Recent advances in the understanding and treatment of acute myeloid leukemia.
ABSTRACT: Acute myeloid leukemia (AML) is a clinically and genetically heterogeneous disease that has a poor prognosis. Recent advances in genomics and molecular biology have led to a greatly improved understanding of the disease. Until 2017, there had been no new drugs approved for AML in decades. Here, we review novel drug targets in AML with a focus on epigenetic-targeted therapies in pre-clinical and clinical development as well as the recent new drug approvals.
Project description:Acute myeloid leukemia (AML) is the most common form of acute leukemia in adults, with an incidence that increases with age, and a generally poor prognosis. The disease is clinically and genetically heterogeneous, and recent advances have improved our understanding of the cytogenetic abnormalities and molecular mutations, aiding in prognostication and risk stratification. Until recently, however, therapeutic options were mostly limited to cytotoxic chemotherapy. Since 2017, there has been an explosion of newly approved treatment options both nationally and internationally, with the majority of new drugs targeting specific gene mutations and/or pivotal cell survival pathways. In this review article, we will discuss these new agents approved for the treatment of AML within the last 2 years, and will outline the mechanistic features and clinical trials that led to their approvals.
Project description:Acute myeloid leukemia (AML) is a devastating hematologic malignancy that affects both older adults as well as children. Treatments available for AML largely depend on cytotoxic agents and often the only curative option is an allogeneic bone marrow transplant, an option limited to young persons and associated with high morbidity and mortality. There is an urgent need for the identification of new myeloid targets and an understanding of the key genetic mutations involved in disease progression and prognosis. One such mutation is the internal tandem duplication (ITD) in the FMS-like tyrosine kinase receptor-3 (FLT3) gene which confers an inferior outcome that is attributed to a higher relapse rate. In this review, we evaluate the FLT3-ITD mutation and discuss the recent data regarding emerging approaches using FLT3 inhibitors for the treatment of AML.
Project description:Acute myeloid leukemia (AML) is a heterogeneous hematologic malignancy, characterized by the clonal expansion of myeloid blasts in the peripheral blood, bone marrow, and/or other tissues. The new drugs used for treating AML are facing a big challenge, and the candidates include cytotoxic drugs, targeted small-molecule inhibitors, and monoclonal antibodies. In recent years, active research has focused on several new agents for including them in the large antileukemic drug family. This review aims to introduce some of these new drugs and highlights new advances made in the old drugs, mainly in the last 5 years.
Project description:The advent of new immunotherapeutic agents in clinical practice has revolutionized cancer treatment in the past decade, both in oncology and hematology. The transfer of the immunotherapeutic concepts to the treatment of acute myeloid leukemia (AML) is hampered by various characteristics of the disease, including non-leukemia-restricted target antigen expression profile, low endogenous immune responses, and intrinsic resistance mechanisms of the leukemic blasts against immune responses. However, considerable progress has been made in this field in the past few years.Within this manuscript, we review the recent developments and the current status of the five currently most prominent immunotherapeutic concepts: (1) antibody-drug conjugates, (2) T cell-recruiting antibody constructs, (3) chimeric antigen receptor (CAR) T cells, (4) checkpoint inhibitors, and (5) dendritic cell vaccination. We focus on the clinical data that has been published so far, both for newly diagnosed and refractory/relapsed AML, but omitting immunotherapeutic concepts in conjunction with hematopoietic stem cell transplantation. Besides, we have included important clinical trials that are currently running or have recently been completed but are still lacking full publication of their results.While each of the concepts has its particular merits and inherent problems, the field of immunotherapy of AML seems to have taken some significant steps forward. Results of currently running trials will reveal the direction of further development including approaches combining two or more of these concepts.
Project description:While the past decade has seen a revolution in understanding of the genetic and molecular etiology of the disease, in clinical practice, initial therapy for acute myeloid leukemia (AML) patients has been a relatively straightforward choice between intensive combination cytotoxic induction therapy as used for decades or less-intensive hypomethylating therapy. The year 2017, however, witnessed US Food and Drug Administration approvals of midostaurin, enasidenib, gemtuzumab ozogamicin and CPX-351 for AML patients, with many other promising agents currently in clinical trials. This review discusses these options, highlights unanswered questions regarding optimal combinations and proposes some suggested approaches for the personalization of initial therapy for AML patients.
Project description:Acute myeloid leukemia (AML) is a clonal malignancy characterized by genetic heterogeneity due to recurrent gene mutations. Treatment with cytotoxic chemotherapy has been the standard of care for more than half of a century. Although much progress has been made toward improving treatment related mortality rate in the past few decades, long term overall survival has stagnated. Exciting developments of gene mutation-targeted therapeutic agents are now changing the landscape in AML treatment. New agents offer more clinical options for patients and also confer a more promising outcome. Since Midostaurin, a FLT3 inhibitor, was first approved by US FDA in 2017 as the first gene mutation-targeted therapeutic agent, an array of new gene mutation-targeted agents are now available for AML treatment. In this review, we will summarize the recent advances in gene mutation-targeted therapies for patients with AML.
Project description:Acute myeloid leukemia (AML) is the most common acute leukemia that is becoming more prevalent particularly in the older (65 years of age or older) population. For decades, "7?+?3" remission induction therapy with cytarabine and an anthracycline, followed by consolidation therapy, has been the standard of care treatment for AML. This stagnancy in AML treatment has resulted in less than ideal treatment outcomes for AML patients, especially for elderly patients and those with unfavourable profiles. Over the past two years, six new therapeutic agents have received regulatory approval, suggesting that a number of obstacles to treating AML have been addressed and the treatment landscape for AML is finally changing. This review outlines the challenges and obstacles in treating AML and highlights the advances in AML treatment made in recent years, including Vyxeos®, midostaurin, gemtuzumab ozogamicin, and venetoclax, with particular emphasis on combination treatment strategies. We also discuss the potential utility of new combination products such as one that we call "EnFlaM", which comprises an encapsulated nanoformulation of flavopiridol and mitoxantrone. Finally, we provide a review on the immunotherapeutic landscape of AML, discussing yet another angle through which novel treatments can be designed to further improve treatment outcomes for AML patients.
Project description:Despite expanding knowledge in the molecular landscape of acute myeloid leukemia (AML) and an increasing understanding of leukemogenic pathways, little has changed in the treatment of AML in the last 40 years. Since introduction in the 1970s, combination chemotherapy consisting of anthracycline and cytarabine has been the mainstay of treatment, with major therapeutic advances based on improving supportive care rather than the introduction of novel therapeutics. Over the last decades, there have been extensive efforts to identify specific target mutations or pathways with the aim of improving clinical outcomes. Finally, after a prolonged wait, we are witnessing the next wave of AML treatment, characterized by a more "precise" and "personalized" understanding of the unique molecular or genetic mapping of individual patients. This new trend has since been further facilitated, with four new FDA approvals granted in 2017 in AML therapeutics. Currently, a total of eight targeted agents have been approved since 2017 (as of Jan. 2020). In this review, we will briefly discuss these newer agents in the context of their indication and the basis of their approval.
Project description:Significant progress has been made in the treatment of acute myeloid leukemia (AML). Steady gains in clinical research and a renaissance of genomics in leukemia have led to improved outcomes. The recognition of tremendous heterogeneity in AML has allowed individualized treatments of specific disease entities within the context of patient age, cytogenetics, and mutational analysis. The following is a comprehensive review of the current state of AML therapy and a roadmap of our approach to these distinct disease entities.
Project description:Given the recent approvals of new agents for acute myeloid leukemia (AML), a clinical trial pipeline stocked with novel therapies, and the rapid integration of imaginative approaches in diseases like acute lymphocytic leukemia and chronic lymphocytic leukemia, it is reasonable to ask whether treatment of AML might finally depart from the classical cytotoxic induction therapy that has been employed since the 1970s. However, for better or worse, in 2018, cytotoxic induction regimens remain the standard of care for most patients. Indeed, the future likely lies in combinations of therapies that act with a spectrum of mechanisms. Using a case-based format, this review will outline current treatment expectations for patients according to karyotypic risk and familiarize readers with the basis for common induction choices. Relapsed/refractory disease may be especially amenable to interventions with novel agents or clinical trials; however, there are still some patients who most benefit from intensive chemotherapy. This review will outline risk systems that help the practitioner identify those with the best chances for response and survival. Finally, clinical tools, including geriatric assessments and comorbidity calculators, may help clinicians recognize patients for whom disease risk and comorbidity tip the balance against classical chemotherapy, a frequent challenge for those who treat this devastating disease.