CDP-glycerol inhibits the synthesis of the functional O-mannosyl glycan of ?-dystroglycan.
ABSTRACT: ?-Dystroglycan (?-DG) is a highly glycosylated cell-surface laminin receptor. Defects in the O-mannosyl glycan of an ?-DG with laminin-binding activity can cause ?-dystroglycanopathy, a group of congenital muscular dystrophies. In the biosynthetic pathway of functional O-mannosyl glycan, fukutin (FKTN) and fukutin-related protein (FKRP), whose mutated genes underlie ?-dystroglycanopathy, sequentially transfer ribitol phosphate (RboP) from CDP-Rbo to form a tandem RboP unit (RboP-RboP) required for the synthesis of the laminin-binding epitope on O-mannosyl glycan. Both RboP- and glycerol phosphate (GroP)-substituted glycoforms have recently been detected in recombinant ?-DG. However, it is unclear how GroP is transferred to the O-mannosyl glycan or whether GroP substitution affects the synthesis of the O-mannosyl glycan. Here, we report that, in addition to having RboP transfer activity, FKTN and FKRP can transfer GroP to O-mannosyl glycans by using CDP-glycerol (CDP-Gro) as a donor substrate. Kinetic experiments indicated that CDP-Gro is a less efficient donor substrate for FKTN than is CDP-Rbo. We also show that the GroP-substituted glycoform synthesized by FKTN does not serve as an acceptor substrate for FKRP and that therefore further elongation of the outer glycan chain cannot occur with this glycoform. Finally, CDP-Gro inhibited the RboP transfer activities of both FKTN and FKRP. These results suggest that CDP-Gro inhibits the synthesis of the functional O-mannosyl glycan of ?-DG by preventing further elongation of the glycan chain. This is the first report of GroP transferases in mammals.
Project description:?-Dystroglycan (?-DG) is a highly-glycosylated surface membrane protein. Defects in the O-mannosyl glycan of ?-DG cause dystroglycanopathy, a group of congenital muscular dystrophies. The core M3 O-mannosyl glycan contains tandem ribitol-phosphate (RboP), a characteristic feature first found in mammals. Fukutin and fukutin-related protein (FKRP), whose mutated genes underlie dystroglycanopathy, sequentially transfer RboP from cytidine diphosphate-ribitol (CDP-Rbo) to form a tandem RboP unit in the core M3 glycan. Here, we report a series of crystal structures of FKRP with and without donor (CDP-Rbo) and/or acceptor [RboP-(phospho-)core M3 peptide] substrates. FKRP has N-terminal stem and C-terminal catalytic domains, and forms a tetramer both in crystal and in solution. In the acceptor complex, the phosphate group of RboP is recognized by the catalytic domain of one subunit, and a phosphate group on O-mannose is recognized by the stem domain of another subunit. Structure-based functional studies confirmed that the dimeric structure is essential for FKRP enzymatic activity.
Project description:Dystroglycanopathy is a major class of congenital muscular dystrophy caused by a deficiency of functional glycans on ?-dystroglycan (?DG) with laminin-binding activity. Recent advances have led to identification of several causative gene products of dystroglycanopathy and characterization of their in vitro enzymatic activities. However, the in vivo functional roles remain equivocal for enzymes such as ISPD, FKTN, FKRP, and TMEM5 that are supposed to be involved in post-phosphoryl modifications linking the GalNAc-?3-GlcNAc-?4-Man-6-phosphate core and the outer laminin-binding glycans. Herein, by direct nano-LC-MS2/MS3 analysis of tryptic glycopeptides derived from a truncated recombinant ?DG expressed in the wild-type and a panel of mutated cells deficient in one of these enzymes, we sought to define the full extent of variable modifications on this phosphorylated core O-glycan at the functional Thr317/Thr319 sites. We showed that the most abundant glycoforms carried a phosphorylated core at each of the two sites, with and without a single ribitol phosphate (RboP) extending from terminal HexNAc. At much lower signal intensity, a novel substituent tentatively assigned as glycerol phosphate (GroP) was additionally detected. As expected, tandem RboP extended with a GlcA-Xyl unit was only identified in wild type, whereas knocking out of either ISPD or FKTN prevented formation of RboP. In the absence of FKRP, glycoforms with single but not tandem RboP accumulated, consistent with the suggested role of this enzyme in transferring the second RboP. Intriguingly, the single GroP modification also required functional FKTN whereas absence of TMEM5 significantly hindered only the addition of RboP. Our findings thus revealed additional levels of complexity associated with the core structures, suggesting functional interplay among these enzymes through their interactions. The simplified analytical workflow developed here should facilitate rapid mapping across a wider range of cell types to gain better insights into its physiological relevance.
Project description:Dystroglycanopathy, a subgroup of muscular dystrophies, is characterized by hypoglycosylation of ?-dystroglycan (?-DG), which reduces its laminin-binding activity to extracellular matrix proteins, causing progressive loss of muscle integrity and function. Mutations in the fukutin-related protein (FKRP) gene are the most common causes of dystroglycanopathy. FKRP transfers ribitol-5-phosphate to the O-mannosyl glycan on ?-DG from substrate cytidine diphosphate (CDP)-ribitol, which is synthesized by isoprenoid synthase domain-containing protein (ISPD). We previously reported that oral administration of ribitol restores therapeutic levels of functional glycosylation of ?-DG (F-?-DG) in a FKRP mutant mouse model. Here we examine the contribution of adeno-associated virus (AAV)-mediated overexpression of ISPD to the levels of CDP-ribitol and F-?-DG with and without ribitol supplementation in the disease model. ISPD overexpression alone and in combination with ribitol improves dystrophic phenotype. Furthermore, the combined approach of ribitol and ISPD acts synergistically, increasing F-?-DG up to 40% of normal levels in cardiac muscle and more than 20% in limb and diaphragm. The results suggest that low levels of substrate limit production of CDP-ribitol, and endogenous ISPD also becomes a limiting factor in the presence of a supraphysiological concentration of ribitol. Our data support further investigation of the regulatory pathway for enhancing efficacy of ribitol supplement to FKRP-related dystroglycanopathy.
Project description:The laminin-binding glycan (matriglycan) on ?-dystroglycan (?-DG) enables diverse roles, from neuronal development to muscle integrity. Reduction or loss of matriglycan has also been implicated in cancer development and metastasis, and specifically associated with high-grade tumors and poor prognoses in breast cancers. Hyperglycosylation of ?-DG with LARGE overexpression is shown to inhibit cancer cell growth and tumorigenicity. We recently demonstrated that ribitol, considered to be a metabolic end-product, enhances matriglycan expression in dystrophic muscles in vivo. In the current study, we tested the hypothesis that ribitol could also enhance matriglycan expression in cancer cells. Our results showed for the first time that ribitol is able to significantly enhance the expression of matriglycan on ?-DG in breast cancer cells. The ribitol effect is associated with an increase in levels of CDP-ribitol, the substrate for the ribitol-5-phosphate transferases FKRP and FKTN. Direct use of CDP-ribitol is also effective for matriglycan expression. Ribitol treatment does not alter the expression of FKRP, FKTN as well as LARGEs and ISPD which are critical for the synthesis of matriglycan. The results suggest that alteration in substrates could also be involved in regulation of matriglycan expression. Interestingly, expression of matriglycan is related to cell cycle progression with highest levels in S and G2 phases and ribitol treatment does not alter the pattern. Although matriglycan up-regulation does not affect cell cycle progression and proliferation of the cancer cells tested, the novel substrate-mediated treatment opens a new approach easily applicable to experimental systems in vivo for further exploitation of matriglycan expression in cancer progression and for therapeutic potential.
Project description:Dystroglycan is a cell membrane receptor that organizes the basement membrane by binding ligands in the extracellular matrix. Proper glycosylation of the ?-dystroglycan (?-DG) subunit is essential for these activities, and lack thereof results in neuromuscular disease. Currently, neither the glycan synthesis pathway nor the roles of many known or putative glycosyltransferases that are essential for this process are well understood. Here we show that FKRP, FKTN, TMEM5 and B4GAT1 (formerly known as B3GNT1) localize to the Golgi and contribute to the O-mannosyl post-phosphorylation modification of ?-DG. Moreover, we assigned B4GAT1 a function as a xylose ?1,4-glucuronyltransferase. Nuclear magnetic resonance studies confirmed that a glucuronic acid ?1,4-xylose disaccharide synthesized by B4GAT1 acts as an acceptor primer that can be elongated by LARGE with the ligand-binding heteropolysaccharide. Our findings greatly broaden the understanding of ?-DG glycosylation and provide mechanistic insight into why mutations in B4GAT1 disrupt dystroglycan function and cause disease.
Project description:Mutations in genes required for the glycosylation of ?-dystroglycan lead to muscle and brain diseases known as dystroglycanopathies. However, the precise structure and biogenesis of the assembled glycan are not completely understood. Here we report that three enzymes mutated in dystroglycanopathies can collaborate to attach ribitol phosphate onto ?-dystroglycan. Specifically, we demonstrate that isoprenoid synthase domain-containing protein (ISPD) synthesizes CDP-ribitol, present in muscle, and that both recombinant fukutin (FKTN) and fukutin-related protein (FKRP) can transfer a ribitol phosphate group from CDP-ribitol to ?-dystroglycan. We also show that ISPD and FKTN are essential for the incorporation of ribitol into ?-dystroglycan in HEK293 cells. Glycosylation of ?-dystroglycan in fibroblasts from patients with hypomorphic ISPD mutations is reduced. We observe that in some cases glycosylation can be partially restored by addition of ribitol to the culture medium, suggesting that dietary supplementation with ribitol should be evaluated as a therapy for patients with ISPD mutations.
Project description:?-Dystroglycanopathies are a group of muscular dystrophies characterized by ?-DG hypoglycosylation and reduced extracellular ligand-binding affinity. Among other genes involved in the ?-DG glycosylation process, fukutin related protein (FKRP) gene mutations generate a wide range of pathologies from mild limb girdle muscular dystrophy 2I (LGMD2I), severe congenital muscular dystrophy 1C (MDC1C), to Walker-Warburg Syndrome and Muscle-Eye-Brain disease. FKRP gene encodes for a glycosyltransferase that in vivo transfers a ribitol phosphate group from a CDP -ribitol present in muscles to ?-DG, while in vitro it can be secreted as monomer of 60kDa. Consistently, new evidences reported glycosyltransferases in the blood, freely circulating or wrapped within vesicles. Although the physiological function of blood stream glycosyltransferases remains unclear, they are likely released from blood borne or distant cells. Thus, we hypothesized that freely or wrapped FKRP might circulate as an extracellular glycosyltransferase, able to exert a "glycan remodelling" process, even at distal compartments. Interestingly, we firstly demonstrated a successful transduction of MDC1C blood-derived CD133+?cells and FKRP L276IKI mouse derived satellite cells by a lentiviral vector expressing the wild-type of human FKRP gene. Moreover, we showed that LV-FKRP cells were driven to release exosomes carrying FKRP. Similarly, we observed the presence of FKRP positive exosomes in the plasma of FKRP L276IKI mice intramuscularly injected with engineered satellite cells. The distribution of FKRP protein boosted by exosomes determined its restoration within muscle tissues, an overall recovery of ?-DG glycosylation and improved muscle strength, suggesting a systemic supply of FKRP protein acting as glycosyltransferase.
Project description:Multiple genes (e.g., POMT1, POMT2, POMGnT1, ISPD, GTDC2, B3GALNT2, FKTN, FKRP, and LARGE) are known to be involved in the glycosylation pathway of ?-dystroglycan (?-DG). Mutations of these genes result in muscular dystrophies with wide phenotypic variability. Abnormal glycosylation of ?-DG with decreased extracellular ligand binding activity is a common biochemical feature of these genetic diseases. While it is known that LARGE overexpression can compensate for defects in a few aforementioned genes, it is unclear whether it can also rescue defects in FKRP function. We examined adeno-associated virus (AAV)-mediated LARGE or FKRP overexpression in two dystrophic mouse models with loss-of-function mutations: (1) Large(myd) (LARGE gene) and (2) FKRP(P448L) (FKRP gene). The results agree with previous findings that overexpression of LARGE can ameliorate the dystrophic phenotypes of Large(myd) mice. In addition, LARGE overexpression in the FKRP(P448L) mice effectively generated functional glycosylation (hyperglycosylation) of ?-DG and improved dystrophic pathologies in treated muscles. Conversely, FKRP transgene overexpression failed to rescue the defect in glycosylation and improve the phenotypes of the Large(myd) mice. Our findings suggest that AAV-mediated LARGE gene therapy may still be a viable therapeutic strategy for dystroglycanopathies with FKRP deficiency.
Project description:?-Dystroglycan (?-DG) is a membrane-associated glycoprotein that interacts with several extracellular matrix proteins, including laminin and agrin. Aberrant glycosylation of ?-DG disrupts its interaction with ligands and causes a certain type of muscular dystrophy commonly referred to as dystroglycanopathy. It has been reported that a unique O-mannosyl tetrasaccharide (Neu5Ac-?2,3-Gal-?1,4-GlcNAc-?1,2-Man) and a phosphodiester-linked modification on O-mannose play important roles in the laminin binding activity of ?-DG. In this study, we use several dystroglycanopathy mouse models to demonstrate that, in addition to fukutin and LARGE, FKRP (fukutin-related protein) is also involved in the post-phosphoryl modification of O-mannose on ?-DG. Furthermore, we have found that the glycosylation status of ?-DG in lung and testis is minimally affected by defects in fukutin, LARGE, or FKRP. ?-DG prepared from wild-type lung- or testis-derived cells lacks the post-phosphoryl moiety and shows little laminin-binding activity. These results show that FKRP is involved in post-phosphoryl modification rather than in O-mannosyl tetrasaccharide synthesis. Our data also demonstrate that post-phosphoryl modification not only plays critical roles in the pathogenesis of dystroglycanopathy but also is a key determinant of ?-DG functional expression as a laminin receptor in normal tissues and cells.
Project description:Limb Girdle Muscular Dystrophies type 2I (LGMD2I), a recessive autosomal muscular dystrophy, is caused by mutations in the Fukutin Related Protein (FKRP) gene. It has been proposed that FKRP, a ribitol-5-phosphate transferase, is a participant in ?-dystroglycan (?DG) glycosylation, which is important to ensure the cell/matrix anchor of muscle fibers. A LGMD2I knock-in mouse model was generated to express the most frequent mutation (L276I) encountered in patients. The expression of FKRP was not altered neither at transcriptional nor at translational levels, but its function was impacted since abnormal glycosylation of ?DG was observed. Skeletal muscles were functionally impaired from 2 months of age and a moderate dystrophic pattern was evident starting from 6 months of age. Gene transfer with a rAAV2/9 vector expressing Fkrp restored biochemical defects, corrected the histological abnormalities and improved the resistance to eccentric stress in the mouse model. However, injection of high doses of the vector induced a decrease of ?DG glycosylation and laminin binding, even in WT animals. Finally, intravenous injection of the rAAV-Fkrp vector into a dystroglycanopathy mouse model due to Fukutin (Fktn) knock-out indicated a dose-dependent toxicity. These data suggest requirement for a control of FKRP expression in muscles.