A hnRNP K?AR-Related Signature Reflects Progression toward Castration-Resistant Prostate Cancer.
ABSTRACT: The major challenge in castration-resistant prostate cancer (CRPC) remains the ability to predict the clinical responses to improve patient selection for appropriate treatments. The finding that androgen deprivation therapy (ADT) induces alterations in the androgen receptor (AR) transcriptional program by AR coregulators activity in a context-dependent manner, offers the opportunity for identifying signatures discriminating different clinical states of prostate cancer (PCa) progression. Gel electrophoretic analyses combined with western blot showed that, in androgen-dependent PCa and CRPC in vitro models, the subcellular distribution of spliced and serine-phosphorylated heterogeneous nuclear ribonucleoprotein K (hnRNP K) isoforms can be associated with different AR activities. Using mass spectrometry and bioinformatic analyses, we showed that the protein sets of androgen-dependent (LNCaP) and ADT-resistant cell lines (PDB and MDB) co-immunoprecipitated with hnRNP K varied depending on the cell type, unravelling a dynamic relationship between hnRNP K and AR during PCa progression to CRPC. By comparing the interactome of LNCaP, PDB, and MDB cell lines, we identified 51 proteins differentially interacting with hnRNP K, among which KLK3, SORD, SPON2, IMPDH2, ACTN4, ATP1B1, HSPB1, and KHDRBS1 were associated with AR and differentially expressed in normal and tumor human prostate tissues. This hnRNP K?AR-related signature, associated with androgen sensitivity and PCa progression, may help clinicians to better manage patients with CRPC.
Project description:Loss of androgen receptor (AR) dependency in prostate cancer (PCa) cells is associated with progression to castration-resistant prostate cancer (CRPC). The tumor stroma is enriched in fibroblasts that secrete AR-activating factors. To investigate the roles of fibroblasts in AR activation under androgen deprivation, we used three sublines of androgen-sensitive LNCaP cells (E9 and F10 cells: low androgen sensitivity; and AIDL cells: androgen insensitivity) and original fibroblasts derived from patients with PCa. We performed in vivo experiments using three sublines of LNCaP cells and original fibroblasts to form homotypic tumors. The volume of tumors derived from E9 cells plus fibroblasts was reduced following androgen deprivation therapy (ADT), whereas that of F10 or AIDL cells plus fibroblasts was increased even after ADT. In tumors derived from E9 cells plus fibroblasts, serum prostate-specific antigen (PSA) decreased rapidly after ADT, but was still detectable. In contrast, serum PSA was increased even in F10 cells inoculated alone. In indirect cocultures with fibroblasts, PSA production was increased in E9 cells. Epidermal growth factor treatment stimulated Akt and p44/42 mitogen-activated protein kinase phosphorylation in E9 cells. Notably, AR splice variant 7 was detected in F10 cells. Overall, we found that fibroblast-secreted AR-activating factors modulated AR signaling in E9 cells after ADT and loss of fibroblast-dependent AR activation in F10 cells may be responsible for CRPC progression.
Project description:Despite androgen deprivation therapy (ADT), persistent androgen receptor (AR) signaling enables outgrowth of castration resistant prostate cancer (CRPC). In prostate cancer (PCa) cells, ADT may enhance AR activity through induction of oxidative stress. Herein, we investigated the roles of Nrf1 and Nrf2, transcription factors that regulate antioxidant gene expression, on hormone-mediated AR transactivation using a syngeneic in vitro model of androgen dependent (LNCaP) and castration resistant (C4-2B) PCa cells. Dihydrotestosterone (DHT) stimulated transactivation of the androgen response element (ARE) was significantly greater in C4-2B cells than in LNCaP cells. DHT-induced AR transactivation was coupled with higher nuclear translocation of p65-Nrf1 in C4-2B cells, as compared to LNCaP cells. Conversely, DHT stimulation suppressed total Nrf2 levels in C4-2B cells but elevated total Nrf2 levels in LNCaP cells. Interestingly, siRNA mediated silencing of Nrf1 attenuated AR transactivation while p65-Nrf1 overexpression enhanced AR transactivation. Subsequent studies showed that Nrf1 physically interacts with AR and enhances AR's DNA-binding activity, suggesting that the p65-Nrf1 isoform is a potential AR coactivator. In contrast, Nrf2 suppressed AR-mediated transactivation by stimulating the nuclear accumulation of the p120-Nrf1 which suppressed AR transactivation. Quantitative RT-PCR studies further validated the inductive effects of p65-Nrf1 isoform on the androgen regulated genes, PSA and TMPRSS2. Therefore, our findings implicate differential roles of Nrf1 and Nrf2 in regulating AR transactivation in PCa cells. Our findings also indicate that the DHT-stimulated increase in p65-Nrf1 and the simultaneous suppression of both Nrf2 and p120-Nrf1 ultimately facilitates AR transactivation in CRPC cells.
Project description:Prostate cancer (PCa) is the second leading cause of cancer-related death in males in the United States. Majority of prostate cancers are originally androgen-dependent and sensitive to androgen-deprivation therapy (ADT), however, most of them eventually relapse and progress into incurable castration-resistant prostate cancer (CRPC). Of note, the activity of androgen receptor (AR) is still required in CRPC stage. The mitotic kinase polo-like kinase 1 (Plk1) is significantly elevated in PCa and its expression correlates with tumor grade. In this study, we assess the effects of Plk1 on AR signaling in both androgen-dependent and androgen-independent PCa cells. We demonstrate that the expression level of Plk1 correlated with tumorigenicity and that inhibition of Plk1 caused reduction of AR expression and AR activity. Furthermore, Plk1 inhibitor BI2536 down-regulated SREBP-dependent expression of enzymes involved in androgen biosynthesis. Of interest, Plk1 level was also reduced when AR activity was inhibited by the antagonist MDV3100. Finally, we show that BI2536 treatment significantly inhibited tumor growth in LNCaP CRPC xenografts. Overall, our data support the concept that Plk1 inhibitor such as BI2536 prevents AR signaling pathway and might have therapeutic potential for CRPC patients.
Project description:BACKGROUND:Prostate cancer (PCa), the second most common cancer affecting men worldwide, shows a broad spectrum of biological and clinical behaviour representing the epiphenomenon of an extreme heterogeneity. Androgen deprivation therapy is the mainstay of treatment for advanced forms but after few years the majority of patients progress to castration-resistant prostate cancer (CRPC), a lethal form that poses considerable therapeutic challenges. METHODS:Western blotting, immunocytochemistry, invasion and reporter assays, and in vivo studies were performed to characterize androgen resistant sublines phenotype in comparison to the parental cell line LNCaP. RNA microarray, mass spectrometry, integrative transcriptomic and proteomic differential analysis coupled with GeneOntology and multivariate analyses were applied to identify deregulated genes and proteins involved in CRPC evolution. RESULTS:Treating the androgen-responsive LNCaP cell line for over a year with 10 ?M bicalutamide both in the presence and absence of 0.1 nM 5-?-dihydrotestosterone (DHT) we obtained two cell sublines, designated PDB and MDB respectively, presenting several analogies with CRPC. Molecular and functional analyses of PDB and MDB, compared to the parental cell line, showed that both resistant cell lines were PSA low/negative with comparable levels of nuclear androgen receptor devoid of activity due to altered phosphorylation; cell growth and survival were dependent on AKT and p38MAPK activation and PARP-1 overexpression; their malignant phenotype increased both in vitro and in vivo. Performing bioinformatic analyses we highlighted biological processes related to environmental and stress adaptation supporting cell survival and growth. We identified 15 proteins that could direct androgen-resistance acquisition. Eleven out of these 15 proteins were closely related to biological processes involved in PCa progression. CONCLUSIONS:Our models suggest that environmental factors and epigenetic modulation can activate processes of phenotypic adaptation driving drug-resistance. The identified key proteins of these adaptive phenotypes could be eligible targets for innovative therapies as well as molecules of prognostic and predictive value.
Project description:Prostate cancer (PCa) growth is mainly driven by androgen receptor (AR), and tumors that initially respond to androgen deprivation therapy (ADT) or AR inhibition usually relapse into a more aggressive, castration-resistant PCa (CRPC) stage. Circulating growth hormone (GH) has a permissive role in PCa development in animal models and in human PCa xenograft growth. As GH and GH receptor (GHR) are both expressed in PCa cells, we assessed whether prostatic GH production is linked to AR activity and whether GH contributes to the castration-resistant phenotype. Using online datasets, we found that GH is highly expressed in human CRPC. We observed increased GH expression in castration-resistant C4-2 compared with castration-sensitive LNCaP cells as well as in enzalutamide (MDV3100)-resistant (MDVR) C4-2B (C4-2B MDVR) cells compared with parental C4-2B. We describe a negative regulation of locally produced GH by androgens/AR in PCa cells following treatment with AR agonists (R1881) and antagonists (enzalutamide, bicalutamide). We also show that GH enhances invasive behavior of CRPC 22Rv1 cells, as reflected by increased migration, invasion, and anchorage-independent growth, as well as expression of matrix metalloproteases. Moreover, GH induces expression of the AR splice variant 7, which correlates with antiandrogen resistance, and also induces insulinlike growth factor 1, which is implicated in PCa progression and ligand-independent AR activation. In contrast, blockade of GH action with the GHR antagonist pegvisomant reverses these effects both in vitro and in vivo. GH induction following ADT or AR inhibition may contribute to CRPC progression by bypassing androgen growth requirements.
Project description:<h4>Background</h4>Androgen deprivation therapy (ADT) is the first-line treatment to metastatic prostate cancer (PCa). However, sustained expression and function of the androgen receptor (AR) gene contribute to the progression of castration resistant prostate cancers (CRPC). Additionally, tumors can adapt the PI3K/AKT survival pathway to escape ADT. Co-targeting AR and PI3K/AKT signaling has been proposed to be a more effective therapeutic means for CRPC patients. Many clinical trials are ongoing to test whether PI3K/AKT inhibitors are beneficial to PCa patients. However whether these inhibitors have any impacts on the expressions of full length AR (AR-FL) and its splice variant (AR-V7) remains unclear.<h4>Methods</h4>Four human prostate cancer cell lines (LNCaP, LNCaP95, VCaP and 22Rv1) with different genetic backgrounds were treated with five PI3K/AKT inhibitors (LY294002, Wortmannin, BKM120, AKTi and AZD5363) and or AKT siRNA. AR and AR-V7 protein and mRNA levels were measured by immunoblotting and real-time PCR assays. AR gene transcription initiation, alternative RNA splicing and AR mRNA degradation rates were also determined.<h4>Results</h4>PI3K/AKT inhibitors had various impacts on AR protein expressions primarily through alterations of AR gene transcription initiation and RNA splicing. However, these effects remained unchanged in the presence RNA silencing of the AKT genes.<h4>Conclusion</h4>PI3K/AKT inhibitors have off-target effects on AR gene expression in prostate cancer cells, which shall be considered when applying these inhibitors to PCa patients, particularly patients under ADT treatment.
Project description:Prostate cancer (PCa) progression is regulated by the androgen receptor (AR); however, patients undergoing androgen-deprivation therapy (ADT) for disseminated PCa eventually develop castration-resistant PCa (CRPC). Results of previous studies indicated that AR, a transcription factor, occupies distinct genomic loci in CRPC compared with hormone-naïve PCa; however, the cause of this distinction was unknown. The E3 ubiquitin ligase Nrdp1 is a model AR target modulated by androgens in hormone-naïve PCa but not in CRPC. Using Nrdp1, we investigated how AR switches transcription programs during CRPC progression. The proximal Nrdp1 promoter contains an androgen response element (ARE); we demonstrated AR binding to this ARE in androgen-sensitive PCa. Analysis of hormone-naive human prostatectomy specimens revealed correlation between Nrdp1 and AR expression, supporting AR regulation of NRDP1 levels in androgen-sensitive tissue. However, despite sustained AR levels, AR binding to the Nrdp1 promoter and Nrdp1 expression were suppressed in CRPC. Elucidation of the suppression mechanism demonstrated correlation of NRDP1 levels with nuclear localization of the scaffolding protein filamin A (FLNA) which, as we previously showed, is itself repressed following ADT in many CRPC tumors. Restoration of nuclear FLNA in CRPC stimulated AR binding to Nrdp1 ARE, increased its transcription, and augmented NRDP1 protein expression and responsiveness to ADT, indicating that nuclear FLNA controls AR-mediated androgen-sensitive Nrdp1 transcription. Expression of other AR-regulated genes lost in CRPC was also re-established by nuclear FLNA. Thus, our results indicate that nuclear FLNA promotes androgen-dependent AR-regulated transcription in PCa, while loss of nuclear FLNA in CRPC alters the AR-regulated transcription program.
Project description:Background:As deregulation of androgen receptor (AR) signaling target genes is associated with tumorigenesis and the development of prostate cancer (PCa), AR signaling is the primary therapeutic target for PCa. Although patients initially responses to first-line androgen deprivation therapies (ADTs), most of them with advanced PCa progress to lethal castration-resistant prostate cancer (CRPC). Recent studies have suggested the molecular mechanisms by which AR elicit the robust up-regulation of the FKBP51 gene. We suggest that restored expression of FKBP51 gene, modulated by androgen receptor splicing variant 7 (AR-V7) which replaces full length androgen receptor (AR-FL) in androgen ablation status, promotes CRPC progression through activating NF-?B signaling. Methods:Immunohistochemistry assays were used to detect the expression of AR-V7, FKBP51 and NF-?B signaling correlated proteins in CRPC tissues. An androgen ablation resistant PCa cell line model established by Long-term culturing in androgen depleted medium, named androgen-independent LNCaP (LNCaP-AI) cells, were used to dynamically monitor FKBP51 expression during the process of androgen dependent PCa cells transforming into androgen-independent cells, as well as its association with NF-?B signal pathway. LNCaP-AI cell line was determined to express AR-V7 protein continuously. Luciferase reporter assays and DNA pull down were used to determine the association between AR-V7 and FKBP51. Results:Our results suggested that CRPC patients with AR-V7 high expression tend to have higher expression of FKBP51 and enhanced NF-?B signaling compared with AR-V7 negative patients. Knockdown of AR-V7 or FKBP51 in LNCaP-AI cells attenuated the level of p-NF-?B (Ser536) and androgen-resistant cells growth. Luciferase reporter assays and DNA pull down results indicated that FKBP51 was transcriptionally promoted by AR-V7 in absence of androgen, which enhanced NF-?B signaling. Conclusions:Because of upregulation of AR-V7 in androgen-independent PCa cells, increasing of FKBP51 induced NF-?B signaling, leading to progression of CRPC.
Project description:Prostate cancer (PCa) is the second most common cancer in men. Androgen deprivation therapy (ADT) leads to tumor involution and reduction of tumor burden. However, tumors eventually reemerge that have overcome the absence of gonadal androgens, termed castration resistant PCa (CRPC). Theories underlying the development of CRPC include androgen receptor (AR) mutation allowing for promiscuous activation by non-androgens, AR amplification and overexpression leading to hypersensitivity to low androgen levels, and/or tumoral uptake and conversion of adrenally derived androgens. More recently it has been proposed that prostate tumor cells synthesize their own androgens through de novo steroidogenesis, which involves the step-wise synthesis of androgens from cholesterol. Using the in vivo LNCaP PCa xenograft model, previous data from our group demonstrated that a hypercholesterolemia diet potentiates prostatic tumor growth via induction of angiogenesis. Using this same model we now demonstrate that circulating cholesterol levels are significantly associated with tumor size (R?=?0.3957, p?=?0.0049) and intratumoral levels of testosterone (R?=?0.41, p?=?0.0023) in LNCaP tumors grown in hormonally intact mice. We demonstrate tumoral expression of cholesterol uptake genes as well as the spectrum of steroidogenic enzymes necessary for androgen biosynthesis from cholesterol. Moreover, we show that circulating cholesterol levels are directly correlated with tumoral expression of CYP17A, the critical enzyme required for de novo synthesis of androgens from cholesterol (R?=?0.4073, p?=?0.025) Since hypercholesterolemia does not raise circulating androgen levels and the adrenal gland of the mouse synthesizes minimal androgens, this study provides evidence that hypercholesterolemia increases intratumoral de novo steroidogenesis. Our results are consistent with the hypothesis that cholesterol-fueled intratumoral androgen synthesis may accelerate the growth of prostate tumors, and suggest that treatment of CRPC may be optimized by inclusion of cholesterol reduction therapies in conjunction with therapies targeting androgen synthesis and the AR.
Project description:The androgen receptor (AR) plays an essential role in prostate cancer, and suppression of its signaling with androgen deprivation therapy (ADT) has been the mainstay of treatment for metastatic hormone-sensitive prostate cancer for more than 70 y. Chemotherapy has been reserved for metastatic castration-resistant prostate cancer (mCRPC). The Eastern Cooperative Oncology Group-led trial E3805: ChemoHormonal Therapy Versus Androgen Ablation Randomized Trial for Extensive Disease in Prostate Cancer (CHAARTED) showed that the addition of docetaxel to ADT prolonged overall survival compared with ADT alone in patients with metastatic hormone-sensitive prostate cancer. This finding suggests that there is an interaction between AR signaling activity and docetaxel sensitivity. Here we demonstrate that the prostate cancer cell lines LNCaP and LAPC4 display markedly different sensitivity to docetaxel with AR activation, and RNA-seq analysis of these cell lines identified KDM5D (lysine-specific demethylase 5D) encoded on the Y chromosome as a potential mediator of this sensitivity. Knocking down KDM5D expression in LNCaP leads to docetaxel resistance in the presence of dihydrotestosterone. KDM5D physically interacts with AR in the nucleus, and regulates its transcriptional activity by demethylating H3K4me3 active transcriptional marks. Attenuating KDM5D expression dysregulates AR signaling, resulting in docetaxel insensitivity. KDM5D deletion was also observed in the LNCaP-derived CRPC cell line 104R2, which displayed docetaxel insensitivity with AR activation, unlike parental LNCaP. Dataset analysis from the Oncomine database revealed significantly decreased KDM5D expression in CRPC and poorer prognosis with low KDM5D expression. Taking these data together, this work indicates that KDM5D modulates the AR axis and that this is associated with altered docetaxel sensitivity.