling impairment. Cpc-PH had worse PA stiffness and RV-PA coupling to Ipc-PH ( P?<?0.05). iNO decreased RV afterload, improving the cardiac index and stroke volume only in Cpc-PH ( P?<?0.05). Patients with persistent PH after successful LSVR have PPA wall disease and RV-PA coupling impairment beyond the hemodynamic phenotype. Cpc-PH is responsive to iNO, having the worse PA stiffness and RV-PA coupling. The PPA remodeling could be an early event in the natural history of PH associated with left heart disease.
Project description:Introduction:Eosinophilic granulomatosis with polyangiitis (EGPA) is characterized by tissue and blood eosinophilia, vasculitis of small to medium-sized vessels, and allergy symptoms, and can cause various manifestations, including heart, lung, gastrointestinal, skin, and peripheral nerve disorders. Case presentation:A 34-year-old woman with a history of asthma, nasal polyp, and sinusitis presented with ventricular fibrillation after severe chest pain. Emergent coronary angiography showed no coronary stenosis. After admission, she suffered from hypoxaemia and recurrent chest pain with ST-segment changes, suggesting vasospastic angina (VSA). Chest computed tomography (CT) showed centrilobular nodular shadows, suggesting bronchiolitis. Since she had hypereosinophilia, we administered oral prednisolone, which resulted in improvements of hypereosinophilia, hypoxaemia, and recurrent chest pains in 3 days. Right heart catheterization showed severe pulmonary hypertension (PH) with a mean pulmonary artery pressure (mPAP) of 48 mmHg and pulmonary vascular resistance (PVR) of 12 Wood units (WU). Ergonovine provocation test induced severe diffuse spasm of the left coronary artery including the left main trunk. Based on asthma, sinusitis, hypereosinophilia, and chest CT findings, the diagnosis of EGPA associated with VSA and PH was made. Thereafter, we started intravenous cyclophosphamide (IV-CY) pulse therapy in addition to prednisolone and pulmonary vasodilators. Six months after IV-CY therapy, mPAP and PVR decreased to 34 mmHg and 5.1 WU, respectively. Moreover, repeated ergonovine provocation test was negative without coronary spasm or electrocardiogram (ECG) changes. Discussion:This case indicates that EGPA can cause severe PH, refractory VSA, and bronchiolitis, which could be markedly improved by treating underlying conditions with immunosuppressive therapy.
Project description:The hemodynamic definitions of pulmonary hypertension (PH) in left heart disease have recently been refined to better match the characteristics required to reflect the presence of pulmonary vascular disease. Accordingly, we tested the hypothesis that abnormalities in the stiffness of pulmonary circulation would persist after heart transplantation in patients with combined post-capillary and pre-capillary PH (Cpc-PH) in contrast to those with isolated post-capillary PH (Ipc-PH).We retrospectively analyzed right heart hemodynamics in a cohort of 295 consecutive patients with heart failure and advanced left ventricular systolic dysfunction (LVSD) before and 1 year after heart transplantation.According to their baseline hemodynamic profile, patients were classified as: 75 Cpc-PH, 111 Ipc-PH, and 98 without PH (no-PH), and 11 pre-capillary PH. One year after heart transplantation, pulmonary artery pressures, pulmonary vascular resistance and cardiac index normalized in all patients regardless of the baseline hemodynamic profile. However, pulmonary arterial compliance remained lower in Cpc-PH patients (from 1.6±1.2 at baseline to 3.7±1.4 ml/mmHg at 1 year) than in Ipc-PH (from 1.2±2.0 to 4.4±2.3 ml/mmHg) and no-PH patients (from 3.7±2.0 to 4.5±1.8 ml/mmHg); (adjusted p = 0.03 Ipc-PH vs. Cpc-PH INT<0.001).In heart failure patients with advanced LVSD, a hemodynamic profile characterized by Cpc-PH predicts the persistence of a stiffer pulmonary circulation at 1 year after heart transplantation.
Project description:The biological mechanisms behind the development of pulmonary hypertension in the setting of left heart failure (HF-PH), including combined pre- and post-capillary pulmonary hypertension (Cpc-PH), remains unclear. This study aimed to use candidate polymorphisms in nitric oxide synthase (NOS) genes to explore the role of NOS in HF-PH. DNA samples from 118 patients with HF-PH were genotyped for the NOS3 rs1799983 and NOS2 rs3730017 polymorphisms. A multiple regression model was used to compare hemodynamic measurements between genotype groups. Patients with the T/T genotype at rs1799983 possessed a nearly 10?mmHg increased transpulmonary gradient (TPG) compared to those with other genotypes ( P?=?0.006). This finding was replicated in an independent cohort of 94 HF-PH patients ( P?=?0.005). However, when tested in a cohort of 162 pre-capillary pulmonary arterial hypertension patients, no association was observed. In a combined analysis of both HF-PH cohorts, mean pulmonary artery pressure (mPAP), diastolic pulmonary gradient (DPG), and CpcPH status were also associated with rs1799983 genotype ( P?=?0.005, P?=?0.03, and P?=?0.02, respectively). In patients with HF-PH, the NOS3 rs1799983 polymorphism is associated with TPG, and potentially mPAP and DPG as well. These findings suggest that endothelial NOS (encoded by NOS3) may be involved in the pulmonary vascular remodeling observed in Cpc-PH and warrants further study.
Project description:Pulmonary hypertension (PH) is a frequent complication of left heart disease and parenchymal lung disease, and it portends increased mortality. A growing number of medications are approved for the treatment of World Health Organization (WHO) group 1 pulmonary arterial hypertension (PAH). However, they are not well studied in PH of other etiologies (WHO groups 2-5). We sought to assess treatment approaches used by PAH referral centers in this diverse group of patients. We developed a semiquantitative online survey designed to evaluate the use of PAH-approved therapy by pulmonary vascular disease centers in the United States for management of non-group 1 PH. Thirty of 50 centers completed the survey. Almost all centers (93%) reported using PAH therapy for patients with non-group 1 PH, including 77% with group 2 PH and 80% with group 3 PH. Elevated transpulmonary gradient or pulmonary vascular resistance and the presence of right ventricular (RV) dysfunction were commonly cited as supporting use of PAH therapy in patients with PH secondary to left heart disease. For patients with PH and concomitant parenchymal lung disease, degree of pulmonary function impairment and RV dysfunction were most important in influencing use of PAH therapy. In conclusion, pulmonary vascular disease treatment centers use PAH-approved therapy for patients with WHO group 2-5 PH, mostly relying on hemodynamics and assessment of RV function to identify candidates for therapy. Clinical trials designed to test the efficacy of PAH therapy in PH due to left heart and lung disease are needed, as clinical practice has extended beyond the evidence for these etiologies of PH.
Project description:Treatment options for chronic thromboembolic pulmonary hypertension (CTEPH) that is not amenable to thromboendarterectomy or is recurrent/persistent after thromboendarterectomy (inoperable CTEPH) include pulmonary vasodilators or balloon pulmonary angioplasty (BPA). We compared efficacy and safety outcomes of BPA with or without pulmonary vasodilators to pulmonary vasodilator therapy alone in patients with inoperable CTEPH. Observational and randomized trial data reporting outcomes for >5 patients with inoperable CTEPH were sought. Single-arm random effects meta-analyses were performed. The primary outcome was change in six-minute walk distance (6MWD). Secondary outcomes included safety; World Health Organization functional class (WHO FC); and change in mean pulmonary arterial pressure (mPAP), pulmonary vascular resistance (PVR), and cardiac index. Thirty-four studies with 1604 patients were eligible for analyses. Both treatments resulted in significant improvement in 6MWD (71.0 meters, 95% CI: 47.4-94.5 meters with BPA versus 47.8 meters, 95% CI: 34.5-61.2 meters with pulmonary vasodilators), PVR [-3.1 Wood Units (WU), 95% CI: -4.9 to -1.4 WU versus -1.6 WU, 95% CI: -2.4 to -0.8 WU] and mPAP (-14.8?mmHg, 95% CI: -18.2 to -11.5?mmHg versus -4.9?mmHg, 95% CI: -6.9 to -2.8?mmHg). Cardiac index was similar and most patients were WHO FC II and III after their respective interventions. More complications occurred in the BPA arm. In conclusion, BPA and pulmonary vasodilators both improve 6MWD and hemodynamics in patients with inoperable CTEPH. While BPA may offer greater functional and hemodynamic improvements, this technique carries the accompanying risks of an invasive procedure.
Project description:Importance:Heart failure with preserved ejection fraction (HFpEF) is highly prevalent, yet there are no specific therapies, possibly due to phenotypic heterogeneity. The development of pulmonary hypertension (PH) in patients with HFpEF is considered a high-risk phenotype in need of targeted therapies, but there have been limited hemodynamic and outcomes data. Objective:To identify the hemodynamic characteristics and outcomes of PH-HFpEF. Design, Setting, and Participants:Cohort study of participants who had a right heart catheterization from January 2005 to September 2012 (median [interquartile range] follow-up time, 1578 [554-2513] days) were analyzed. Hemodynamic catheterization data was linked to the clinical data repository of all inpatient and outpatient encounters across a health system. Single tertiary referral center for heart failure and PH within a large health care network using a common clinical data repository was studied. There were 19 262 procedures in 10 023 participants. Exposures:Participants were classified as having no PH, precapillary PH, or PH in the setting of left heart disease (reduced or preserved ejection fraction). Pulmonary hypertension associated with HFpEF was defined as mean pulmonary artery pressure of 25 mm Hg or more, pulmonary artery wedge pressure of 15 mm Hg or more, and left ventricular ejection fraction of 45% or more. Pulmonary hypertension severity was quantified by the hemodynamic parameters transpulmonary gradient, pulmonary vascular resistance, and diastolic pulmonary gradient. Main Outcomes and Measures:The primary outcome was time to all-cause mortality. Secondary outcomes were time to acute hospitalization and cardiovascular hospitalization. Results:The mean (SD) of all study individuals was 65 (38) years. Of 10 023 individuals, 2587 (25.8%) had PH-HFpEF. Mortality was 23.6% at 1 year and 48.2% at 5 years. Cardiac hospitalizations occurred in 28.1% at 1 year and 47.4% at 5 years. The frequency of precapillary PH using clinically defined cut-offs for transpulmonary gradient (>12 mm Hg), pulmonary vascular resistance (3 Woods units), and diastolic pulmonary gradient (≥7 mm Hg) were 12.6%, 8.8%, and 3.5%, respectively. Transpulmonary gradient, pulmonary vascular resistance, and diastolic pressure gradient were predictive of mortality and cardiac hospitalizations. Conclusions and Relevance:In a large cohort referred for invasive hemodynamic assessment, PH-HFpEF was common. Transpulmonary gradient, pulmonary vascular resistance, and diastolic pulmonary gradient are all associated with mortality and cardiac hospitalizations.
Project description:AIMS:While right ventricular (RV) dysfunction is associated with worse prognosis in co-morbid pulmonary hypertension and heart failure with preserved ejection fraction (PH-HFpEF), the mechanisms driving RV dysfunction are unclear. We evaluated the extent and clinical correlates of diffuse RV myocardial fibrosis in PH-HFpEF, as measured by cardiovascular magnetic resonance-derived extracellular volume (ECV). METHODS AND RESULTS:We prospectively enrolled participants with PH-HFpEF (n = 14), pulmonary arterial hypertension (PAH; n = 13), and controls (n = 8). All participants underwent high-resolution cardiovascular magnetic resonance, and case subjects (PH-HFpEF and PAH) additionally underwent right heart catheterization. T1 mapping was performed using high-resolution modified look-locker inversion recovery with a 1 × 1 mm2 in-plane resolution. RV free wall T1 values were quantified, and ECV was calculated. Participants with PH-HFpEF were older and carried higher rates of hypertension and obstructive sleep apnoea than those with PAH. While RV ECV was similar between PH-HFpEF and PAH (33.1 ± 8.0 vs. 34.0 ± 4.5%; P = 0.57), total pulmonary resistance was lower in PH-HFpEF compared with PAH [PH-HFpEF: 5.68 WU (4.70, 7.66 WU) vs. PAH: 8.59 WU (8.14, 12.57 WU); P = 0.01]. RV ECV in PH-HFpEF was associated with worse indices of RV structure (RV end-diastolic volume: r = 0.67, P = 0.01) and RV function (RV free wall strain: r = 0.59, P = 0.03) but was not associated with RV afterload (total pulmonary resistance: r = 0.08, P = 0.79). Conversely, there was a strong correlation between RV ECV and RV afterload in PAH (r = 0.57, P = 0.04). CONCLUSIONS:Diffuse RV fibrosis, as measured by ECV, is present in PH-HFpEF and is associated with adverse RV structural and functional remodelling but not degree of pulmonary vasculopathy. In PH-HFpEF, diffuse RV fibrosis may occur out of proportion to the degree of RV afterload.