Regulation of SCFTIR1/AFBs E3 ligase assembly by S-nitrosylation of Arabidopsis SKP1-like1 impacts on auxin signaling.
ABSTRACT: The F-box proteins (FBPs) TIR1/AFBs are the substrate recognition subunits of SKP1-cullin-F-box (SCF) ubiquitin ligase complexes and together with Aux/IAAs form the auxin co-receptor. Although tremendous knowledge on auxin perception and signaling has been gained in the last years, SCFTIR1/AFBs complex assembly and stabilization are emerging as new layers of regulation. Here, we investigated how nitric oxide (NO), through S-nitrosylation of ASK1 is involved in SCFTIR1/AFBs assembly. We demonstrate that ASK1 is S-nitrosylated and S-glutathionylated in cysteine (Cys) 37 and Cys118 residues in vitro. Both, in vitro and in vivo protein-protein interaction assays show that NO enhances ASK1 binding to CUL1 and TIR1/AFB2, required for SCFTIR1/AFB2 assembly. In addition, we demonstrate that Cys37 and Cys118 are essential residues for proper activation of auxin signaling pathway in planta. Phylogenetic analysis revealed that Cys37 residue is only conserved in SKP proteins in Angiosperms, suggesting that S-nitrosylation on Cys37 could represent an evolutionary adaption for SKP1 function in flowering plants. Collectively, these findings indicate that multiple events of redox modifications might be part of a fine-tuning regulation of SCFTIR1/AFBs for proper auxin signal transduction.
Project description:The plant hormone auxin regulates diverse aspects of plant growth and development. We report that in Arabidopsis, auxin response is dependent on a ubiquitin-ligase (E3) complex called SCFTIR1. The complex consists of proteins related to yeast Skp1p and Cdc53p called ASK and AtCUL1, respectively, as well as the F-box protein TIR1. Mutations in either ASK1 or TIR1 result in decreased auxin response. Further, overexpression of TIR1 promotes auxin response suggesting that SCFTIR1 is limiting for the response. These results provide new support for a model in which auxin action depends on the regulated proteolysis of repressor proteins.
Project description:ABP1 and TIR1/AFBs are known as auxin receptors. ABP1 is linked to auxin responses several of which are faster than 10 min. TIR1 regulates auxin-induced transcription of early auxin genes also within minutes. We use transcription of such TIR1-dependent genes as indicator of TIR1 activity to show the rapid regulation of TIR1 by exogenous auxin. To this end, we used quantification of transcription of a set of fifteen early auxin-induced reporter genes at t = 10 and t = 30 min to measure this as a TIR1-dependent auxin response. We conducted this study in 22 mutants of auxin transporters (pin5, abcb1, abcb19, and aux1/lax3), protein kinases and phosphatases (ibr5, npr1, cpk3, CPK3-OX, d6pk1, d6pkl1-1, d6pkl3-2, d6pkl1-1/d6pkl2-2, and d6pkl1-1/d6pkl3-2), of fatty acid metabolism (fad2-1, fad6-1, ssi2, lacs4, lacs9, and lacs4/lacs9) and receptors (tir1, tir1/afb2, and tir1/afb3) and compared them to the wild type. After 10 min auxin application, in 18 out of 22 mutants mis-regulated expression of at least one reporter was found, and in 15 mutants transcription of two-to-three out of five selected auxin reporter genes was mis-regulated. After 30 min of auxin application to mutant plants, mis-regulation of reporter genes ranged from one to 13 out of 15 tested reporter genes. Those genes chosen as mutants were themselves not regulated in their expression by auxin for at least 1 h, excluding an influence of TIR1/AFBs on their transcription. The expression of TIR1/AFB genes was also not modulated by auxin for up to 3 h. Together, this excludes a feedback or feedforward of these mutant genes/proteins on TIR1/AFBs output of transcription in this auxin-induced response. However, an auxin-induced response needed an as yet unknown auxin receptor. We suggest that the auxin receptor necessary for the fast auxin-induced transcription modulation could be, instead, ABP1. The alternative hypothesis would be that auxin-induced expression of a protein, initiated by TIR1/AFBs receptors, could initiate these responses and that this unknown protein regulated TIR1/AFB activities within 10 min.
Project description:The plant hormone auxin is perceived by a family of F box proteins called the TIR1/auxin-signaling F box proteins (AFBs). Phylogenetic studies reveal that these proteins fall into four clades in flowering plants called TIR1, AFB2, AFB4, and AFB6. Genetic studies indicate that members of the TIR1 and AFB2 groups act as positive regulators of auxin signaling. In this report, we demonstrate a unique role for the AFB4 clade. Both AFB4 and AFB5 function as auxin receptors based on in vitro assays. However, unlike other members of the family, loss of AFB4 results in a range of growth defects that are consistent with auxin hypersensitivity, including increased hypocotyl and petiole elongation and increased numbers of lateral roots. Indeed, qRT-PCR experiments show that afb4-2 is hypersensitive to indole-3-acetic acid (IAA) in the hypocotyl, indicating that AFB4 is a negative regulator of auxin response. Furthermore, we show that AFB4 has a particularly important role in the response of seedlings to elevated temperature. Finally, we provide evidence that the AFB4 clade is the major target of the picloram family of auxinic herbicides. These results reveal a previously unknown aspect of auxin receptor function.
Project description:One of the most striking aspects of plant plasticity is the modulation of development in response to environmental changes. Plant growth and development largely depend on the phytohormone auxin that exerts its function through a partially redundant family of F-box receptors, the TIR1-AFBs. We have previously reported that the Arabidopsis double mutant tir1 afb2 is more tolerant to salt stress than wild-type plants and we hypothesized that down-regulation of auxin signaling might be part of Arabidopsis acclimation to salinity. In this work, we show that NaCl-mediated salt stress induces miR393 expression by enhancing the transcription of AtMIR393A and leads to a concomitant reduction in the levels of the TIR1 and AFB2 receptors. Consequently, NaCl triggers stabilization of Aux/IAA repressors leading to down-regulation of auxin signaling. Further, we report that miR393 is likely involved in repression of lateral root (LR) initiation, emergence and elongation during salinity, since the mir393ab mutant shows reduced inhibition of emergent and mature LR number and length upon NaCl-treatment. Additionally, mir393ab mutant plants have increased levels of reactive oxygen species (ROS) in LRs, and reduced ascorbate peroxidase (APX) enzymatic activity compared with wild-type plants during salinity. Thus, miR393 regulation of the TIR1 and AFB2 receptors could be a critical checkpoint between auxin signaling and specfic redox-associated components in order to coordinate tissue and time-specific growth responses and tolerance during acclimation to salinity in Arabidopsis.
Project description:Chromatin accessibility is closely associated with chromatin functions such as gene expression, DNA replication, and maintenance of DNA integrity. However, the relationship between chromatin accessibility and plant hormone signaling has remained elusive. Here, based on the correlation between chromatin accessibility and DNA damage, we used the sensitivity to DNA double strand breaks (DSBs) as an indicator of chromatin accessibility and demonstrated that auxin regulates chromatin accessibility through the TIR1/AFBs signaling pathway in proliferative cells. Treatment of proliferating plant cells with an inhibitor of the TIR1/AFBs auxin signaling pathway, PEO-IAA, caused chromatin loosening, indicating that auxin signaling functions to decrease chromatin accessibility. In addition, a transcriptome analysis revealed that several histone H4 genes and a histone chaperone gene, FAS1, are positively regulated through the TIR1/AFBs signaling pathway, suggesting that auxin plays a role in promoting nucleosome assembly. Analysis of the fas1 mutant of Arabidopsis thaliana confirmed that FAS1 is required for the auxin-dependent decrease in chromatin accessibility. These results suggest that the positive regulation of chromatin-related genes mediated by the TIR1/AFBs auxin signaling pathway enhances nucleosome assembly, resulting in decreased chromatin accessibility in proliferative cells.
Project description:Auxin is a small molecule morphogen that bridges SCFTIR1/AFB-AUX/IAA co-receptor interactions leading to ubiquitylation and proteasome-dependent degradation of AUX/IAA transcriptional repressors. Here, we systematically dissect auxin sensing by SCFTIR1-IAA6 and SCFTIR1-IAA19 co-receptor complexes, and assess IAA6/IAA19 ubiquitylation in vitro and IAA6/IAA19 degradation in vivo. We show that TIR1-IAA19 and TIR1-IAA6 have distinct auxin affinities that correlate with ubiquitylation and turnover dynamics of the AUX/IAA. We establish a system to track AUX/IAA ubiquitylation in IAA6 and IAA19 in vitro and show that it occurs in flexible hotspots in degron-flanking regions adorned with specific Lys residues. We propose that this signature is exploited during auxin-mediated SCFTIR1-AUX/IAA interactions. We present evidence for an evolving AUX/IAA repertoire, typified by the IAA6/IAA19 ohnologues, that discriminates the range of auxin concentrations found in plants. We postulate that the intrinsic flexibility of AUX/IAAs might bias their ubiquitylation and destruction kinetics enabling specific auxin responses.
Project description:miR393 was found to control embryogenic transition in somatic cells in Arabidopsis via control of the TIR1 and AFB2 auxin receptors genes of the F-box family. miR393 molecules are believed to regulate the expression of the auxin receptors of the TAAR clade. Considering the central role of auxin in the induction of somatic embryogenesis (SE) in plant explants cultured in vitro, the involvement of miR393 in the embryogenic transition of somatic cells has been hypothesised. To verify this assumption, the reporter, overexpressor and mutant lines in genes encoded MIR393 and TIR1/AFB proteins of the F-box family were analysed during SE in Arabidopsis. Expression profiling of MIR393a and MIR393b, mature miR393 and the target genes (TIR1, AFB1, AFB2, AFB3) were investigated in explants undergoing SE. In addition, the embryogenic potential of various genotypes with a modified activity of the MIR393 and TIR1/AFB targets was evaluated. The distinct increase in the accumulation of miR393 that was coupled with a notable down-regulation of TIR1 and AFB2 targets was observed at the early phase of SE induction. Relevant to this observation, the GUS/GFP monitored expression of MIR393, TIR1 and AFB2 transcripts was localised in explant tissue undergoing SE induction. The results suggest the miR393-mediated regulation of TIR1 and AFB2 during embryogenic transition induced in Arabidopsis and a modification of the explant sensitivity to auxin treatment is proposed as underlying this regulatory pathway.
Project description:Auxin phytohormones control most aspects of plant development through a complex and interconnected signaling network. In the presence of auxin, AUXIN/INDOLE-3-ACETIC ACID (AUX/IAA) transcriptional repressors are targeted for degradation by the SKP1-CULLIN1-F-BOX (SCF) ubiquitin-protein ligases containing TRANSPORT INHIBITOR RESISTANT 1/AUXIN SIGNALING F-BOX (TIR1/AFB). CULLIN1-neddylation is required for SCFTIR1/AFB functionality, as exemplified by mutants deficient in the NEDD8-activating enzyme subunit AUXIN-RESISTANT 1 (AXR1). Here, we report a chemical biology screen that identifies small molecules requiring AXR1 to modulate plant development. We selected four molecules of interest, RubNeddin 1 to 4 (RN1 to -4), among which RN3 and RN4 trigger selective auxin responses at transcriptional, biochemical, and morphological levels. This selective activity is explained by their ability to consistently promote the interaction between TIR1 and a specific subset of AUX/IAA proteins, stimulating the degradation of particular AUX/IAA combinations. Finally, we performed a genetic screen using RN4, the RN with the greatest potential for dissecting auxin perception, which revealed that the chromatin remodeling ATPase BRAHMA is implicated in auxin-mediated apical hook development. These results demonstrate the power of selective auxin agonists to dissect auxin perception for plant developmental functions, as well as offering opportunities to discover new molecular players involved in auxin responses.
Project description:The auxins indole-3-acetic acid (IAA) and 4-chloroindole-3-acetic acid (4-Cl-IAA) occur naturally in pea (Pisum sativum); however, only 4-Cl-IAA mimics the presence of seeds in stimulating pericarp growth. To examine if this differential auxin effect is mediated through TIR1/AFB auxin receptors, pea TIR1 and AFB2 homologs were functionally characterized in Arabidopsis, and receptor expression, and auxin distribution and action were profiled in developing pea fruits. PsTIR1a, PsTIR1b, and PsAFB2 restored the auxin-sensitive root growth response to the mutant Arabidopsis seedlings Attir1-10 and/or Attir1-10 afb2-3. Expression of PsTIR1 or AtTIR1 in Attir1-10 afb2-3 mutants also restored the greater root inhibitory response of 4-Cl-IAA compared to that of IAA, implicating TIR1 receptors in this response. The ability of 4-Cl-IAA to stimulate a stronger DR5::GUS auxin response than IAA at the same concentration in pea pericarps was associated with its ability to enrich the auxin-receptor transcript pool with PsTIR1a and PsAFB2 by decreasing the transcript abundance of PsTIR1b (mimicking results in pericarps with developing seeds). Therefore, the markedly different effect of IAA and 4-Cl-IAA on pea fruit growth may at least partially involve TIR1/AFB receptors and the differential modulation of their population, resulting in specific Aux/IAA protein degradation that leads to an auxin-specific tissue response.
Project description:The phytohormone auxin is a key regulator of plant growth and development. Molecular studies in Arabidopsis have shown that auxin perception and signaling is mediated via TIR1/AFB-Aux/IAA co-receptors that assemble as part of the SCFTIR1/AFB E3 ubiquitin-ligase complex and direct the auxin-regulated degradation of Aux/IAA transcriptional repressors. Despite the importance of auxin signaling, little is known about the functional regulation of the TIR1/AFB receptor family. Here we show that TIR1 can oligomerize in planta via a set of spatially clustered amino acid residues. While none of the residues identified reside in the interaction interface of the TIR1-Aux/IAA degron, they nonetheless regulate the binding of TIR1 to Aux/IAA substrate proteins and their subsequent degradation in vivo as an essential aspect of auxin signaling. We propose oligomerization of TIR1 as a novel regulatory mechanism in the regulation of auxin-mediated plant patterning and development.