Conservation and divergence of YODA MAPKKK function in regulation of grass epidermal patterning.
ABSTRACT: All multicellular organisms must properly pattern cell types to generate functional tissues and organs. The organized and predictable cell lineages of the Brachypodium leaf enabled us to characterize the role of the MAPK kinase kinase gene BdYODA1 in regulating asymmetric cell divisions. We find that YODA genes promote normal stomatal spacing patterns in both Arabidopsis and Brachypodium, despite species-specific differences in those patterns. Using lineage tracing and cell fate markers, we show that, unexpectedly, patterning defects in bdyoda1 mutants do not arise from faulty physical asymmetry in cell divisions but rather from improper enforcement of alternative cellular fates after division. These cross-species comparisons allow us to refine our understanding of MAPK activities during plant asymmetric cell divisions.
Project description:The role of YODA MITOGEN ACTIVATED PROTEIN KINASE KINASE KINASE 4 (MAPKKK4) upstream of MITOGEN ACTIVATED PROTEIN KINASE 6 (MPK6) was studied during post-embryonic root development of Arabidopsis thaliana. Loss- and gain-of-function mutants of YODA (yda1 and ?Nyda1) were characterized in terms of root patterning, endogenous auxin content and global proteomes. We surveyed morphological and cellular phenotypes of yda1 and ?Nyda1 mutants suggesting possible involvement of auxin. Endogenous indole-3-acetic acid (IAA) levels were up-regulated in both mutants. Proteomic analysis revealed up-regulation of auxin biosynthetic enzymes tryptophan synthase and nitrilases in these mutants. The expression, abundance and phosphorylation of MPK3, MPK6 and MICROTUBULE ASSOCIATED PROTEIN 65-1 (MAP65-1) were characterized by quantitative polymerase chain reaction (PCR) and western blot analyses and interactions between MAP65-1, microtubules and MPK6 were resolved by quantitative co-localization studies and co-immunoprecipitations. yda1 and ?Nyda1 mutants showed disoriented cell divisions in primary and lateral roots, abortive cytokinesis, and differential subcellular localization of MPK6 and MAP65-1. They also showed deregulated expression of TANGLED1 (TAN1), PHRAGMOPLAST ORIENTING KINESIN 1 (POK1), and GAMMA TUBULIN COMPLEX PROTEIN 4 (GCP4). The findings that MPK6 localized to preprophase bands (PPBs) and phragmoplasts while the mpk6-4 mutant transformed with MPK6AEF (alanine (A)-glutamic acid (E)-phenylanine (F)) showed a root phenotype similar to that of yda1 demonstrated that MPK6 is an important player downstream of YODA. These data indicate that YODA and MPK6 are involved in post-embryonic root development through an auxin-dependent mechanism regulating cell division and mitotic microtubule (PPB and phragmoplast) organization.
Project description:Cell polarization is linked to fate determination during asymmetric division of plant stem cells, but the underlying molecular mechanisms remain unknown. In Arabidopsis, BREAKING OF ASYMMETRY IN THE STOMATAL LINEAGE (BASL) is polarized to control stomatal asymmetric division. A mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) cascade determines terminal stomatal fate by promoting the degradation of the lineage determinant SPEECHLESS (SPCH). Here, we demonstrate that a positive-feedback loop between BASL and the MAPK pathway constitutes a polarity module at the cortex. Cortical localization of BASL requires phosphorylation mediated by MPK3/6. Phosphorylated BASL functions as a scaffold and recruits the MAPKKK YODA and MPK3/6 to spatially concentrate signaling at the cortex. Activated MPK3/6 reinforces the feedback loop by phosphorylating BASL and inhibits stomatal fate by phosphorylating SPCH. Polarization of the BASL-MAPK signaling feedback module represents a mechanism connecting cell polarity to fate differentiation during asymmetric stem cell division in plants.
Project description:The budding yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae is one of the most widely studied model organisms in aging-related science. Although several genetic modifiers of yeast longevity have been identified, the utility of this system for longevity studies has been limited by a lack of high-throughput assays for quantitatively measuring survival of individual yeast cells during aging.Here we describe the Yeast Outgrowth Data Analyzer (YODA), an automated system for analyzing population survival of yeast cells based on the kinetics of outgrowth measured by optical density over time. YODA has been designed specifically for quantification of yeast chronological life span, but can also be used to quantify growth rate and survival of yeast cells in response to a variety of different conditions, including temperature, nutritional composition of the growth media, and chemical treatments. YODA is optimized for use with a Bioscreen C MBR shaker/incubator/plate reader, but is also amenable to use with any standard plate reader or spectrophotometer.We estimate that use of YODA as described here reduces the effort and resources required to measure chronological life span and analyze the resulting data by at least 15-fold.
Project description:Mitogen-activated protein kinases (MAPK) play pivotal roles in transducing developmental cues and environmental signals into cellular responses through pathways initiated by MAPK kinase kinases (MAP3K). AtYODA is a MAP3K of Arabidopsis thaliana that controls stomatal development and non-canonical immune responses. Arabidopsis plants overexpressing a constitutively active YODA protein (AtCA-YDA) show broad-spectrum disease resistance and constitutive expression of defensive genes. We tested YDA function in crops immunity by heterologously overexpressing AtCA-YDA in Solanum lycopersicum. We found that these tomato AtCA-YDA plants do not show developmental phenotypes and fitness alterations, except a reduction in stomatal index, as reported in Arabidopsis AtCA-YDA plants. Notably, AtCA-YDA tomato plants show enhanced resistance to the bacterial pathogen Pseudomonas syringae pv. tomato DC3000 and constitutive upregulation of defense-associated genes, corroborating the functionality of YDA in tomato immunity. This function was further supported by generating CRISPR/Cas9-edited tomato mutants impaired in the closest orthologs of AtYDA [Solyc08g081210 (SlYDA1) and Solyc03g025360 (SlYDA2)]. Slyda1 and Slyda2 mutants are highly susceptible to P. syringae pv. tomato DC3000 in comparison to wild-type plants but only Slyda2 shows altered stomatal index. These results indicate that tomato orthologs have specialized functions and support that YDA also regulates immune responses in tomato and may be a trait for breeding disease resistance.
Project description:Cell polarization is commonly used for the regulation of stem cell asymmetric division in both animals and plants. Stomatal development in Arabidopsis, a process that produces breathing pores in the epidermis, requires asymmetric cell division to differentiate highly specialized guard cells while maintaining a stem cell population [1, 2]. The BREAKING OF ASYMMETRY IN THE STOMATAL LINEAGE (BASL) protein exhibits a polarized localization pattern in the cell and is required for differential cell fates resulting from asymmetric cell division . The polarization of BASL is made possible by a positive feedback loop with a canonical mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) pathway that recruits the MAPKK kinase YODA (YDA) and MAPK 6 (MPK6) to the cortical polarity site . Here, we study BASL intracellular dynamics and show that the membrane-associated BASL is slowly replenished at the cortical polarity site and that the mobility is tightly linked to its phosphorylation status. Because BASL polarity is only exhibited by one daughter cell after an asymmetric cell division, we study how BASL differentially functions in the two daughter cells. The YDA MAPK cascade transduces upstream ligand-receptor signaling [5-13] to the transcription factor SPEECHLESS (SPCH), which controls stomatal initiation and is directly suppressed by MPK3/6-mediated phosphorylation [14, 15]. We show that BASL polarization leads to elevated nuclear MPK6 signaling and lowered SPCH abundance in one of the two daughter cells. Therefore, two daughter cells are differentiated by BASL polarity-mediated differential suppression of SPCH, which may provide developmental plasticity in plant stem cell asymmetric cell division (ACD).
Project description:Quantitative information on the spatiotemporal distribution of polarised proteins is central for understanding cell-fate determination, yet collecting sufficient data for statistical analysis is difficult to accomplish with manual measurements. Here we present Polarity Measurement (Pome), a semi-automated pipeline for the quantification of cell polarity and demonstrate its application to a variety of developmental contexts. Pome analysis reveals that, during asymmetric cell divisions in the Arabidopsis thaliana stomatal lineage, polarity proteins BASL and BRXL2 are more asynchronous and less mutually dependent than previously thought. A similar analysis of the linearly arrayed stomatal lineage of Brachypodium distachyon revealed that the MAPKKK BdYDA1 is segregated and polarised following asymmetrical divisions. Our results demonstrate that Pome is a versatile tool, which by itself or combined with tissue-level studies and advanced microscopy techniques can help to uncover new mechanisms of cell polarity.
Project description:The American Diabetes Association guidelines for the management of type 2 diabetes mellitus recommends treating patients with atherosclerotic cardiovascular diseases, heart failure or diabetic kidney disease with sodium-glucose co-transporter-2 inhibitors or glucagon-like peptide-1 receptor agonists, irrespective of the baseline HbA1c, to reduce adverse renal and cardiovascular outcomes. Initiation of such therapies have a significant cost impact on health economies. Cost of gain in quality-adjusted life-years is normally used for cost effectiveness for a particular drug. In the absence of head-to-head comparisons, prescribers may go for the cheapest option, which may not necessarily be the right decision. We propose using the calculated 'YoDa' (Years of Drug administration) as an easily comparable metric between the drug accrual cost and clinical outcomes. YoDa is calculated as a product of numbers needed to treat and the median duration in years that the trial ran over, to accrue the positive clinical outcomes. Clinical phenotyping of the patient to the specific inclusion and exclusion criteria of relevant clinical trials could guide the clinician to choose the most appropriate therapy. We also propose a series of steps or 'deliberations', which a clinician should consider in making a final choice of sodium-glucose co-transporter-2 inhibitor therapy. A comprehensive summary of the sodium-glucose co-transporter-2 inhibitor trials, clinical phenotyping and YoDa calculations for various significant clinical outcomes could assist making evidence-based, patient-individualised and cost-effective management plans for diabetes care. Informing and Empowering Patients and Clinicians to Make Evidence-Supported Outcome-Based Decisions in Relation to SGLT2 Inhibitor Therapies: The Use of The Novel Years of Drug administration (YoDa) Concept.
Project description:In embryos, multipotent progenitors divide to produce distinct progeny and express their full potential. In vertebrates, multipotent cardiopharyngeal progenitors produce second-heart-field-derived cardiomyocytes, and branchiomeric skeletal head muscles. However, the mechanisms underlying these early fate choices remain largely elusive. The tunicate Ciona emerged as an attractive model to study early cardiopharyngeal development at high resolution: through two asymmetric and oriented divisions, defined cardiopharyngeal progenitors produce distinct first and second heart precursors, and pharyngeal muscle (aka atrial siphon muscle, ASM) precursors. Here, we demonstrate that differential FGF-MAPK signaling distinguishes between heart and ASM precursors. We characterize a feed-forward circuit that promotes the successive activations of essential ASM determinants, Hand-related, Tbx1/10 and Ebf. Finally, we show that coupling FGF-MAPK restriction and cardiopharyngeal network deployment with cell divisions defines the timing of gene expression and permits the emergence of diverse cell types from multipotent progenitors.
Project description:Cells respond to many signals with a limited number of signaling components. Heterotrimeric G proteins and MAPK cascades are universally used by eukaryotic cells to transduce signals in various developmental processes or stress responses by activating different effectors. MAPK cascade is integrated with G proteins by scaffold protein during plant immunity. However, the molecular relationship between G proteins and MAPK modules in plant development is still unclear. In this study, we demonstrate that Arabidopsis G? protein AGB1 interacts with MPK3 and 6, MKK4 and 5, as well as the regulatory domains of YODA (YDA), the upstream MEKK of MKK4/5. Remarkably, YDA interacts with the plasma membrane associated SHORT SUSPENSOR (SSP) through its N- and C-terminal region in vitro and in vivo. Additionally, genetic analysis shows that AGB1 functions together with MPK3/6 signaling cascade during the asymmetric division of the zygote. These data indicate that G? may function likely as a scaffold, through direct physical interaction with the components of the MPK signaling module in plant development. Our results provide new insights into the molecular functions of G protein and will advance the understanding of the complex mechanism of kinase signaling cascades.