The Protective Effect of New Compound XH-103 on Radiation-Induced GI Syndrome.
ABSTRACT: Background:Radiation-induced intestinal injury is one of the side effects in patients receiving radiotherapy. The aim of the present study was to investigate the protective effect of XH-103 on radiation-induced small intestinal injury and to explore its mechanism. Methods:C57BL/6N mice were irradiated and treated with XH-103. Firstly, the survival rate of mice exposed to 9.0?Gy and 11.0?Gy total body irradiation (TBI) was examined. Subsequently, at 3.5?d after IR, the small intestinal morphological changes were examined by HE. The numbers of crypt cells, the villus height, the expression of Ki67 and Lgr5, and the apoptotic cells in the intestinal crypts were examined by immunohistochemistry. Furthermore, the expression of p53 and Bax was analyzed by WB. Results:Compared to the irradiation group, XH-103 improved the mice survival rate, protected the intestinal morphology of mice, decreased the apoptotic rate of intestinal crypt cells, maintained cell regeneration, and promoted crypt proliferation and differentiation. XH-103 also reduced the expression of p53 and Bax in the small intestine compared to the IR group. Conclusion:These data demonstrate that XH-103 can prevent radiation-induced intestinal injury, which is beneficial for the protection of radiation injuries.
Project description:Radiation-induced intestinal injury is one of the major side effects in patients receiving radiation therapy. There is no specific treatment for radiation enteritis in the clinic. We designed and synthesized a new compound named XH-105, which is expected to cleave into polyphenol and aminothiol in vivo to mitigate radiation injury. In the following study, we describe the beneficial effects of XH-105 against radiation-induced intestinal injury. C57BL/6J mice were treated by gavage with XH-105 1 hour before total body irradiation (TBI), and the survival rate was monitored. Histological changes were examined, and survival of Lgr5+ intestinal stem cells Ki67+ cells, villi+ enterocytes and lysozymes was determined by immunohistochemistry. DNA damage and cellular apoptosis in intestinal tissue were also evaluated. Compared to vehicle-treated mice after TBI, XH-105 treatment significantly enhanced the survival rate, attenuated structural damage of the small intestine, decreased the apoptotic rate, reduced DNA damage, maintained cell regeneration and promoted crypt proliferation and differentiation. XH-105 also reduced the expression of Bax and p53 in the small intestine. These data suggest that XH-105 is beneficial for the protection of radiation-induced intestinal injury by inhibiting the p53-dependent apoptosis signalling pathway.
Project description:The role of bone marrow (BM) and BM-derived cells in radiation-induced acute gastrointestinal (GI) syndrome is controversial. Here we use bone marrow transplantation (BMT), total body irradiation (TBI) and abdominal irradiation (ABI) models to demonstrate a very limited, if any, role of BM-derived cells in acute GI injury and recovery. Compared with WT BM recipients, mice receiving BM from radiation-resistant PUMA KO mice show no protection from crypt and villus injury or recovery after 15 or 12?Gy TBI, but have a significant survival benefit at 12?Gy TBI. PUMA KO BM significantly protects donor-derived pan-intestinal haematopoietic (CD45+) and endothelial (CD105+) cells after IR. We further show that PUMA KO BM fails to enhance animal survival or crypt regeneration in radiosensitive p21 KO-recipient mice. These findings clearly separate the effects of radiation on the intestinal epithelium from those on the BM and endothelial cells in dose-dependent acute radiation toxicity.
Project description:Nuclear accidents and terrorism presents a serious threat for mass casualty. While bone-marrow transplantation might mitigate hematopoietic syndrome, currently there are no approved medical countermeasures to alleviate radiation-induced gastrointestinal syndrome (RIGS), resulting from direct cytocidal effects on intestinal stem cells (ISC) and crypt stromal cells. We examined whether bone marrow-derived adherent stromal cell transplantation (BMSCT) could restitute irradiated intestinal stem cells niche and mitigate radiation-induced gastrointestinal syndrome.Autologous bone marrow was cultured in mesenchymal basal medium and adherent cells were harvested for transplantation to C57Bl6 mice, 24 and 72 hours after lethal whole body irradiation (10.4 Gy) or abdominal irradiation (16-20 Gy) in a single fraction. Mesenchymal, endothelial and myeloid population were characterized by flow cytometry. Intestinal crypt regeneration and absorptive function was assessed by histopathology and xylose absorption assay, respectively. In contrast to 100% mortality in irradiated controls, BMSCT mitigated RIGS and rescued mice from radiation lethality after 18 Gy of abdominal irradiation or 10.4 Gy whole body irradiation with 100% survival (p<0.0007 and p<0.0009 respectively) beyond 25 days. Transplantation of enriched myeloid and non-myeloid fractions failed to improve survival. BMASCT induced ISC regeneration, restitution of the ISC niche and xylose absorption. Serum levels of intestinal radioprotective factors, such as, R-Spondin1, KGF, PDGF and FGF2, and anti-inflammatory cytokines were elevated, while inflammatory cytokines were down regulated.Mitigation of lethal intestinal injury, following high doses of irradiation, can be achieved by intravenous transplantation of marrow-derived stromal cells, including mesenchymal, endothelial and macrophage cell population. BMASCT increases blood levels of intestinal growth factors and induces regeneration of the irradiated host ISC niche, thus providing a platform to discover potential radiation mitigators and protectors for acute radiation syndromes and chemo-radiation therapy of abdominal malignancies.
Project description:Knowledge of the mechanisms involved in the radiation response is critical for developing interventions to mitigate radiation-induced injury to normal tissues. Exposure to radiation leads to increased oxidative stress, DNA-damage, genomic instability and inflammation. The transcription factor CCAAT/enhancer binding protein delta (Cebpd; C/EBP? is implicated in regulation of these same processes, but its role in radiation response is not known. We investigated the role of C/EBP? in radiation-induced hematopoietic and intestinal injury using a Cebpd knockout mouse model. Cebpd-/- mice showed increased lethality at 7.4 and 8.5 Gy total-body irradiation (TBI), compared to Cebpd+/+ mice. Two weeks after a 6 Gy dose of TBI, Cebpd-/- mice showed decreased recovery of white blood cells, neutrophils, platelets, myeloid cells and bone marrow mononuclear cells, decreased colony-forming ability of bone marrow progenitor cells, and increased apoptosis of hematopoietic progenitor and stem cells compared to Cebpd+/+ controls. Cebpd-/- mice exhibited a significant dose-dependent decrease in intestinal crypt survival and in plasma citrulline levels compared to Cebpd+/+ mice after exposure to radiation. This was accompanied by significantly decreased expression of ?-H2AX in Cebpd-/- intestinal crypts and villi at 1 h post-TBI, increased mitotic index at 24 h post-TBI, and increase in apoptosis in intestinal crypts and stromal cells of Cebpd-/- compared to Cebpd+/+ mice at 4 h post-irradiation. This study uncovers a novel biological function for C/EBP? in promoting the response to radiation-induced DNA-damage and in protecting hematopoietic and intestinal tissues from radiation-induced injury.
Project description:In vivo studies of high dose radiation-induced crypt and intestinal stem cell (ISC) loss and subsequent regeneration are typically restricted to 5-8 days after radiation due to high mortality and immune failure. This study aimed to develop murine radiation models of complete crypt loss that permit longer-term studies of ISC and crypt regeneration, repair and normalization of the intestinal epithelium.In C57Bl/6J mice, a predetermined small intestinal segment was exteriorized and exposed to 14 Gy-radiation, while a lead shield protected the rest of the body from radiation. Sham controls had segment exteriorization but no radiation. Results were compared to C57Bl/6J mice given 14 Gy-abdominal radiation. Effects of elemental liquid diet feeding from the day prior to radiation until day 7 post-radiation were assessed in both models. Body weight and a custom-developed health score was assessed every day until day 21 post-radiation. Intestine was assessed histologically.At day 3 after segment radiation, complete loss of crypts occurred in the targeted segment, while adjacent and remaining intestine in segment-radiated mice, and entire intestine of sham controls, showed no detectable epithelial damage. Liquid diet feeding was required for survival of mice after segment radiation. Liquid diet significantly improved survival, body weight recovery and normalization of intestinal epithelium after abdominal radiation. Mice given segment radiation combined with liquid diet feeding showed minimal body weight loss, increased food intake and enhanced health score.The segment radiation method provides a useful model to study ISC/crypt loss and long-term crypt regeneration and epithelial repair, and may be valuable for future application to ISC transplantation or to genetic mutants that would not otherwise survive radiation doses that lead to complete crypt loss. Liquid diet is a simple intervention that improves survival and facilitates long-term studies of intestine in mice after high dose abdominal or segment radiation.
Project description:The small intestinal epithelium is highly sensitive to radiation and is a major site of injury during radiation therapy and environmental overexposure.To examine probiotic bacteria as potential radioprotective agents in the intestine.8-week-old C57BL/6 wild-type or knockout mice were administered probiotic by gavage for 3 days before 12 Gy whole body radiation. The intestine was evaluated for cell-positional apoptosis (6 h) and crypt survival (84 h).Gavage of 5×10? Lactobacillus rhamnosus GG (LGG) improved crypt survival about twofold (p<0.01); the effect was observed when administered before, but not after, radiation. Conditioned medium (CM) from LGG improved crypt survival (1.95-fold, p<0.01), and both LGG and LGG-CM reduced epithelial apoptosis particularly at the crypt base (33% to 18%, p<0.01). LGG was detected in the distal ileal contents after the gavage cycle, but did not lead to a detectable shift in bacterial family composition. The reduction in epithelial apoptosis and improved crypt survival offered by LGG was lost in MyD88?/?, TLR-2?/? and cyclo-oxygenase-2?/? (COX-2) mice but not TLR-4?/? mice. LGG administration did not lead to increased jejunal COX-2 mRNA or prostaglandin E2 levels or a change in number of COX-2-expressing cells. However, a location shift was observed in constitutively COX-2-expressing cells of the lamina propria from the villi to a position near the crypt base (villi to crypt ratio 80:20 for control and 62:38 for LGG; p<0.001). Co-staining revealed these COX-2-expressing small intestinal lamina propria cells to be mesenchymal stem cells.LGG or its CM reduce radiation-induced epithelial injury and improve crypt survival. A TLR-2/MyD88 signalling mechanism leading to repositioning of constitutive COX-2-expressing mesenchymal stem cells to the crypt base is invoked.
Project description:Acute renal injury has an incidence of 25%-30% in patients with tumors who are treated with cisplatin and in patients for whom no specific drugs are available for treatment. Amifostine is the only FDA-approved chemoprotective drug; however, its clinical application is limited because of side effects. The small-molecule antioxidant XH-003, an acute radiation syndrome- (ARS-) protective drug independently developed in our laboratory, with 100% intellectual property rights, overcomes the side effects of amifostine but retains its high efficacy. In this study, XH-003 showed a chemoprotective effect similar to that of amifostine. A mechanistic study showed that XH-003 could significantly reduce cisplatin-induced increases in serum creatinine and urea nitrogen, increase the activity of antioxidant enzymes (SOD, CAT, and GSH-Px), reduce oxidative stress and tissue inflammation, and alleviate renal tissue damage by blocking the activity of the mitochondrial apoptosis pathway. Most importantly, XH-003 could reduce the accumulation of cisplatin in renal tissue by regulating the expression of proteins involved in cisplatin uptake and excretion, such as organic cation transporter 2 and MRP2. Moreover, in an in vivo xenotransplantation model, XH-003 did not interfere with the antitumor effect of cisplatin. These data provide strong evidence that the ARS-protective agent has a great potential for protecting against chemotherapy-induced toxicity. Thus, XH-003 can be considered in antitumor therapy.
Project description:The hematopoietic system is sensitive to radiation. In this research, new aryl sulfone derivatives (XH-201 and XH-202) containing a nitrogen heterocycle were designed and synthesized and their radio-protective efficacies with regard to the hematopoietic system were evaluated. XH-201 administration significantly increased the survival rate of mice after 8.0 Gy total body irradiation (TBI). The results showed that XH-201 treatment not only increased the white blood cells, platelets counts and the percentage of hematopoietic progenitor cells and hematopoietic stem cells in mice exposed to 4.0 Gy TBI but also decreased DNA damage, as determined by flow cytometric analysis of histone H2AX phosphorylation. In addition, our data demonstrated that XH-201 decreased the mitochondrial reactive oxygen species (ROS) levels in hematopoietic cells. Overall, these data suggest that XH-201 is beneficial for the protection of the hemoatopoietic system against radiation-induced injuries.
Project description:Insulin-like growth factor 1 (IGF1) has potent trophic effects on normal or injured intestinal epithelium, but specific effects on intestinal stem cells (ISCs) are undefined. We used Sox9-enhanced green fluorescent protein (EGFP) reporter mice that permit analyses of both actively cycling ISCs (Sox9-EGFP(Low)) and reserve/facultative ISCs (Sox9-EGFP(High)) to study IGF1 action on ISCs in normal intestine or during crypt regeneration after high-dose radiation-induced injury. We hypothesized that IGF1 differentially regulates proliferation and gene expression in actively cycling and reserve/facultative ISCs. IGF1 was delivered for 5 days using subcutaneously implanted mini-pumps in uninjured mice or after 14 Gy abdominal radiation. ISC numbers, proliferation, and transcriptome were assessed. IGF1 increased epithelial growth in nonirradiated mice and enhanced crypt regeneration after radiation. In uninjured and regenerating intestines, IGF1 increased total numbers of Sox9-EGFP(Low) ISCs and percentage of these cells in M-phase. IGF1 increased percentages of Sox9-EGFP(High) ISCs in S-phase but did not expand this population. Microarray revealed that IGF1 activated distinct gene expression signatures in the 2 Sox9-EGFP ISC populations. In vitro IGF1 enhanced enteroid formation by Sox9-EGFP(High) facultative ISCs but not Sox9-EGFP(Low) actively cycling ISCs. Our data provide new evidence that IGF1 activates 2 ISC populations via distinct regulatory pathways to promote growth of normal intestinal epithelium and crypt regeneration after irradiation.
Project description:High doses of radiation induce severe DNA damage in intestinal epithelial cells, especially crypt cells, and cause intestinal injury, but the underlying molecular mechanisms remain unclear. Krüppel-like factor 5 (KLF5), a zinc finger-containing transcription factor, is induced by various stress stimuli and is involved in cell proliferation and survival. The role of KLF5 in radiation-induced intestinal injury was investigated here.Wild type mice were treated with 8 or 15 Gy total body irradiation (TBI). KLF5 content and cellular localization in the small intestines of irradiated mice were detected by Western blot and immunohistochemical analysis. Mice with intestinal-specific knockdown of KLF5 (Vil-Cre; Klf5(fl/+) mice) were generated and their response to radiation was compared with controls. Morphological changes were determined by hematoxylin and eosin staining. Proliferation was examined by Ki67 immunostaining. The molecular response of the small intestine after KLF5 knockdown was investigated using microarrays.KLF5 expression correlated with the progression of intestinal damage. Decreased levels of KLF5 in the gut were associated with increased damage to the intestinal mucosa and reduced epithelial proliferation after TBI. Our microarray data disclosed that KLF5 knockdown down-regulated genes related to DNA damage repair pathways such as nucleotide excision repair, mismatch repair, non-homologous end joining and the Fanconi anemia pathway, which may suggest a novel function of KLF5.Our study illustrates that KLF5 may modulate DNA repair pathways to prevent intestinal injury induced by TBI. KLF5 signaling provides a novel field for identification of potential therapeutic targets for the treatment of radiation-induced intestinal damage.