Transcriptional Profiling Suggests Extensive Metabolic Rewiring of Human and Mouse Macrophages during Early Interferon Alpha Responses.
ABSTRACT: Emerging evidence suggests that cellular metabolism plays a critical role in regulating immune activation. Alterations in energy and lipid and amino acid metabolism have been shown to contribute to type I interferon (IFN) responses in macrophages, but the relationship between metabolic reprogramming and the establishment of early antiviral function remains poorly defined. Here, we used transcriptional profiling datasets to develop global metabolic signatures associated with early IFN-? responses in two primary macrophage model systems: mouse bone marrow-derived macrophages (BMM) and human monocyte-derived macrophages (MDM). Short-term stimulation with IFN-? (<4?hours) was associated with significant metabolic rewiring, with >500 metabolic genes altered in mouse and human macrophage models. Pathway and network analysis identified alterations in genes associated with cellular bioenergetics, cellular oxidant status, cAMP/AMP and cGMP/GMP ratios, branched chain amino acid catabolism, cell membrane composition, fatty acid synthesis, and ?-oxidation as key features of early IFN-? responses. These changes may have important implications for initial establishment of antiviral function in these cells.
Project description:Background and Aims:The natural compound baicalin (BA) possesses potent antiviral properties against the influenza virus. However, the underlying molecular mechanisms of this antiviral activity and whether macrophages are involved remain unclear. In this study, we, therefore, investigated the effect of BA on macrophages. Methods:We studied macrophage recruitment, functional phenotypes (M1/M2), and the cellular metabolism via flow cytometry, qRT-PCR, immunofluorescence, a cell culture transwell system, and GC-MS-based metabolomics both in vivo in H1N1 A virus-infected mice and in vitro. Results:BA treatment drastically reduced macrophage recruitment (CD11b+, F4/80+) by approximately 90% while maintaining the proportion of M1-polarized macrophages in the bronchoalveolar lavage fluid of infected mice. This BA-stimulated macrophage M1 phenotype shift was further verified in vitro in ANA-1 and primary peritoneal macrophages by measuring macrophage M1 polarization signals (CD86, iNOS, TNF-?, iNOS/Arg-1 ratio, and IL-1? cleavage). Meanwhile, we observed an activation of the IFN pathway (upregulation of IFN-? and IRF-3), an inhibition of influenza virus replication (as measured by the M gene), and distinct cellular metabolic responses in BA-treated cells. Conclusion:BA triggered macrophage M1 polarization, IFN activation, and other cellular reactions, which are beneficial for inhibition of H1N1 A virus infection.
Project description:Activated macrophages play a central role in controlling inflammatory responses to infection and are tightly regulated to rapidly mount responses to infectious challenge. Type I interferon (alpha/beta interferon [IFN-?/?]) and type II interferon (IFN-?) play a crucial role in activating macrophages and subsequently restricting viral infections. Both types of IFNs signal through related but distinct signaling pathways, inducing a vast number of interferon-stimulated genes that are overlapping but distinguishable. The exact mechanism by which IFNs, particularly IFN-?, inhibit DNA viruses such as cytomegalovirus (CMV) is still not fully understood. Here, we investigate the antiviral state developed in macrophages upon reversible inhibition of murine CMV by IFN-?. On the basis of molecular profiling of the reversible inhibition, we identify a significant contribution of a restricted type I IFN subnetwork linked with IFN-? activation. Genetic knockout of the type I-signaling pathway, in the context of IFN-? stimulation, revealed an essential requirement for a primed type I-signaling process in developing a full refractory state in macrophages. A minimal transient induction of IFN-? upon macrophage activation with IFN-? is also detectable. In dose and kinetic viral replication inhibition experiments with IFN-?, the establishment of an antiviral effect is demonstrated to occur within the first hours of infection. We show that the inhibitory mechanisms at these very early times involve a blockade of the viral major immediate-early promoter activity. Altogether our results show that a primed type I IFN subnetwork contributes to an immediate-early antiviral state induced by type II IFN activation of macrophages, with a potential further amplification loop contributed by transient induction of IFN-?.
Project description:Recent studies suggest that the sterol metabolic network participates in the interferon (IFN) antiviral response. However, the molecular mechanisms linking IFN with the sterol network and the identity of sterol mediators remain unknown. Here we report a cellular antiviral role for macrophage production of 25-hydroxycholesterol (cholest-5-en-3?,25-diol, 25HC) as a component of the sterol metabolic network linked to the IFN response via Stat1. By utilizing quantitative metabolome profiling of all naturally occurring oxysterols upon infection or IFN-stimulation, we reveal 25HC as the only macrophage-synthesized and -secreted oxysterol. We show that 25HC can act at multiple levels as a potent paracrine inhibitor of viral infection for a broad range of viruses. We also demonstrate, using transcriptional regulatory-network analyses, genetic interventions and chromatin immunoprecipitation experiments that Stat1 directly coupled Ch25h regulation to IFN in macrophages. Our studies describe a physiological role for 25HC as a sterol-lipid effector of an innate immune pathway.
Project description:Upon viral infection, the production of type I interferon (IFN) and the subsequent upregulation of IFN stimulated genes (ISGs) generate an antiviral state with an important role in the activation of innate and adaptive host immune responses. The ubiquitin-like protein (UBL) ISG15 is a critical IFN-induced antiviral molecule that protects against several viral infections, but the mechanism by which ISG15 exerts its antiviral function is not completely understood. Here, we report that ISG15 plays an important role in the regulation of macrophage responses. ISG15-/- macrophages display reduced activation, phagocytic capacity and programmed cell death activation in response to vaccinia virus (VACV) infection. Moreover, peritoneal macrophages from mice lacking ISG15 are neither able to phagocyte infected cells nor to block viral infection in co-culture experiments with VACV-infected murine embryonic fibroblast (MEFs). This phenotype is independent of cytokine production and secretion, but clearly correlates with impaired activation of the protein kinase AKT in ISG15 knock-out (KO) macrophages. Altogether, these results indicate an essential role of ISG15 in the cellular immune antiviral response and point out that a better understanding of the antiviral responses triggered by ISG15 may lead to the development of therapies against important human pathogens.
Project description:Extracellular vesicles (EVs) are increasingly recognized as important mediators of intercellular communication. In this study, we aimed to further characterize the role of macrophage-derived EVs in immune responses against hepatitis C virus (HCV) and the potential of polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs) to modulate this modality of innate immunity. To this end, EVs were isolated from interferon-stimulated macrophage cultures or from serum of patients with acute or chronic hepatitis C. EVs were characterized by electron microscopy, flow cytometry, RNA-sequencing, and Western blot analysis. The effect of EVs on replication of HCV was assessed in coculture models. Functional analyses were performed to assess the impact of PUFAs on EV-mediated antiviral immunity. We found that macrophages secreted various cytokines shortly after stimulation with type I and II IFN, which orchestrated a fast but short-lasting antiviral state. This rapid innate immune answer was followed by the production of macrophage-derived EVs, which induced a late, but long-lasting inhibitory effect on HCV replication. Of note, exposure of macrophages to PUFAs, which are important regulators of immune responses, dampened EV-mediated antiviral immune responses. Finally, EVs from patients with hepatitis C exhibited long-lasting antiviral activities during IFN therapy as well. The antiviral effect of EVs from Caucasian and Japanese patients differed, which may be explained by different nutritional uptake of PUFAs. In conclusion, our data indicate that macrophage-derived EVs mediate long-lasting inhibitory effects on HCV replication, which may bridge the time until efficient adaptive immune responses are established, and which can be blunted by PUFAs.
Project description:Type-I interferon (IFN-I) cytokines are produced by immune cells in response to microbial infections, cancer and autoimmune diseases, and subsequently, trigger cytoprotective and antiviral responses through the activation of IFN-I stimulated genes (ISGs). The ability of intestinal microbiota to modulate innate immune responses is well known, but the mechanisms underlying such responses remain elusive. Here we report that the intracellular sensors stimulator of IFN genes (STING) and mitochondrial antiviral signaling (MAVS) are essential for the production of IFN-I in response to lactic acid bacteria (LAB), common gut commensal bacteria with beneficial properties. Using human macrophage cells we show that LAB strains that potently activate the inflammatory transcription factor NF-?B are poor inducers of IFN-I and conversely, those triggering significant amounts of IFN-I fail to activate NF-?B. This IFN-I response is also observed in human primary macrophages, which modulate CD64 and CD40 upon challenge with IFN-I-inducing LAB. Mechanistically, IFN-I inducers interact more intimately with phagocytes as compared to NF-?B-inducers, and fail to activate IFN-I in the presence of phagocytosis inhibitors. These bacteria are then sensed intracellularly by the cytoplasmic sensors STING and, to a lesser extent, MAVS. Accordingly, macrophages deficient for STING showed dramatically reduced phosphorylation of TANK-binding kinase (TBK)-1 and IFN-I activation, which resulted in lower expression of ISGs. Our findings demonstrate a major role for intracellular sensing and STING in the production of IFN-I by beneficial bacteria and the existence of bacteria-specific immune signatures, which can be exploited to promote cytoprotective responses and prevent overreactive NF-?B-dependent inflammation in the gut.
Project description:Type I interferon (IFN) contributes significantly to innate immune responses to pathogen infections in macrophages. Our previous studies demonstrate that Ubp43, an ISG15-specific isopeptidase, is highly expressed in macrophages and noncatalytically inhibits Type I IFN signaling. To understand the effect of Type I IFN and Ubp43 in macrophage activation, we analyzed the expression of IFN-beta stimulated genes in wild-type and Ubp43(-/-) bone marrow derived macrophages (BMMs). Here, we show that Ubp43 regulates IFN-beta stimulated genes at genome level. IFN hypersensitivity of Ubp43(-/-) BMMs resulted in the identification of 749 unique genes that are upregulated by IFN-beta, including a large group of previously unidentified IFN-stimulated genes. Functional analyses of these genes showed that Type I IFN strongly induced the expression of a group of immune response related genes, including genes for antigen presentation, antiviral responses, and chemokine and cytokine production. These results provide excellent biochemical support for the high resistance of viral and bacterial infection of Ubp43 knockout mice, suggesting that Ubp43 is a potential therapeutic target for the enhancement of immune responses against infections.
Project description:Cystatin B is a cysteine protease inhibitor that induces HIV replication in monocyte-derived macrophages (MDM). This protein interacts with signal transducer and activator of transcription (STAT-1) factor and inhibits the interferon (IFN-?) response in Vero cells by preventing STAT-1 translocation to the nucleus. Cystatin B also decreases the levels of tyrosine-phosphorylated STAT-1 (STAT-1PY). However, the mechanisms of cystatin B regulation on STAT-1 phosphorylation in MDM are unknown. We hypothesized that cystatin B inhibits IFN-? antiviral responses and induces HIV replication in macrophage reservoirs through the inhibition of STAT-1 phosphorylation. Macrophages were transfected with cystatin B siRNA prior to interferon-? treatment or infected with HIV-ADA to determine the effect of cystatin B modulation in STAT-1 localization and activation using immunofluorescence and proximity ligation assays. Cystatin B decreased STAT-1PY and its transportation to the nucleus, while HIV infection retained unphosphorylated STAT (USTAT-1) in the nucleus avoiding its exit to the cytoplasm for eventual phosphorylation. In IFN-?-treated MDM, cystatin B inhibited the nuclear translocation of both, USTAT-1 and STAT-1PY. These results demonstrate that cystatin B interferes with the STAT-1 signaling and IFN-?-antiviral responses perpetuating HIV in macrophage reservoirs.
Project description:Monocytic cells, including macrophages and dendritic cells, exist in different activation states that are critical to the regulation of antimicrobial immunity. Many pandemic viruses are monocytotropic, including porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (PRRSV), which directly infects subsets of monocytic cells and interferes with antiviral responses. To study antiviral responses in PRRSV-infected monocytic cells, we characterized inflammatory cytokine responses and genome-wide profiled signature genes to investigate response pathways in uninfected and PRRSV-infected monocytic cells at different activation states. Our findings showed suppressed interferon (IFN) production in macrophages in non-antiviral states and an arrest of lipid metabolic pathways in macrophages at antiviral states. Importantly, porcine monocytic cells at different activation states were susceptible to PRRSV and responded differently to viral infection. Based on Gene Ontology (GO) analysis, two approaches were used to potentiate antiviral activity: (i) pharmaceutical modulation of cellular lipid metabolism and (ii) in situ PRRSV replication-competent expression of interferon alpha (IFN-?). Both approaches significantly suppressed exogenous viral infection in monocytic cells. In particular, the engineered IFN-expressing PRRSV strain eliminated exogenous virus infection and sustained cell viability at 4 days postinfection in macrophages. These findings suggest an intricate interaction of viral infection with the activation status of porcine monocytic cells. An understanding and integration of antiviral infection with activation status of monocytic cells may provide a means of potentiating antiviral immunity.Activation statuses of monocytic cells, including monocytes, macrophages (M?s), and dendritic cells (DCs), are critically important for antiviral immunity. Unfortunately, the activation status of porcine monocytic cells or how cell activation status functionally interacts with antiviral immunity remains largely unknown. This is a significant omission because many economically important porcine viruses are monocytotropic, including our focus, PRRSV, which alone causes nearly $800 million economic loss annually in the U.S. swine industries. PRRSV is ideal for deciphering how monocytic cell activation statuses interact with antiviral immunity, because it directly infects subsets of monocytic cells and subverts overall immune responses. In this study, we systematically investigate the activation status of porcine monocytic cells to determine the intricate interaction of viral infection with activation statuses and functionally regulate antiviral immunity within the framework of the activation paradigm. Our findings may provide a means of potentiating antiviral immunity and leading to novel vaccines for PRRS prevention.
Project description:Herpes simplex virus 1 (HSV-1) is a common pathogen infecting the majority of people worldwide at some stage in their lives. The early host response to viral infection is initiated by the cells of the innate immune response, including macrophages. Here, we have characterized the secretome of HSV-1-infected human primary macrophages using high-throughput quantitative proteomics. We identified and quantified 516 distinct human proteins with high confidence from the macrophage secretome upon HSV-1 infection, and the secretion of 411 proteins was >2-fold increased upon beta interferon (IFN-?) priming and/or HSV-1 infection. Bioinformatics analysis of the secretome data revealed that most of the secreted proteins were intracellular, and almost 80% of the proteins whose secretion increased more than 2-fold were known exosomal proteins. This strongly suggests that nonclassical, vesicle-mediated protein secretion is activated in IFN-?-primed and HSV-1-infected macrophages. Proteins related to immune and inflammatory responses, interferon-induced proteins, and endogenous danger signal proteins were efficiently secreted upon IFN-? priming and HSV-1 infection. The secreted IFN-induced proteins include interferon-induced tetratricopeptide protein 2 (IFIT2), IFIT3, signal transducer and activator of transcription 1 (STAT1), and myxovirus resistance protein A (MxA), implicating that these proteins also have important extracellular antiviral functions. Proinflammatory cytokine interleukin-1? was not released by HSV-1-infected macrophages, demonstrating that HSV-1 can antagonize inflammasome function. In conclusion, our results provide a global view of the secretome of HSV-1-infected macrophages, revealing host factors possibly having a role in antiviral defense.