Detection of severity in Alzheimer's disease (AD) using computational modeling.
ABSTRACT: The prevalent cause of dementia - Alzheimer's disease (AD) is characterized by an early cholinergic deficit that is in part responsible for the cognitive deficits (especially memory and attention defects). Prolonged AD leads to moderate-to-severe AD, which is one of the leading causes of death. Placebo-controlled, randomized clinical trials have shown significant effects of Acetyl cholin esterase inhibitors (ChEIs) on function, cognition, activities of daily living (ADL) and behavioral symptoms in patients. Studies have shown comparable effects for ChEIs in patients with moderate-to-severe or mild AD. Setting a fixed measurement (e.g. a Mini-Mental State Examination score, as a 'when to stop treatment limit) for the disease is not clinically rational. Detection of changed regional cerebral blood flow in mild cognitive impairment and early AD by perfusion-weighted magnetic resonance imaging has been a challenge. The utility of perfusion-weighted magnetic resonance imaging (PW-MRI) for detecting changes in regional cerebral blood flow (rCBF) in patients with mild cognitive impairment (MCI) and early AD was evaluated. We describe a computer aided prediction model to determine the severity of AD using known data in literature. We designed an automated system for the determination of AD severity. It is used to predict the clinical cases and conditions with disagreements from specialist. The model described is useful in clinical practice to validate diagnosis.
Project description:To assess the clinical characteristics and course of patients with mild cognitive impairment (MCI) and mild Alzheimer disease (AD) treated with cholinesterase inhibitors (ChEIs) and memantine hydrochloride.Cohort study.The 59 recruiting sites for the Alzheimer's Disease Neuroimaging Initiative (ADNI).Outpatients with MCI and AD in ADNI.The AD Assessment Scale-cognitive subscale (ADAS-cog), Mini-Mental State Examination (MMSE), Clinical Dementia Rating (CDR) scale, and Functional Activities Questionnaire (FAQ).A total of 177 (44.0%) of 402 MCI patients and 159 (84.6%) of 188 mild-AD patients were treated with ChEIs and 11.4% of MCI patients and 45.7% of AD patients with memantine at entry. Mild-cognitive-impairment patients who received ChEIs with or without memantine were more impaired, showed greater decline in scores, and progressed to dementia sooner than patients who did not receive ChEIs. Alzheimer-disease patients who received ChEIs and memantine took them longer, were more functionally impaired, and showed greater decline on the MMSE and CDR (but not on the ADAS-cog or FAQ) than those who received ChEIs only.Academic physicians frequently prescribe ChEIs and memantine earlier than indicated in the US Food and Drug Administration-approved labeling to patients who are relatively more severely impaired or who are rapidly progressing toward cognitive impairment. The use of these medications in ADNI is associated with clinical decline and may affect the interpretation of clinical trial outcomes.clinicalTrials.gov Identifier: NCT00106899.
Project description:The thyroid hormones have been reported to be associated with cognitive decline and Alzheimer's disease. The relationship between thyroid function within the normal range and cerebral blood flow in Alzheimer's disease patients has been shown in a recent study. Mild cognitive impairment is often the first stage of Alzheimer's disease; thus, early diagnosis is important. The present study investigated the relationship between thyroid function and regional cerebral blood flow in patients with mild cognitive impairment and Alzheimer's disease. A total of 122 memory clinic outpatients who underwent thyroid function testing and single photon emission computed tomography were divided into mild cognitive impairment, Alzheimer's disease, and Normal groups. Regional cerebral blood flow was calculated using a three-dimensional stereotactic region of interest template in an automated cerebral perfusion single photon emission computed tomography analysis system. Multiple regression analysis adjusted for age and sex was conducted to examine the relationships between thyroid hormones and regional cerebral blood flow. Thyroid stimulating hormone was significantly associated with regional cerebral blood flow in the bilateral temporal, bilateral pericallosal, and bilateral hippocampal regions in the mild cognitive impairment group. In the Alzheimer's disease group, free triiodothyronine was significantly associated with regional cerebral blood flow in the bilateral parietal, right temporal, and bilateral pericallosal regions. The present study showed the association of thyroid stimulating hormone with regional cerebral blood flow in the mild cognitive impairment group and the association of free triiodothyronine with regional cerebral blood flow in the Alzheimer's disease group. These study findings could contribute to the early diagnosis of mild cognitive impairment at general memory clinics and the prevention of subsequent progression to Alzheimer's disease.
Project description:BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE:The aging HIV-infected (HIV+) population has increased vascular comorbidities, including stroke, and increased cognitive deficits compared with the general population. Arterial spin-labeling is a technique to measure cerebral blood flow and is more sensitive than regional volume loss in assessing neurodegenerative diseases and cognitive aging. Previous studies have found global cerebral perfusion abnormalities in the HIV+ participants. In this study, we evaluated the specific regional pattern of CBF abnormalities in older HIV+ participants using quantitative whole-brain arterial spin-labeling. MATERIALS AND METHODS:CBF data from the UCSF HIV Over 60 Cohort and the Alzheimer Disease Neuroimaging Initiative were retrospectively evaluated to identify 19 HIV+ older adults, all with plasma viral suppression (including 5 with HIV-associated neurocognitive disorder); 13 healthy, age-matched controls; and 19 participants with early mild cognitive impairment. CBF values were averaged by ROI and compared among the 3 groups using generalized linear models. RESULTS:When we accounted for age, education, sex, and vascular risk factors, the HIV+ participants demonstrated alterations in regional cerebral perfusion, including hypoperfusion of bilateral temporal, parietal, and occipital brain regions compared with both clinically healthy participants and those with mild cognitive impairment. Arterial spin-labeling showed reasonable test characteristics in distinguishing those with HIV-associated neurocognitive disorder from healthy controls and participants with mild cognitive impairment. CONCLUSIONS:This study found specific CBF patterns associated with HIV status despite viral suppression-data that should animate further investigations into the pathobiologic basis of vascular and cognitive abnormalities in HIV-associated neurocognitive disorders.
Project description:Arterial spin labeling (ASL) offers MRI measurement of cerebral blood flow (CBF) in vivo, and may offer clinical diagnostic utility in populations such as those with early Alzheimer's disease (AD). In the current study, we investigated the reliability and precision of a pseudo-continuous ASL (pcASL) sequence that was performed two or three times within one hour on eight young normal control subjects, and 14 elderly subjects including 11 with normal cognition, one with AD and two with Mild Cognitive Impairment (MCI). Six of these elderly subjects including one AD, two MCIs and three controls also received (15)O-water positron emission tomography (PET) scans 2 h before their pcASL MR scan. The instrumental reliability of pcASL was evaluated with the intraclass correlation coefficient (ICC). The ICCs were greater than 0.90 in pcASL global perfusion measurements for both the young and the elderly groups. The cross-modality perfusion imaging comparison yielded very good global and regional agreement in global gray matter and the posterior cingulate cortex. Significant negative correlation was found between age and the gray/white matter perfusion ratio (r = -0.62, p < 0.002). The AD and MCI patients showed the lowest gray/white matter perfusion ratio among all the subjects. The data suggest that pcASL provides a reliable whole brain CBF measurement in young and elderly adults whose results converge with those obtained with the traditional (15)O-water PET perfusion imaging method. pcASL perfusion MRI offers an alternative method for non-invasive in vivo examination of early pathophysiological changes in AD.
Project description:Single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) and Electroencephalography (EEG) have become established tools in routine diagnostics of dementia. We aimed to increase the diagnostic power by combining quantitative markers from SPECT and EEG for differential diagnosis of disorders with amnestic symptoms. We hypothesize that the combination of SPECT with measures of interaction (connectivity) in the EEG yields higher diagnostic accuracy than the single modalities. We examined 39 patients with Alzheimer's dementia (AD), 69 patients with depressive cognitive impairment (DCI), 71 patients with amnestic mild cognitive impairment (aMCI), and 41 patients with amnestic subjective cognitive complaints (aSCC). We calculated 14 measures of interaction from a standard clinical EEG-recording and derived graph-theoretic network measures. From regional brain perfusion measured by 99mTc-hexamethyl-propylene-aminoxime (HMPAO)-SPECT in 46 regions, we calculated relative cerebral perfusion in these patients. Patient groups were classified pairwise with a linear support vector machine. Classification was conducted separately for each biomarker, and then again for each EEG- biomarker combined with SPECT. Combination of SPECT with EEG-biomarkers outperformed single use of SPECT or EEG when classifying aSCC vs. AD (90%), aMCI vs. AD (70%), and AD vs. DCI (100%), while a selection of EEG measures performed best when classifying aSCC vs. aMCI (82%) and aMCI vs. DCI (90%). Only the contrast between aSCC and DCI did not result in above-chance classification accuracy (60%). In general, accuracies were higher when measures of interaction (i.e., connectivity measures) were applied directly than when graph-theoretical measures were derived. We suggest that quantitative analysis of EEG and machine-learning techniques can support differentiating AD, aMCI, aSCC, and DCC, especially when being combined with imaging methods such as SPECT. Quantitative analysis of EEG connectivity could become an integral part for early differential diagnosis of cognitive impairment.
Project description:Age-related hearing loss (HL) can be related to brain dysfunction or structural damage and may result in cerebral metabolic/perfusion abnormalities. Arterial spin labeling (ASL) magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) allows investigating noninvasively brain perfusion changes. Pseudocontinuous ASL and T1-weighted MRI (at 3 T) and neuropsychological testing (Montreal Cognitive Assessment) were performed in 31 HL (age range?=?47-77 years, mean age?±?SD = 63.4?±?8.4?years, pure-tone average [PTA] HL?>?50?dB) and 28 normal hearing (NH; age range?=?48-78 years, mean age?±?SD?=?59.7?±?7.4?years) subjects. Cerebral blood flow (CBF) and gray matter volume (GMV) were analyzed in the cortical volume to assess perfusion and structural group differences. Two HL subjects showing cognitive impairment were excluded from group comparisons. No significant differences in either global or local atrophy were detected between groups but the HL group exhibited significant regional effects of reduced perfusion within the bilateral primary auditory cortex, with maximal CBF difference (-17.2%) in the right lateral Heschl's gyrus. For the whole sample of HL and NH subjects (n?=?59?=?31 HL?+?28 NH), the regional CBF was correlated positively to the regional GMV (p?=?0.020). In HL subjects (n?=?31), the regional CBF was correlated negatively to the audiogram steepness (frequency range: 2-4 kHz, right ear: p?=?0.022, left ear: p?=?0.015). The observed cortical pattern of perfusion reduction suggests that neuronal metabolism can be related to HL before the recognition of brain structural damage. This also illustrates the potential of ASL-MRI to contribute early functional markers of reduced central processing associated with HL.
Project description:The 15-Objects Test (15-OT) provides useful gradation of visuoperceptual impairment from normal aging through Alzheimer's disease (AD) and correlates with temporo-parietal perfusion. The objectives of this study were to analyze progression of 15-OT performance in mild cognitive impairment (MCI) and AD, and its correlates with cognition and single photon emission computerized tomography (SPECT), as well as to examine neuropsychological and SPECT differences between the MCI patients who developed AD and those who did not. From the initial 126 participants (42/group), 38 AD, 39 MCI, and 38 elderly controls (EC) were reassessed (SPECT: 35 AD, 33 MCI, 35 EC) after two years. The progression of cognitive and SPECT scores during this period was compared between groups, and baseline data between converters and non-converters. The 15-OT was the only measure of progression that differed between the three groups; worsening scores on 15-OT were associated with worsening in verbal and visual retention, and decreased perfusion on left postsubicular area. In the MCI patients, cerebral perfusion fell over the two years in medial-posterior cingulate and fronto-temporo-parietal regions; AD showed extensive changes involving almost all cerebral regions. No SPECT changes were detected in controls. At baseline, the MCI patients who developed AD differed from non-converters in verbal recognition memory, but not in SPECT perfusion. In conclusion, SPECT and 15-OT appear to provide a potential measure to differentiate between normal aging, MCI, and AD. Worsening on 15-OT was related to decreased perfusion in postsubicular area; but further longitudinal studies are needed to determine the contribution of 15-OT as a predictor of AD from MCI.
Project description:Many studies have applied arterial spin labeling (ASL) to characterize cerebral perfusion patterns of Alzheimer's disease (AD). However, findings across studies are not conclusive. A quantitatively voxel-wise meta-analysis to pool the resting-state ASL studies that measure regional cerebral blood flow (rCBF) alterations in AD was conducted to identify the most consistent and replicable perfusion pattern using seed-based d mapping. The meta-analysis, including 17 ASL studies encompassing 327 AD patients and 357 healthy controls, demonstrated that decreased rCBF in AD patients relative to healthy controls were consistently identified in the bilateral posterior cingulate cortices (PCC)/precuneus, bilateral inferior parietal lobules (IPLs), and left dorsolateral prefrontal cortex. The meta-regression analysis showed that more severe cognitive impairment in the AD samples correlated with greater decreases of rCBF in the bilateral PCC and left IPL. This study characterizes an aberrant ASL-rCBF perfusion pattern of AD involving the posterior default mode network and executive network, which are implicated in its pathophysiology and hold promise for developing imaging biomarkers.
Project description:Post-mortem and imaging studies have observed that white matter (WM) degenerates in a pattern inverse to myelin development, suggesting preferential regional vulnerabilities influencing cognitive decline in AD. This study applied novel WM tract integrity (WMTI) metrics derived from diffusional kurtosis imaging (DKI) to examine WM tissue properties in AD within this framework. Using data from amnestic mild cognitive impairment (aMCI, n = 12), AD (n = 14), and normal control (NC; n = 15) subjects, mixed models revealed interaction effects: specific WMTI metrics of axonal density and myelin integrity (i.e. axonal water fraction, radial extra-axonal diffusivity) in late-myelinating tracts (i.e. superior and inferior longitudinal fasciculi) changed in the course of disease, but were stable in the initial stages for early-myelinating tracts (i.e. posterior limb of the internal capsule, cerebral peduncles). WMTI metrics in late-myelinating tracts correlated with semantic verbal fluency, a cognitive function known to decline in AD. These findings corroborate the preferential vulnerability of late-myelinating tracts, and illustrate an application of WMTI metrics to characterizing the regional course of WM changes in AD.
Project description:INTRODUCTION:We investigated whether cholinesterase inhibitors (ChEIs) benefit cognitive outcomes in mild cognitive impairment due to Alzheimer disease (MCI-AD) and in mild AD dementia (ADdem). METHODS:Data from 2242 individuals, clinically diagnosed with MCI-AD [Clinical Dementia Rating (CDR), 0 or 0.5] or with mild ADdem (CDR, 0.5 or 1), were available from the National Alzheimer's Coordinating Center's (NACC) Uniform Data Set (UDS). General linear mixed models were used to examine the annual change in the CDR Sum of Boxes (CDR-SB) and in neuropsychological performance. We compared slopes before and after ChEI initiation among ChEI users, and also compared the change in scores of ChEI users versus nonusers. RESULTS:Thirty-four percent of 944 MCI-AD and 72% of 1298 ADdem participants were ChEI users. Cognitive decline was greater after ChEI initiation in MCI-AD and ADdem groups (eg, MCI-AD, CDR-SB: 0.03 points/y before initiation; 0.61 points/y after initiation, P<0.0001). Both MCI-AD and ADdem groups had faster decline after ChEI initiation than nonusers (eg, MCI-AD, CDR-SB: 0.61 points/y, ChEI users; 0.24 points/y, nonusers, P<0.0001). DISCUSSION:This study suggests that ChEI use may not improve the cognitive course in MCI-AD and mild ADdem.