Positive and Negative Regulatory Roles of C-Terminal Src Kinase (CSK) in Fc?RI-Mediated Mast Cell Activation, Independent of the Transmembrane Adaptor PAG/CSK-Binding Protein.
ABSTRACT: C-terminal Src kinase (CSK) is a major negative regulator of Src family tyrosine kinases (SFKs) that play critical roles in immunoreceptor signaling. CSK is brought in contiguity to the plasma membrane-bound SFKs via binding to transmembrane adaptor PAG, also known as CSK-binding protein. The recent finding that PAG can function as a positive regulator of the high-affinity IgE receptor (Fc?RI)-mediated mast cell signaling suggested that PAG and CSK have some non-overlapping regulatory functions in mast cell activation. To determine the regulatory roles of CSK in Fc?RI signaling, we derived bone marrow-derived mast cells (BMMCs) with reduced or enhanced expression of CSK from wild-type (WT) or PAG knockout (KO) mice and analyzed their Fc?RI-mediated activation events. We found that in contrast to PAG-KO cells, antigen-activated BMMCs with CSK knockdown (KD) exhibited significantly higher degranulation, calcium response, and tyrosine phosphorylation of Fc?RI, SYK, and phospholipase C. Interestingly, Fc?RI-mediated events in BMMCs with PAG-KO were restored upon CSK silencing. BMMCs with CSK-KD/PAG-KO resembled BMMCs with CSK-KD alone. Unexpectedly, cells with CSK-KD showed reduced kinase activity of LYN and decreased phosphorylation of transcription factor STAT5. This was accompanied by impaired production of proinflammatory cytokines and chemokines in antigen-activated cells. In line with this, BMMCs with CSK-KD exhibited enhanced phosphorylation of protein phosphatase SHP-1, which provides a negative feedback loop for regulating phosphorylation of STAT5 and LYN kinase activity. Furthermore, we found that in WT BMMCs SHP-1 forms complexes containing LYN, CSK, and STAT5. Altogether, our data demonstrate that in Fc?RI-activated mast cells CSK is a negative regulator of degranulation and chemotaxis, but a positive regulator of adhesion to fibronectin and production of proinflammatory cytokines. Some of these pathways are not dependent on the presence of PAG.
Project description:Non-T cell activation linker (NTAL; also called LAB or LAT2) is a transmembrane adaptor protein that is expressed in a subset of hematopoietic cells, including mast cells. There are conflicting reports on the role of NTAL in the high affinity immunoglobulin E receptor (Fc?RI) signaling. Studies carried out on mast cells derived from mice with NTAL knock out (KO) and wild type mice suggested that NTAL is a negative regulator of Fc?RI signaling, while experiments with RNAi-mediated NTAL knockdown (KD) in human mast cells and rat basophilic leukemia cells suggested its positive regulatory role. To determine whether different methodologies of NTAL ablation (KO vs KD) have different physiological consequences, we compared under well defined conditions Fc?RI-mediated signaling events in mouse bone marrow-derived mast cells (BMMCs) with NTAL KO or KD. BMMCs with both NTAL KO and KD exhibited enhanced degranulation, calcium mobilization, chemotaxis, tyrosine phosphorylation of LAT and ERK, and depolymerization of filamentous actin. These data provide clear evidence that NTAL is a negative regulator of Fc?RI activation events in murine BMMCs, independently of possible compensatory developmental alterations. To gain further insight into the role of NTAL in mast cells, we examined the transcriptome profiles of resting and antigen-activated NTAL KO, NTAL KD, and corresponding control BMMCs. Through this analysis we identified several genes that were differentially regulated in nonactivated and antigen-activated NTAL-deficient cells, when compared to the corresponding control cells. Some of the genes seem to be involved in regulation of cholesterol-dependent events in antigen-mediated chemotaxis. The combined data indicate multiple regulatory roles of NTAL in gene expression and mast cell physiology.
Project description:Protein 4.1R, a member of the 4.1 family, functions as a bridge between cytoskeletal and plasma membrane proteins. It is expressed in T cells, where it binds to a linker for activation of T cell (LAT) family member 1 and inhibits its phosphorylation and downstream signaling events after T cell receptor triggering. The role of the 4.1R protein in cell activation through other immunoreceptors is not known. In this study, we used 4.1R-deficient (4.1R-KO) and 4.1R wild-type (WT) mice and explored the role of the 4.1R protein in the high-affinity IgE receptor (Fc?RI) signaling in mast cells. We found that bone marrow mast cells (BMMCs) derived from 4.1R-KO mice showed normal growth in vitro and expressed Fc?RI and c-KIT at levels comparable to WT cells. However, 4.1R-KO cells exhibited reduced antigen-induced degranulation, calcium response, and secretion of tumor necrosis factor-?. Chemotaxis toward antigen and stem cell factor (SCF) and spreading on fibronectin were also reduced in 4.1R-KO BMMCs, whereas prostaglandin E2-mediated chemotaxis was not affected. Antibody-induced aggregation of tetraspanin CD9 inhibited chemotaxis toward antigen in WT but not 4.1R-KO BMMCs, implying a CD9-4.1R protein cross-talk. Further studies documented that in the absence of 4.1R, antigen-mediated phosphorylation of Fc?RI ? and ? subunits was not affected, but phosphorylation of SYK and subsequent signaling events such as phosphorylation of LAT1, phospholipase C?1, phosphatases (SHP1 and SHIP), MAP family kinases (p38, ERK, JNK), STAT5, CBL, and mTOR were reduced. Immunoprecipitation studies showed the presence of both LAT1 and LAT2 (LAT, family member 2) in 4.1R immunocomplexes. The positive regulatory role of 4.1R protein in Fc?RI-triggered activation was supported by in vivo experiments in which 4.1R-KO mice showed the normal presence of mast cells in the ears and peritoneum, but exhibited impaired passive cutaneous anaphylaxis. The combined data indicate that the 4.1R protein functions as a positive regulator in the early activation events after Fc?RI triggering in mast cells.
Project description:The transmembrane adaptor protein PAG/CBP (here, PAG) is expressed in multiple cell types. Tyrosine-phosphorylated PAG serves as an anchor for C-terminal SRC kinase, an inhibitor of SRC-family kinases. The role of PAG as a negative regulator of immunoreceptor signaling has been examined in several model systems, but no functions in vivo have been determined. Here, we examined the activation of bone marrow-derived mast cells (BMMCs) with PAG knockout and PAG knockdown and the corresponding controls. Our data show that PAG-deficient BMMCs exhibit impaired antigen-induced degranulation, extracellular calcium uptake, tyrosine phosphorylation of several key signaling proteins (including the high-affinity IgE receptor subunits, spleen tyrosine kinase, and phospholipase C), production of several cytokines and chemokines, and chemotaxis. The enzymatic activities of the LYN and FYN kinases were increased in nonactivated cells, suggesting the involvement of a LYN- and/or a FYN-dependent negative regulatory loop. When BMMCs from PAG-knockout mice were activated via the KIT receptor, enhanced degranulation and tyrosine phosphorylation of the receptor were observed. In vivo experiments showed that PAG is a positive regulator of passive systemic anaphylaxis. The combined data indicate that PAG can function as both a positive and a negative regulator of mast cell signaling, depending upon the signaling pathway involved.
Project description:Mast cells are major effectors in high-affinity IgE receptor (Fc?RI)-dependent allergic reactions. Here we show that phospholipase C (PLC)-?3 is crucial for Fc?RI-mediated mast cell activation. Plcb3(-/-) mice showed blunted Fc?RI-dependent late-phase, but not acute, anaphylactic responses and airway inflammation. Accordingly, Fc?RI stimulation of Plcb3(-/-) mast cells exhibited reduced cytokine production but normal degranulation. Reduced cytokine production in Plcb3(-/-) cells could be accounted for by increased activity of the negative regulatory Src family kinase Lyn and reduced activities of the positive regulatory protein kinases MAPKs. Mechanistically, PLC-?3 constitutively interacts with Fc?RI, Lyn, and SHP-1 (protein phosphatase). SHP-1 probably recognizes its substrates Lyn and MAPKs via the recently described kinase tyrosine-based inhibitory motif, KTIM. Consistent with PLC-?3- and SHP-1-mediated repression of Lyn activity by dephosphorylation at Tyr396, Fc?RI-mediated phenotypes were similar in Plcb3(-/-) and SHP-1 mutant mast cells. Thus, we have defined a PLC-?3- and SHP-1-mediated signaling pathway for Fc?RI-mediated cytokine production.
Project description:Mast cells are critical effector cells in the pathophysiology of allergic asthma and other IgE-mediated diseases. The Tec family of tyrosine kinases Itk and Btk serve as critical signal amplifiers downstream of antigen receptors. Although both kinases are expressed and activated in mast cells following Fc?RI stimulation, their individual contributions are not clear. To determine whether these kinases play unique and/or complementary roles in Fc?RI signaling and mast cell function, we generated Itk and Btk double knock-out mice. Analyses of these mice show decreased mast cell granularity and impaired passive systemic anaphylaxis responses. This impaired response is accompanied by a significant elevation in serum IgE in Itk/Btk double knock-out mice. In vitro analyses of bone marrow-derived mast cells (BMMCs) indicated that Itk/Btk double knock-out BMMCs are defective in degranulation and cytokine secretion responses downstream to Fc?RI activation. These responses were accompanied by a significant reduction in PLC?2 phosphorylation and severely impaired calcium responses in these cells. This defect also results in altered NFAT1 nuclear localization in double knock-out BMMCs. Network analysis suggests that although they may share substrates, Itk plays both positive and negative roles, while Btk primarily plays a positive role in mast cell Fc?RI-induced cytokine secretion.
Project description:Mutation of the 3beta-hydroxysterol delta7-reductase gene (Dhcr7-/-) results in Smith-Lemli-Opitz syndrome (SLOS). Patients, and genetically altered mice, are unable to produce cholesterol and accumulate 7-dehydrocholesterol (DHC) in serum and tissue. This causes multiple growth and developmental abnormalities as well as immune system anomalies including allergy. Because cholesterol is a key component of liquid-ordered membranes (lipid rafts) and these domains have been implicated in regulating mast cell activation, we examined whether mast cell responsiveness is altered in this model. Mast cells derived from Dhcr7-/- mice (DHCR KO) showed constitutive cytokine production and hyper-degranulation after stimulation of the high affinity IgE receptor (Fc epsilonRI). DHCR KO mast cells, but not wild-type mast cells, accumulated DHC in lipid rafts. DHC partially disrupted lipid raft stability and displaced Lyn kinase protein and activity from lipid rafts. This led to down-regulation of some Lyn-dependent signaling events but increased Fyn kinase activity and Akt phosphorylation. The Lyn-dependent phosphorylation of Csk-binding protein, which negatively regulates Fyn activity, was decreased. This phenotype reproduces some of the characteristics of Lyn-null mast cells, which also demonstrate hyper-degranulation. These findings provide the first evidence of lipid raft dysfunction in SLOS and may explain the observed association of allergy with SLOS.
Project description:SHP2 protein-tyrosine phosphatase (encoded by Ptpn11) positively regulates KIT (CD117) signaling in mast cells and is required for mast cell survival and homeostasis in mice. In this study, we uncover a role of SHP2 in promoting chemotaxis of mast cells toward stem cell factor (SCF), the ligand for KIT receptor. Using an inducible SHP2 knockout (KO) bone marrow-derived mast cell (BMMC) model, we observed defects in SCF-induced cell spreading, polarization, and chemotaxis. To address the mechanisms involved, we tested whether SHP2 promotes activation of Lyn kinase that was previously shown to promote mast cell chemotaxis. In SHP2 KO BMMCs, SCF-induced phosphorylation of the inhibitory C-terminal residue (pY507) was elevated compared with control cells, and phosphorylation of activation loop (pY396) was diminished. Because Lyn also was detected by substrate trapping assays, these results are consistent with SHP2 activating Lyn directly by dephosphorylation of pY507. Further analyses revealed a SHP2- and Lyn-dependent pathway leading to phosphorylation of Vav1, Rac activation, and F-actin polymerization in SCF-treated BMMCs. Treatment of BMMCs with a SHP2 inhibitor also led to impaired chemotaxis, consistent with SHP2 promoting SCF-induced chemotaxis of mast cells via a phosphatase-dependent mechanism. Thus, SHP2 inhibitors may be useful to limit SCF/KIT-induced mast cell recruitment to inflamed tissues or the tumor microenvironment.
Project description:Efficient development of atopic diseases requires interactions between allergen and adjuvant to initiate and amplify the underlying inflammatory responses. Substance P (SP) and hemokinin-1 (HK-1) are neuropeptides that signal through the neurokinin-1 receptor (NK1R) to promote inflammation. Mast cells initiate the symptoms and tissue effects of atopic disorders, secreting TNF and IL-6 after Fc?RI cross-linking by antigen-IgE complexes (Fc?RI-activated mast cells [Fc?RI-MCs]). Additionally, MCs express the NK1R, suggesting an adjuvant role for NK1R agonists in Fc?RI-MC-mediated pathologies; however, in-depth research addressing this relevant aspect of MC biology is lacking.We sought to investigate the effect of NK1R signaling and the individual roles of SP and HK-1 as potential adjuvants for Fc?RI-MC-mediated allergic disorders.Bone marrow-derived mast cells (BMMCs) from C57BL/6 wild-type (WT) or NK1R(-/-) mice were used to investigate the effects of NK1R signaling on Fc?RI-MCs. BMMCs generated from Tac1(-/-) mice or after culture with Tac4 small interfering RNA were used to address the adjuvancy of SP and HK-1. WT, NK1R(-/-), and c-Kit(W-sh/W-sh) mice reconstituted with WT or NK1R(-/-) BMMCs were used to evaluate NK1R signaling on Fc?RI-MC-mediated passive local and systemic anaphylaxis and on airway inflammation.Fc?RI-activated MCs upregulated NK1R and HK-1 transcripts and protein synthesis, without modifying SP expression. In a positive signaling loop HK-1 promoted TNF and IL-6 secretion by MC degranulation and protein synthesis, the latter through the phosphoinositide 3-kinase/Akt/nuclear factor ?B pathways. In vivo NK1R signaling was necessary for the development of passive local and systemic anaphylaxis and airway inflammation.Fc?RI stimulation of MCs promotes autocrine secretion of HK-1, which signals through NK1R to provide adjuvancy for efficient development of Fc?RI-MC-mediated disorders.
Project description:Mast cells are key players in type I hypersensitivity reactions in humans and mice and their activity has to be tightly controlled. Previous studies implicated the transcription factor MAZR in the regulation of mast cell function. To study the role of MAZR in mast cells, we generated a conditional Mazr allele and crossed Mazr (F/F) mice with the Vav-iCre deleter strain, which is active in all hematopoietic cells. MAZR-null BM-derived mast cells (BMMC) were phenotypically indistinguishable from wild-type BMMCs, although the numbers of IL-3 generated Mazr (F/F) Vav-iCre BMMCs were reduced in comparison to Mazr (F/F) BMMCs, showing that MAZR is required for the efficient generation of BMMC in vitro. A gene expression analysis revealed that MAZR-deficiency resulted in the dysregulation of 128 genes, with more genes up- than down-regulated in the absence of MAZR, indicating that MAZR acts as a transcriptional repressor in mast cells. Among the up-regulated genes were the chemokines Ccl5, Cxcl10, Cxcl12, the chemokine receptor Ccr5 and the cytokine IL18, suggesting an immunoregulatory role for MAZR in mast cells. Enforced expression of MAZR in mature Mazr-deficient BMMCs rescued the altered expression pattern of some genes tested, suggesting direct regulation of these genes by MAZR. Upon Fc?RI stimulation, Mazr expression was transiently down-regulated in BMMCs. However, early and late effector functions in response to Fc?RI-mediated stimulation were not impaired in the absence of MAZR, with the exception of IL-6, which was slightly decreased. Taken together, out data indicate that MAZR preferentially acts as a transcriptional repressor in mast cells, however MAZR plays only a minor role in the transcriptional networks that regulate early and late effector functions in mast cells in response to Fc?RI stimulation.
Project description:Antigen-mediated cross-linking of IgE bound to its receptor, Fc?RI, initiates a transmembrane signaling cascade that results in mast cell activation in the allergic response. Using immunogold labeling of intact RBL mast cells and scanning electron microscopy (SEM), we visualize molecular reorganization of IgE-Fc?RI and early signaling proteins on both leaflets of the plasma membrane, without the need for ripped off membrane sheets. As quantified by pair correlation analysis, we observe dramatic changes in the nanoscale distribution of IgE-Fc?RI after binding of multivalent antigen to stimulate transmembrane signaling, and this is accompanied by similar clustering of Lyn and Syk tyrosine kinases, and adaptor protein LAT. We find that Lyn co-redistributes with IgE-Fc?RI into clusters that cross-correlate throughout 20 min of stimulation. Inhibition of tyrosine kinase activity reduces the numbers of both IgE-Fc?RI and Lyn in stimulated clusters. Coupling of these proteins is also decreased when membrane cholesterol is reduced either before or after antigen addition. These results provide evidence for involvement of Fc?RI phosphorylation and cholesterol-dependent membrane structure in the interactions that accompany IgE-mediated activation of RBL mast cells. More generally, this SEM view of intact cell surfaces provides new insights into the nanoscale organization of receptor-mediated signaling complexes in the plasma membrane.