Pea Ferritin Stability under Gastric pH Conditions Determines the Mechanism of Iron Uptake in Caco-2 Cells.
ABSTRACT: Background:Iron deficiency is an enduring global health problem that requires new remedial approaches. Iron absorption from soybean-derived ferritin, an ?550-kDa iron storage protein, is comparable to bioavailable ferrous sulfate (FeSO4). However, the absorption of ferritin is reported to involve an endocytic mechanism, independent of divalent metal ion transporter 1 (DMT-1), the transporter for nonheme iron. Objective:Our overall aim was to examine the potential of purified ferritin from peas (Pisum sativum) as a food supplement by measuring its stability under gastric pH treatment and the mechanisms of iron uptake into Caco-2 cells. Methods:Caco-2 cells were treated with native or gastric pH-treated pea ferritin in combination with dietary modulators of nonheme iron uptake, small interfering RNA targeting DMT-1, or chemical inhibitors of endocytosis. Cellular ferritin formation, a surrogate measure of iron uptake, and internalization of pea ferritin with the use of specific antibodies were measured. The production of reactive oxygen species (ROS) in response to equimolar concentrations of native pea ferritin and FeSO4 was also compared. Results:Pea ferritin exposed to gastric pH treatment was degraded, and the released iron was transported into Caco-2 cells by DMT-1. Inhibitors of DMT-1 and nonheme iron absorption reduced iron uptake by 26-40%. Conversely, in the absence of gastric pH treatment, the iron uptake of native pea ferritin was unaffected by inhibitors of nonheme iron absorption, and the protein was observed to be internalized in Caco-2 cells. Chlorpromazine (clathrin-mediated endocytosis inhibitor) reduced the native pea ferritin content within cells by ?30%, which confirmed that the native pea ferritin was transported into cells via a clathrin-mediated endocytic pathway. In addition, 60% less ROS production resulted from native pea ferritin in comparison to FeSO4. Conclusion:With consideration that nonheme dietary inhibitors display no effect on iron uptake and the low oxidative potential relative to FeSO4, intact pea ferritin appears to be a promising iron supplement.
Project description:A new iron-casein complex (ICC) has been developed for iron (Fe) fortification of dairy matrices. The objective was to assess the impact of ascorbic acid (AA) on its in vitro bioavailability in comparison with ferrous sulfate (FeSO4) and ferric pyrophosphate (FePP). A simulated digestion coupled with the Caco-2 cell culture model was used in parallel with solubility and dissociation tests. Under diluted acidic conditions, the ICC was as soluble as FeSO4, but only part of the iron was found to dissociate from the caseins, indicating that the ICC was an iron chelate. The Caco-2 cell results in milk showed that the addition of AA (2:1 molar ratio) enhanced iron uptake from the ICCs and FeSO4 to a similar level (p = 0.582; p = 0.852) and to a significantly higher level than that from FePP (p < 0.01). This translated into a relative in vitro bioavailability to FeSO4 of 36% for FePP and 114 and 104% for the two ICCs. Similar results were obtained from water. Increasing the AA to iron molar ratio (4:1 molar ratio) had no additional effect on the ICCs and FePP. However, ICC absorption remained similar to that from FeSO4 (p = 0.666; p = 0.113), and was still significantly higher than that from FePP (p < 0.003). Therefore, even though iron from ICC does not fully dissociate under gastric digestion, iron uptake suggested that ICCs are absorbed to a similar amount as FeSO4 in the presence of AA and thus provide an excellent source of iron.
Project description:Cytokines are integral to the development of anaemia of chronic inflammation. Cytokines modulate hepcidin expression and iron sequestration by the reticuloendothelial system but their direct effects on small bowel iron transport are not well characterized. The aim of the present study was to examine the local effects of TNFalpha (tumour necrosis factor alpha) on small bowel iron transport and on iron transporter expression in the absence of hepcidin. The effects of TNFalpha on iron transport were determined using radiolabelled iron in an established Caco-2 cell model. The effect of TNFalpha on the expression and localization of the enterocyte iron transporters DMT-1 (divalent metal transporter 1), IREG-1 (iron-regulated transporter 1) and ferritin was determined utilizing Caco-2 cells and in a human ex vivo small bowel culture system. TNFalpha mediated an early induction in both iron import and iron export, which were associated with increased DMT-1 and IREG-1 mRNA and protein expression (P<0.05). However, by 24 h, both iron import and iron export were significantly inhibited, coinciding with an induction of ferritin heavy chain (P<0.05) and a decrease in DMT-1 and IREG-1 to baseline levels. In addition, there was a relocalization of IREG-1 away from the basolateral cell border and increased iron deposition in villous enterocytes. In conclusion, TNFalpha has a direct effect on small bowel iron transporter expression and function, leading to an inhibition of iron transport.
Project description:Pea seeds are widely consumed in their immature form, known as garden peas and petit pois, mostly after preservation by freezing or canning. Mature dry peas are rich in iron in the form of ferritin, but little is known about the content, form or bioavailability of iron in immature stages of seed development. Using specific antibodies and in-gel iron staining, we show that ferritin loaded with iron accumulated gradually during seed development. Immunolocalization and high-resolution secondary ion mass spectrometry (NanoSIMS) revealed that iron-loaded ferritin was located at the surface of starch-containing plastids. Standard cooking procedures destabilized monomeric ferritin and the iron-loaded form. Iron uptake studies using Caco-2 cells showed that the iron in microwaved immature peas was more bioavailable than in boiled mature peas, despite similar levels of soluble iron in the digestates. By manipulating the levels of phytic acid in the digestates we demonstrate that phytic acid is the main inhibitor of iron uptake from mature peas in vitro. Taken together, our data show that immature peas and mature dry peas contain similar levels of ferritin-iron, which is destabilized during cooking. However, iron from immature peas is more bioavailable because of lower phytic acid levels compared to mature peas.
Project description:Prion disease-associated retinal degeneration is attributed to PrP-scrapie (PrP<sup>Sc</sup>), a misfolded isoform of prion protein (PrP<sup>C</sup>) that accumulates in the neuroretina. However, a lack of temporal and spatial correlation between PrP<sup>Sc</sup> and cytotoxicity suggests the contribution of host factors. We report retinal iron dyshomeostasis as one such factor. PrP<sup>C</sup> is expressed on the basolateral membrane of retinal-pigment-epithelial (RPE) cells, where it mediates uptake of iron by the neuroretina. Accordingly, the neuroretina of PrP-knock-out mice is iron-deficient. In RPE19 cells, silencing of PrP<sup>C</sup> decreases ferritin while over-expression upregulates ferritin and divalent-metal-transporter-1 (DMT-1), indicating PrP<sup>C</sup>-mediated iron uptake through DMT-1. Polarization of RPE19 cells results in upregulation of ferritin by ~10-fold and ?-cleavage of PrP<sup>C</sup>, the latter likely to block further uptake of iron due to cleavage of the ferrireductase domain. A similar ?-cleavage of PrP<sup>C</sup> is observed in mouse retinal lysates. Scrapie infection causes PrP<sup>Sc</sup> accumulation and microglial activation, and surprisingly, upregulation of transferrin despite increased levels of ferritin. Notably, detergent-insoluble ferritin accumulates in RPE cells and correlates temporally with microglial activation, not PrP<sup>Sc</sup> accumulation, suggesting that impaired uptake of iron by PrP<sup>Sc</sup> combined with inflammation results in retinal iron-dyshomeostasis, a potentially toxic host response contributing to prion disease-associated pathology.
Project description:Iron concentration and ferritin distribution have been determined in different organs of pea (Pisum sativum) during development under conditions of continuous iron supply from hydroponic cultures. No ferritin was detected in total protein extracts from roots or leaves. However, a transient iron accumulation in the roots, which corresponds to an increase in iron uptake, was observed when young fruits started to develop. Ferritin was detectable in total protein extracts of flowers and pods, and it accumulated in seeds. In seeds, the same relative amount of ferritin was detected in cotyledons and in the embryo axis. In cotyledons, ferritin and iron concentration decrease progressively during the first week of germination. Ferritin in the embryo axis was processed, and disappeared, during germination, within the first 4 days of radicle and epicotyl growth. This degradation of ferritin in vivo was marked by a shortening of a 28 kDa subunit, giving 26.5 and 25 kDa polypeptides, reminiscent of the radical damage occurring in pea seed ferritin during iron exchange in vitro [Laulhere, Laboure & Briat (1989) J. Biol. Chem. 264, 3629-3635]. Developmental control of iron concentration and ferritin distribution in different organs of pea is discussed.
Project description:Dietary non-heme iron contains ferrous [Fe(II)] and ferric [Fe(III)] iron fractions and the latter should hydrolyze, forming Fe(III) oxo-hydroxide particles, on passing from the acidic stomach to less acidic duodenum. Using conditions to mimic the in vivo hydrolytic environment we confirmed the formation of nanodisperse fine ferrihydrite-like particles. Synthetic analogues of these (~ 10 nm hydrodynamic diameter) were readily adherent to the cell membrane of differentiated Caco-2 cells and internalization was visualized using transmission electron microscopy. Moreover, Caco-2 exposure to these nanoparticles led to ferritin formation (i.e., iron utilization) by the cells, which, unlike for soluble forms of iron, was reduced (p=0.02) by inhibition of clathrin-mediated endocytosis. Simulated lysosomal digestion indicated that the nanoparticles are readily dissolved under mildly acidic conditions with the lysosomal ligand, citrate. This was confirmed in cell culture as monensin inhibited Caco-2 utilization of iron from this source in a dose dependent fashion (p<0.05) whilet soluble iron was again unaffected. Our findings reveal the possibility of an endocytic pathway for acquisition of dietary Fe(III) by the small intestinal epithelium, which would complement the established DMT-1 pathway for soluble Fe(II).
Project description:Nonheme food ferritin (FTN) iron minerals, nonheme iron complexes, and heme iron contribute to the balance between food iron absorption and body iron homeostasis. Iron absorption depends on membrane transporter proteins DMT1, PCP/HCP1, ferroportin (FPN), TRF2, and matriptase 2. Mutations in DMT1 and matriptase-2 cause iron deficiency; mutations in FPN, HFE, and TRF2 cause iron excess. Intracellular iron homeostasis depends on coordinated regulation of iron trafficking and storage proteins encoded in iron responsive element (IRE)-mRNA. The noncoding IRE-mRNA structures bind protein repressors, IRP1 or 2, during iron deficiency. Integration of the IRE-RNA in translation regulators (near the cap) or turnover elements (after the coding region) increases iron uptake (DMT1/TRF1) or decreases iron storage/efflux (FTN/FPN) when IRP binds. An antioxidant response element in FTN DNA binds Bach1, a heme-sensitive transcription factor that coordinates expression among antioxidant response proteins like FTN, thioredoxin reductase, and quinone reductase. FTN, an antioxidant because Fe(2+) and O(2) (reactive oxygen species generators) are consumed to make iron mineral, is also a nutritional iron concentrate that is an efficiently absorbed, nonheme source of iron from whole legumes. FTN protein cages contain thousands of mineralized iron atoms and enter cells by receptor-mediated endocytosis, an absorption mechanism distinct from transport of nonheme iron salts (ferrous sulfate), iron chelators (ferric-EDTA), or heme. Recognition of 2 nutritional nonheme iron sources, small and large (FTN), will aid the solution of iron deficiency, a major public health problem, and the development of new policies on iron nutrition.
Project description:BACKGROUND:Bouillon cubes are a potential vehicle for iron fortification. They are currently fortified with ferric pyrophosphate (FePP), which is known to be poorly absorbed. The objective of this study was to assess the iron absorption of Aspergillus oryzae grown in FePP (ASP-p) and compare it with FePP and ferrous sulfate (FeSO4)-fortified bouillon cubes. METHODS:In 2 single-blinded, crossover studies, healthy women with serum ferritin concentrations <40 ?g/L were randomly assigned to consume a rice-vegetable meal with iron-fortified chicken bouillon. Subjects in study I (n = 17, 18-26 y) consumed iron from both iron sources as 57FePP and 58ASP-p (intrinsically labeled with 58FePP) with a meal containing 4.2 mg of total iron provided for 3 d. Study II (n = 18, 18-29 y) was similar except that subjects consumed 57FeSO4 and 58ASP-p. Whole-blood stable isotope enrichment after 14 d was used to measure fractional iron absorption. Hemoglobin, hematocrit, serum ferritin, hepcidin, and serum C-reactive protein were analyzed at baseline and at 14 d. A t test was used to compare the mean differences in fractional absorptions within each study and baseline characteristics between studies. RESULTS:Geometric mean (95% CI) fractional iron absorption of FePP [0.94% (0.63%, 1.40%)] was lower than ASP-p [2.20% (1.47%, 3.30%)] (P < 0.0001) in study I. In study II, ASP-p fractional absorption [2.98% (2.03%, 4.38%)] was lower than that of FeSO4 [9.88% (6.70%, 14.59%)] (P < 0.0001). Both ferritin (r = -0.41, P = 0.014) and hepcidin (r = -0.42, P = 0.01) concentrations were inversely correlated with ASP-p iron absorption. Fractional absorption of ASP-p was also positively correlated with FePP (r = 0.92, P < 0.0001) and FeSO4 (r = 0.52, P < 0.02) absorption. CONCLUSIONS:ASP-p-fortified bouillon provided 2.3-fold higher absorbable iron than the currently used FePP. Bouillon fortified with ASP-p may contribute sufficient bioavailable iron to meet the daily iron requirements in young women only if consumed with other iron-fortified staple foods. This trial was registered at clinicaltrials.gov as NCT03586245.
Project description:Myo-inositol hexakisphosphate (IP6), is the main iron chelator in cereals and bread. The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of three commercial baking processes (sourdough, conventional yeast and Chorleywood Bread Making Process (CBP)) on the IP6 content of wholemeal bread, its impact on iron uptake in Caco-2 cells and the predicted bioavailability of iron from these breads with added iron, simulating a mixed-meal. The sourdough process fully degraded IP6 whilst the CBP and conventional processes reduced it by 75% compared with wholemeal flour. The iron released in solution after a simulated digestion was 8-fold higher in sourdough bread than with others but no difference in cellular iron uptake was observed. Additionally, when iron was added to the different breads digestions only sourdough bread elicited a significant ferritin response in Caco-2 cells (4.8-fold compared to the other breads) suggesting that sourdough bread could contribute towards improved iron nutrition.
Project description:Hepcidin, a peptide hormone, is a key regulator in mammalian iron homeostasis. Increased level of hepcidin due to inflammatory conditions stimulates the ferroportin (FPN) transporter internalization, impairing the iron absorption; clinically manifested as anemia of inflammation (AI). Inhibiting hepcidin-mediated FPN degradation is proposed as an important strategy to combat AI. A systematic approach involving in silico, in vitro, ex vivo and in vivo studies is employed to identify hepcidin-binding agents. The virtual screening of 68,752 natural compounds via molecular docking resulted into identification of guanosine 5'-diphosphate (GDP) as a promising hepcidin-binding agent. The molecular dynamics simulations helped to identify the important hepcidin residues involved in stabilization of hepcidin-GDP complex. The results gave a preliminary indication that GDP may possibly inhibit the hepcidin-FPN interactions. The in vitro studies revealed that GDP caused FPN stabilization (FPN-GFP cell lines) and increased the FPN-mediated cellular iron efflux (HepG2 and Caco-2 cells). Interestingly, the co-administration of GDP and ferrous sulphate (FeSO4) ameliorated the turpentine-induced AI in mice (indicated by increased haemoglobin level, serum iron, FPN expression and decreased ferritin level). These results suggest that GDP a promising natural small-molecule inhibitor that targets Hepcidin-FPN complex may be incorporated with iron supplement regimens to ameliorate AI.