Compromised astrocyte function and survival negatively impact neurons in infantile neuronal ceroid lipofuscinosis.
ABSTRACT: The neuronal ceroid lipofuscinoses (NCLs) are the most common cause of childhood dementia and are invariably fatal. Early localized glial activation occurs in these disorders, and accurately predicts where neuronal loss is most pronounced. Recent evidence suggests that glial dysfunction may contribute to neuron loss, and we have now explored this possibility in infantile NCL (INCL, CLN1 disease). We grew primary cultures of astrocytes, microglia, and neurons derived from Ppt1 deficient mice (Ppt1-/-) and assessed their properties compared to wildtype (WT) cultures, before co-culturing them in different combinations (astrocytes with microglia, astrocytes or microglia with neurons, all three cell types together). These studies revealed that both Ppt1-/- astrocytes and microglia exhibit a more activated phenotype under basal unstimulated conditions, as well as alterations to their protein expression profile following pharmacological stimulation. Ppt1- /- astrocytes also displayed abnormal calcium signalling and an elevated cytoplasmic Ca2+ level, and a profound defect in their survival. Ppt1-/- neurons displayed decreased neurite outgrowth, altered complexity, a reduction in cell body size, and impaired neuron survival with prolonged time in culture. In co-cultures, the presence of both astrocytes and microglia from Ppt1-/- mice further impaired the morphology of both wild type and Ppt1-/- neurons. This negative influence was more pronounced for Ppt1-/- microglia, which appeared to trigger increased Ppt1-/- neuronal death. In contrast, wild type glial cells, especially astrocytes, ameliorated some of the morphological defects observed in Ppt1-/- neurons. These findings suggest that both Ppt1-/- microglia and astrocytes are dysfunctional and may contribute to the neurodegeneration observed in CLN1 disease. However, the dysfunctional phenotypes of Ppt1-/- glia are different from those present in CLN3 disease, suggesting that the pathogenic role of glia may differ between NCLs.
Project description:<h4>Background</h4>Exposure to increased manganese (Mn) causes inflammation and neuronal injury in the cortex and basal ganglia, resulting in neurological symptoms resembling Parkinson's disease. The mechanisms underlying neuronal death from exposure to Mn are not well understood but involve inflammatory activation of microglia and astrocytes. Expression of neurotoxic inflammatory genes in glia is highly regulated through the NF-?B pathway, but factors modulating neurotoxic glial-glial and glial-neuronal signaling by Mn are not well understood.<h4>Methods</h4>We examined the role of NF-?B in Mn-induced neurotoxicity by exposing purified microglia, astrocytes (from wild-type and astrocyte-specific IKK knockout mice), and mixed glial cultures to varying Mn concentrations and then treating neurons with the conditioned media (GCM) of each cell type. We hypothesized that mixed glial cultures exposed to Mn (0-100 ?M) would enhance glial activation and neuronal death compared to microglia, wild-type astrocytes, or IKK-knockout astrocytes alone or in mixed cultures.<h4>Results</h4>Mixed glial cultures treated with 0-100 ?M Mn for 24 h showed the most pronounced effect of increased expression of inflammatory genes including inducible nitric oxide synthase (Nos2), Tnf, Ccl5, Il6, Ccr2, Il1b, and the astrocyte-specific genes, C3 and Ccl2. Gene deletion of IKK2 in astrocytes dramatically reduced cytokine release in Mn-treated mixed glial cultures. Measurement of neuronal viability and apoptosis following exposure to Mn-GCM demonstrated that mixed glial cultures induced greater neuronal death than either cell type alone. Loss of IKK in astrocytes also decreased neuronal death compared to microglia alone, wild-type astrocytes, or mixed glia.<h4>Conclusions</h4>This suggests that astrocytes are a critical mediator of Mn neurotoxicity through enhanced expression of inflammatory cytokines and chemokines, including those most associated with a reactive phenotype such as CCL2 but not C3.
Project description:The neuronal ceroid lipofuscinoses (NCLs or Batten disease) are a group of inherited, fatal neurodegenerative disorders of childhood. In these disorders, glial (microglial and astrocyte) activation typically occurs early in disease progression and predicts where neuron loss subsequently occurs. We have found that in the most common juvenile form of NCL (CLN3 disease or JNCL) this glial response is less pronounced in both mouse models and human autopsy material, with the morphological transformation of both astrocytes and microglia severely attenuated or delayed. To investigate their properties, we isolated glia and neurons from Cln3-deficient mice and studied their basic biology in culture. Upon stimulation, both Cln3-deficient astrocytes and microglia also showed an attenuated ability to transform morphologically, and an altered protein secretion profile. These defects were more pronounced in astrocytes, including the reduced secretion of a range of neuroprotective factors, mitogens, chemokines and cytokines, in addition to impaired calcium signalling and glutamate clearance. Cln3-deficient neurons also displayed an abnormal organization of their neurites. Most importantly, using a co-culture system, Cln3-deficient astrocytes and microglia had a negative impact on the survival and morphology of both Cln3-deficient and wildtype neurons, but these effects were largely reversed by growing mutant neurons with healthy glia. These data provide evidence that CLN3 disease astrocytes are functionally compromised. Together with microglia, they may play an active role in neuron loss in this disorder and can be considered as potential targets for therapeutic interventions.
Project description:We explored the hypothesis that injured neurons release lipocalin-2 as a help me signal.In vivo lipocalin-2 responses were assessed in rat focal cerebral ischemia and human stroke brain samples using a combination of ELISA and immunostaining. In vitro, microglia and astrocytes were exposed to lipocalin-2, and various markers and assays of glial activation were quantified. Functional relevance of neuron-to-glia lipocalin-2 signaling was examined by transferring conditioned media from lipocalin-2-activated microglia and astrocytes onto neurons to see whether activated glia could protect neurons against oxygen-glucose deprivation and promote neuroplasticity.In human stroke samples and rat cerebral ischemia, neuronal expression of lipocalin-2 was significantly increased. In primary cell cultures, exposing microglia and astrocytes to lipocalin-2 resulted in glial activation. In microglia, lipocalin-2 converted resting ramified shapes into a long-rod morphology with reduced branching, increased interleukin-10 release, and enhanced phagocytosis. In astrocytes, lipocalin-2 upregulated glial fibrillary acid protein, brain-derived neurotropic factor, and thrombospondin-1. Conditioned media from lipocalin-2-treated astrocytes upregulated synaptotagmin, and conditioned media from lipocalin-2-treated microglia upregulated synaptophysin and post-synaptic density 95 (PSD95) and protected neurons against oxygen-glucose deprivation.These findings provide proof of concept that lipocalin-2 is released by injured neurons as a help me distress signal that activates microglia and astrocytes into potentially prorecovery phenotypes.
Project description:The neuronal ceroid lipofuscinoses (NCLs), also known as Batten disease, are a group of autosomal recessive neurodegenerative disorders in children characterized by the progressive onset of seizures, blindness, motor and cognitive decline and premature death. Patients with mutations in CLN1 primarily manifest with infantile NCL (INCL or Haltia-Santavuori disease), which is second only to congenital NCL for its age of onset and devastating progression. CLN1 encodes a lysosomal enzyme, palmitoyl-protein thioesterase 1 (PPT1). Nonsense mutations in CLN1 account for 52.3% of all disease causing alleles in infantile NCL, the most common of which worldwide is the p.R151X mutation. Previously, we have shown how nonsense-mediated decay is involved in the degradation of CLN1 mRNA transcripts containing the p.R151X mutation in human lymphoblast cell lines. We have also shown how the read-through drugs gentamicin and ataluren (PTC124) increase CLN1 (PPT1) enzyme activity. Here, we provide the initial characterization of the novel Cln1(R151X) mouse model of infantile neuronal ceroid lipofuscinosis that we have generated. This nonsense mutation model recapitulates the molecular, histological and behavioral phenotypes of the human disease. Cln1(R151X) mice showed a significant decrease in Cln1 mRNA level and PPT1 enzyme activity, accumulation of autofluorescent storage material, astrocytosis and microglial activation in the brain. Behavioral characterization of Cln1(R151X) mice at 3 and 5 months of age revealed significant motor deficits as measured by the vertical pole and rotarod tests. We also show how the read-through compound ataluren (PTC124) increases PPT1 enzyme activity and protein level in Cln1(R151X) mice in a proof-of-principle study.
Project description:Neuronal plasticity is regulated by the ovarian steroids estradiol (E2) and progesterone (P4) in many normal brain functions, as well as in acute response to injury and chronic neurodegenerative disease. In a female rat model of axotomy, the E2-dependent compensatory neuronal sprouting is antagonized by P4. To resolve complex glial-neuronal cell interactions, we used the "wounding-in-a-dish" model of neurons cocultured with astrocytes or mixed glia (microglia to astrocytes, 1:3). Although both astrocytes and mixed glia supported E2-enhanced neurite outgrowth, P4 antagonized E2-induced neurite outgrowth only with mixed glia, but not astrocytes alone. We now show that P4-E2 antagonism of neurite outgrowth is mediated by microglial expression of progesterone receptor (Pgr) membrane component 1 (Pgrmc1)/S2R, a putative nonclassical Pgr mediator with multiple functions. The P4-E2 antagonism of neurite outgrowth was restored by add-back of microglia to astrocyte-neuron cocultures. Because microglia do not express the classical Pgr, we examined the role of Pgrmc1, which is expressed in microglia in vitro and in vivo. Knockdown by siRNA-Pgrmc1 in microglia before add-back to astrocyte-neuron cocultures suppressed the P4-E2 antagonism of neurite outgrowth. Conditioned media from microglia restored the P4-E2 activity, but only if microglia were activated by lipopolysaccharide or by wounding. Moreover, the microglial activation was blocked by Pgmrc1-siRNA knockdown. These findings explain why nonwounded cultures without microglial activation lack P4 antagonism of E2-induced neurite outgrowth. We suggest that microglial activation may influence brain responses to exogenous P4, which is a prospective therapy in traumatic brain injury.
Project description:Myeloperoxidase (MPO) functions as a key molecular component of the host defense system against diverse pathogens. We have previously reported that increased MPO levels and activity is a distinguishing feature of rotenone-exposed glial cells, and that either overactivation or deficiency of MPO leads to pathological conditions in the brain. Here, we provide that modulation of MPO levels in glia by resveratrol confers protective effects on rotenone-induced neurotoxicity. We show that resveratrol significantly reduced MPO levels but did not trigger abnormal nitric oxide (NO) production in microglia and astrocytes. Resveratrol-induced down-regulation of MPO, in the absence of an associated overproduction of NO, markedly attenuated rotenone-triggered inflammatory responses including phagocytic activity and reactive oxygen species production in primary microglia and astrocytes. In addition, impaired responses of primary mixed glia from Mpo (-/-) mice to rotenone were relieved by treatment with resveratrol. We further show that rotenone-induced neuronal injury, particularly dopaminergic cell death, was attenuated by resveratrol in neuron-glia co-cultures, but not in neurons cultured alone. Similar regulatory effects of resveratrol on MPO levels were observed in microglia treated with MPP(+), another Parkinson's disease-linked neurotoxin, supporting the beneficial effects of resveratrol on the brain. Collectively, our findings provide that resveratrol influences glial responses to rotenone by regulating both MPO and NO, and thus protects against rotenone-induced neuronal injury.
Project description:Mutations in at least 13 different genes (called CLNs) underlie various forms of neuronal ceroid lipofuscinoses (NCLs), a group of the most common neurodegenerative lysosomal storage diseases. While inactivating mutations in the CLN1 gene, encoding palmitoyl-protein thioesterases-1 (PPT1), cause infantile NCL (INCL), those in the CLN3 gene, encoding a protein of unknown function, underlie juvenile NCL (JNCL). PPT1 depalmitoylates S-palmitoylated proteins (constituents of ceroid) required for their degradation by lysosomal hydrolases and PPT1-deficiency causes lysosomal accumulation of autofluorescent ceroid leading to INCL. Because intracellular accumulation of ceroid is a characteristic of all NCLs, a common pathogenic link for these diseases has been suggested. It has been reported that CLN3-mutations suppress the exit of cation-independent mannose 6-phosphate receptor (CI-M6PR) from the trans Golgi network (TGN). Because CI-M6PR transports soluble proteins such as PPT1 from the TGN to the lysosome, we hypothesized that CLN3-mutations may cause lysosomal PPT1-insufficiency contributing to JNCL pathogenesis. Here, we report that the lysosomes in Cln3-mutant mice, which mimic JNCL, and those in cultured cells from JNCL patients, contain significantly reduced levels of Ppt1-protein and Ppt1-enzyme activity and progressively accumulate autofluorescent ceroid. Furthermore, in JNCL fibroblasts the V0a1 subunit of v-ATPase, which regulates lysosomal acidification, is mislocalized to the plasma membrane instead of its normal location on lysosomal membrane. This defect dysregulates lysosomal acidification, as we previously reported in Cln1 -/- mice, which mimic INCL. Our findings uncover a previously unrecognized role of CLN3 in lysosomal homeostasis and suggest that CLN3-mutations causing lysosomal Ppt1-insuffiiciency may at least in part contribute to JNCL pathogenesis.
Project description:Astrocytic GFAP expression increases during normal aging in many brain regions and in primary astrocyte cultures derived from aging rodent brains. As shown below, we unexpectedly found that the age-related increase of GFAP expression was suppressed in mixed glia (astrocytes+microglia). However, the age-related increase of GFAP was observed when E18 neurons were co-cultured with mixed glia. Thus, the presence of microglia can suppress the age-related increase of GFAP, in primary cultures of astrocytes. To more broadly characterize how aging and co-culture with neurons alters glial gene expression, we profiled gene expression in mixed glia from young (3 mo) and old (24 mo) male rat cerebral cortex by Affymetrix microarray (Rat230 2.0). The majority of age changes were independent of the presence of neurons. Overall, the expression of twofold more genes increased with age than decreased with age. The minority of age changes that were either suppressed or revealed by the presence of neurons may be useful to analyze glial-neuron interaction during aging. Some in vitro changes are shared with those of aging rat hippocampus in studies from the Landfield group (Rowe et al., 2007; Kadish et al., 2009).
Project description:2-Deoxy-D-glucose is an inhibitor of glycolysis, which is protective in animal models of brain pathology, but the mechanisms of this protection are unclear. We examined whether, when and how deoxyglucose protects neurons in co-culture with astrocytes and microglia. Microglia are brain macrophages, which can damage neurons in inflammatory conditions.Deoxyglucose was added to primary cultures of microglia and astrocytes from rat cortex, or neurons and glia from rat cerebellum, or the BV-2 microglial cell line, and cell death and cell functions were evaluated.Surprisingly, addition of deoxyglucose induced microglial loss and prevented spontaneous neuronal loss in long-term cultures of neurons and glia, while elimination of microglia by L-leucine-methyl ester prevented the deoxyglucose-induced neuroprotection. Deoxyglucose also prevented neuronal loss induced by addition of amyloid beta or disrupted neurons (culture models of Alzheimer's disease and brain trauma respectively). However, deoxyglucose greatly increased the neuronal death induced by hypoxia. Addition of deoxyglucose to pure microglia induced necrosis and loss, preceded by rapid ATP depletion and followed by phagocytosis of the microglia. Deoxyglucose did not kill astrocytes or neurons.We conclude that deoxyglucose causes microglial loss by ATP depletion, and this can protect neurons from neurodegeneration, except in conditions of hypoxia. Deoxyglucose may thus be beneficial in brain pathologies mediated by microglia, including brain trauma, but not where hypoxia is involved.
Project description:Neurodegeneration is a devastating manifestation in the majority of >50 lysosomal storage disorders (LSDs). Neuronal ceroid lipofuscinoses (NCLs) are the most common childhood neurodegenerative LSDs. Mutations in 13 different genes (called CLNs) underlie various types of NCLs, of which the infantile NCL (INCL) and congenital NCL (CNCL) are the most lethal. Although inactivating mutations in the CLN1 gene encoding palmitoyl-protein thioesterase-1 (PPT1) cause INCL, those in the CLN10 gene encoding cathepsin D (CD) underlie CNCL. PPT1 is a lysosomal thioesterase that cleaves the thioester linkage in S-acylated proteins required for their degradation by lysosomal hydrolases like CD. Thus, PPT1 deficiency causes lysosomal accumulation of these lipidated proteins (major constituents of ceroid) leading to INCL. We sought to determine whether there is a common pathogenic link between INCL and CNCL. Using biochemical, histological and confocal microscopic analyses of brain tissues and cells from Cln1(-/-) mice that mimic INCL, we uncovered that Cln10/CD is overexpressed. Although synthesized in the endoplasmic reticulum, the CD-precursor protein (pro-CD) is transported through endosome to the lysosome where it is proteolytically processed to enzymatically active-CD. We found that despite Cln10 overexpression, the maturation of pro-CD to enzymatically active-CD in lysosome was disrupted. This defect impaired lysosomal degradative function causing accumulation of undegraded cargo in lysosome leading to INCL. Notably, treatment of intact Cln1(-/-) mice as well as cultured brain cells derived from these animals with a thioesterase-mimetic small molecule, N-tert-butyl-hydroxylamine, ameliorated the CD-processing defect. Our findings are significant in that they define a pathway in which Cln1 mutations disrupt the maturation of a major degradative enzyme in lysosome contributing to neuropathology in INCL and suggest that lysosomal CD deficiency is a common pathogenic link between INCL and CNCL.