Neuroprotective Effect of Artesunate in Experimental Model of Traumatic Brain Injury.
ABSTRACT: Traumatic brain injuries (TBI) are an important public health challenge. In addition, subsequent events at TBI can compromise the quality of life of these patients. In fact, TBI is associated with several complications for both long and short term, some evidence shows how TBI is associated with a decline in cognitive functions such as the risk of developing dementia, cerebral atrophy, and Parkinson disease. After the direct damage from TBI, a key role in TBI injury is played by the inflammatory response and oxidative stress, that contributes to tissue damage and to neurodegenerative processes, typical of secondary injury, after TBI. Given the complex series of events that are involved after TBI injury, a multitarget pharmacological approach is needed. Artesunate is a more stable derivative of its precursor artemisin, a sesquiterpene lactone obtained from a Chinese plant Artemisia annua, a plant used for centuries in traditional Chinese medicine. artesunate has been shown to be a pluripotent agent with different pharmacological actions. therefore, in this experimental model of TBI we evaluated whether the treatment with artesunate at the dose of 30 mg\Kg, had an efficacy in reducing the neuroinflammatory process after TBI injury, and in inhibiting the NLRP3 inflammasome pathway, which plays a key role in the inflammatory process. We also assessed whether treatment with artesunate was able to exert a neuroprotective action by modulating the release of neurotrophic factors. our results show that artesunate was able to reduce the TBI-induced lesion, it also showed an anti-inflammatory action through the inhibition of Nf-kb, release of proinflammatory cytokines IL-1? and TNF-? and through the inhibition NLRP3 inflammasome complex, furthermore was able to reduce the activation of astrocytes and microglia (GFAP, Iba-1). Finally, our results show that the protective effects of artesunate also occur through the modulation of neurotrophic factors (BDNF, GDNF, NT-3) that play a key role in neuronal survival.
Project description:NLRP3 inflammasome has been considered as an important contributor to inflammation and neuronal death after traumatic brain injury (TBI). Oridonin (Ori), the major active ingredient of Chinese herbal medicine <i>Rabdosia rubescens</i>, has been proved to be a covalent NLRP3 inhibitor with strong anti-inflammation activity. The purpose of this study was to investigate the effect of Ori on inflammation and brain injury induced by TBI. Adult male C57BL/6 mice were subjected to closed-head injury using Hall's weight-dropping method. Ori was injected directly intraperitoneally at a dose of 10 mg/kg within 30 min after TBI and injected once daily until the experiments ended. Our results showed that NLRP3 inflammasome was activated within 24 h post-TBI. The expression of NLRP3 inflammasome components (NLRP3, ASC, and caspase-1) was significantly decreased after treatment with Ori. Besides, the secretion of IL-1? and IL-18, downstream inflammatory factors of activated caspase-1, was reduced by Ori treatment. Importantly, Ori administration further protected the blood-brain barrier, alleviated brain edema, reduced cortical lesion volume, decreased cell death, and attenuated neurological deficits after TBI. Our findings indicate that NLRP3 inflammasome participated in the secondary injury after TBI and the application of Ori may provide neuroprotection via inhibiting NLRP3 inflammasome in animal models, suggesting that Ori might be a promising candidate for patients with TBI.
Project description:Treatment for traumatic brain injury (TBI) remains elusive despite compelling evidence from animal models for a variety of therapeutic targets. The activation of the NLRP3 (Nucleotide-binding oligomerization domain-like receptor family pyrin domain-containing 3) inflammasome has been proposed as key point in the brain damage associated with TBI. NLRP3 was tested as potential target for reducing neuronal loss and promoting functional recovery in a mouse model of TBI. Male NLRP3-/- (n = 20) and wild type (n = 27) mice were used. A closed TBI model was performed and inflammatory and apoptotic markers were evaluated. A group of WT mice also received BAY 11-7082, a NLRP3 inhibitor, to further evaluate the role of this pathway. At 24 h following TBI NLRP3-/- animals demonstrated a preserved cognitive function as compared to WT mice, additionally brain damage was less severe and the inflammatory mediators were reduced in brain lysates. The administration of BAY 11-7082 in WT animals subjected to TBI produced overlapping results. At day 7 histology revealed a more conserved brain structure with reduced damage in TBI NLRP3-/- animals compared to WT. Our data indicate that the NLRP3 pathway might be exploited as molecular target for the short-term sequelae of TBI.
Project description:Traumatic brain injury (TBI) represents an important problem of global health. The damage related to TBI is first due to the direct injury and then to a secondary phase in which neuroinflammation plays a key role. NLRP3 inflammasome is a component of the innate immune response and different diseases, such as neurodegenerative diseases, are characterized by NLRP3 activation. This review aims to describe NLRP3 inflammasome and the consequences related to its activation following TBI. NLRP3, caspase-1, IL-1?, and IL-18 are significantly upregulated after TBI, therefore, the use of nonspecific, but mostly specific NLRP3 inhibitors is useful to ameliorate the damage post-TBI characterized by neuroinflammation. Moreover, NLRP3 and the molecules associated with its activation may be considered as biomarkers and predictive factors for other neurodegenerative diseases consequent to TBI. Complications such as continuous stimuli or viral infections, such as the SARS-CoV-2 infection, may worsen the prognosis of TBI, altering the immune response and increasing the neuroinflammatory processes related to NLRP3, whose activation occurs both in TBI and in SARS-CoV-2 infection. This review points out the role of NLRP3 in TBI and highlights the hypothesis that NLRP3 may be considered as a potential therapeutic target for the management of neuroinflammation in TBI.
Project description:Traumatic brain injury (TBI) is a leading cause of death and disability worldwide. After the initial primary mechanical injury, a complex secondary injury cascade involving oxidative stress and neuroinflammation follows, which may exacerbate the injury and complicate the healing process. NADPH oxidase 2 (NOX2) is a major contributor to oxidative stress in TBI pathology, and inhibition of NOX2 is neuroprotective. The NLRP3 inflammasome can become activated in response to oxidative stress, but little is known about the role of NOX2 in regulating NLRP3 inflammasome activation following TBI. In this study, we utilized NOX2 knockout mice to study the role of NOX2 in mediating NLRP3 inflammasome expression and activation following a controlled cortical impact. Expression of NLRP3 inflammasome components NLRP3 and apoptosis-associated speck-like protein containing a CARD (ASC), as well as its downstream products cleaved caspase-1 and interleukin-1β (IL-1β), was robustly increased in the injured cerebral cortex following TBI. Deletion of NOX2 attenuated the expression, assembly, and activity of the NLRP3 inflammasome via a mechanism that was associated with TXNIP, a sensor of oxidative stress. The results support the notion that NOX2-dependent inflammasome activation contributes to TBI pathology.
Project description:There is a great clinical need to identify the underlying mechanisms, as well as related biomarkers, and treatment targets, for traumatic brain injury (TBI). Neuroinflammation is a central pathophysiological feature of TBI. NLRP3 inflammasome activity is a necessary component of the innate immune response to tissue damage, and dysregulated inflammasome activity has been implicated in a number of neurological conditions. This paper introduces the NLRP3 inflammasome and its implication in the pathogenesis of neuroinflammatory-related conditions, with a particular focus on TBI. Although its role in TBI has only recently been identified, findings suggest that priming and activation of the NLRP3 inflammasome are upregulated following TBI. Moreover, recent studies utilizing specific NLRP3 inhibitors have provided further evidence that this inflammasome is a major driver of neuroinflammation and neurobehavioral disturbances following TBI. In addition, there is emerging evidence that circulating inflammasome-associated proteins may have utility as diagnostic biomarkers of neuroinflammatory conditions, including TBI. Finally, novel and promising areas of research will be highlighted, including the potential involvement of the NLRP3 inflammasome in mild TBI, how factors such as biological sex may affect NLRP3 activity in TBI, and the use of emerging biomarker platforms. Taken together, this review highlights the exciting potential of the NLRP3 inflammasome as a target for treatments and biomarkers that may ultimately be used to improve TBI management.
Project description:Nucleotide oligomerization domain (NOD)-like receptor protein-3 (NLRP3) inflammasome may intimately contribute to sustaining damage after traumatic brain injury (TBI). This study aims to examine whether specific modulation of NLPR3 inflammasome by MCC950, a novel selective NLRP3 inhibitor, confers protection after experimental TBI. Unilateral cortical impact injury was induced in young adult C57BL/6 mice. MCC950 (50 mg/kg, intraperitoneally) or saline was administration at 1 and 3 h post-TBI. Animals were tested for neurological function and then sacrificed at 24 or 72 h post-TBI. Immunoblotting and histological analysis were performed to identify markers of NLRP3 inflammasome and proapoptotic activity in pericontusional areas of the brains at 24 or 72 h post-TBI. MCC950 treatment provided a significant improvement in neurological function and reduced cerebral edema in TBI animals. TBI upregulated NLRP3, apoptosis-associated speck-like adapter protein (ASC), cleaved caspase-1, and interlukein-1β (IL-1β) in the perilesional area. MCC950 efficiently repressed caspase-1 and IL-1β with a transient effect on ASC and NLRP3 post-TBI. MCC950 treatment also provided protection against proapoptotic activation of poly (ADP-ribose) polymerase and caspase-3 associated with TBI. A concurrent inhibition of inflammasome priming was also detectable at the nuclear factor kappa B/p65 and caspase-1 level. Our findings support the implication of NLRP3 inflammasome in the pathogenesis of TBI and further suggests the therapeutic potential of MCC950.
Project description:Ischemic stroke patients suffer from relatively limited treatment options. Studies have shown that in cerebral ischemia, NOD-like receptor family pyrin domain containing 3 (NLRP3) inflammasome is a key mediator in mediating inflammatory responses and results in activation of apoptosis signaling pathways. Here we assessed the in vivo and in vitro effects of Qingnao Dripping Pills (QNDP), a traditional Chinese prescription, on inflammatory responses and apoptosis. Our results showed that QNDP could significantly decrease cerebral ischemia injury, improve neurological function and inhibit apoptosis in rats impaired by middle cerebral artery occlusion (MCAO). Further, we found that QNDP inhibited NLRP3 inflammasome expression both in MCAO rats and in SH-SY5Y cells under OGD. Moreover, the levels of inflammatory cytokines including interleukin-1? (IL-1?) and IL-18, which mediated by NLRP3 inflammasome and increased in MCAO rats, could be reduced by QNDP, suggesting that QNDP could protect the neurons against inflammation through a mechanism mediated by NLRP3 inflammasome. Nuclear factor-kappa B (NF-?B) was also involved in the anti-inflammatory effect of QNDP. In conclusion, QNDP had neuroprotective effects against cerebral ischemia via inhibiting NLRP3 inflammasome signaling pathway, and was a potential candidate for the future treatment of ischemic stroke.
Project description:BACKGROUND:Inflammasome-mediated neuroinflammation may cause secondary injury following traumatic brain injury (TBI) in children. The pattern recognition receptors NACHT domain-, Leucine-rich repeat-, and PYD-containing Protein 1 (NLRP1) and NLRP3 are essential components of their respective inflammasome complexes. We sought to investigate whether NLRP1 and/or NLRP3 abundance is altered in children with severe TBI. METHODS:Cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) from children (n = 34) with severe TBI (Glasgow coma scale score [GCS] ?8) who had externalized ventricular drains (EVD) placed for routine care was evaluated for NLRP1 and NLRP3 at 0-24, 25-48, 49-72, and >72 h post-TBI and was compared to infection-free controls that underwent lumbar puncture to rule out CNS infection (n = 8). Patient age, sex, initial GCS, mechanism of injury, treatment with therapeutic hypothermia, and 6-month Glasgow outcome score were collected. RESULTS:CSF NLRP1 was undetectable in controls and detected in 2 TBI patients at only <24 h post-TBI. CSF NLRP3 levels were increased in TBI patients compared with controls at all time points, p < 0.001. TBI patients ?4 years of age had higher peak NLRP3 levels versus patients >4 (15.50 [3.65-25.71] vs. 3.04 [1.52-8.87] ng/mL, respectively; p = 0.048). Controlling for initial GCS in multivariate analysis, peak NLRP3 >6.63 ng/mL was independently associated with poor outcome at 6 months. CONCLUSIONS:In the first report of NLRP1 and NLRP3 in childhood neurotrauma, we found that CSF NLRP3 is elevated in children with severe TBI and independently associated with younger age and poor outcome. Future studies correlating NLRP3 with other markers of inflammation and response to therapy are warranted.
Project description:Aberrant activation of NLRP3 inflammasome has been implicated in the pathogenesis of diverse inflammation-related diseases, and pharmacological molecules targeting NLRP3 inflammasome are of considerable value to identifying potential therapeutic interventions. Cardamonin (CDN), the major active ingredient of the traditional Chinese medicinal herb Alpinia katsumadai, has exerted an excellent anti-inflammatory activity, but the mechanism underlying this role is not fully understood. Here, we show that CDN blocks canonical and noncanonical NLRP3 inflammasome activation triggered by multiple stimuli. Moreover, the suppression of CDN on inflammasome activation is specific to NLRP3, not to NLRC4 or AIM2 inflammasome. Besides, the inhibitory effect is not dependent on the expression of NF-κB-mediated inflammasome precursor proteins. We also demonstrate that CDN suppresses the NLRP3 inflammasome through blocking ASC oligomerization and speckle formation in a dose-dependent manner. Importantly, CDN improves the survival of mice suffering from lethal septic shock and attenuates IL-1β production induced by LPS in vivo, which is shown to be NLRP3 dependent. In conclusion, our results identify CDN as a broad-spectrum and specific inhibitor of NLRP3 inflammasome and a candidate therapeutic drug for treating NLRP3 inflammasome-driven diseases.
Project description:Cellular processes that drive sterile inflammatory injury after hepatic ischemia/reperfusion (I/R) injury are not completely understood. Activation of the inflammasome plays a key role in response to invading intracellular pathogens, but mounting evidence suggests that it also plays a role in inflammation driven by endogenous danger-associate molecular pattern molecules released after ischemic injury. The nucleotide-binding domain, leucine-rich repeat containing protein 3 (NLRP3) inflammasome is one such process, and the mechanism by which its activation results in damage and inflammatory responses following liver I/R is unknown. In this article, we report that both NLRP3 and its downstream target caspase-1 are activated during I/R and are essential for hepatic I/R injury, because both NLRP3 and caspase-1 knockout mice are protected from injury. Furthermore, inflammasome-mediated injury is dependent on caspase-1 expression in liver nonparenchymal cells. Although upstream signals that activate the inflammasome during ischemic injury are not well characterized, we show that endogenous extracellular histones activate the NLRP3 inflammasome during liver I/R through TLR9. This occurs through TLR9-dependent generation of reactive oxygen species. This mechanism is operant in resident liver Kupffer cells, which drive innate immune responses after I/R injury by recruiting additional cell types, including neutrophils and inflammatory monocytes. These novel findings illustrate a new mechanism by which extracellular histones and activation of NLRP3 inflammasome contribute to liver damage and the activation of innate immunity during sterile inflammation.