NT-proBNP in stable COPD and future exacerbation risk: Analysis of the SPIROMICS cohort.
ABSTRACT: BACKGROUND:High N-terminal pro-brain natriuretic peptide (NT-proBNP) during COPD exacerbations is associated with worse clinical outcomes. The prognostic value of NT-proBNP measured during clinical stability has not been well characterized. METHODS:We studied SPIROMICS participants 40-80 years of age with COPD GOLD spirometric stages 1-4. The association between baseline NT-proBNP and incident COPD exacerbations within one year of follow-up was tested using zero-inflated Poisson regression models adjusted for age, gender, race, body mass index, current smoking status, smoking history, FEV1 percent predicted, COPD Assessment Test score, exacerbation history, total lung capacity on chest CT and cardiovascular disease (any of coronary artery disease, myocardial infarction or congestive heart failure). RESULTS:Among 1051 participants (mean age 66.1 years, 41.4% women), mean NT-proBNP was 608.9?pg/ml. Subjects in GOLD stage D had the highest mean NT-proBNP. After one year of follow-up, 268 participants experienced one or more COPD exacerbations. One standard deviation increase in baseline NT-proBNP was associated with a 13% increase in the risk of incident exacerbations (incident risk ratio 1.13; 95% CI 1.06-1.19; p?
Project description:BACKGROUND:Present treatment strategies to stratify exacerbation risk in patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) rely on a history of two or more events in the previous year. We aimed to understand year to year variability in exacerbations and factors associated with consistent exacerbations over time. METHODS:In this longitudinal, prospective analysis of exacerbations in the Subpopulations and Intermediate Outcome Measures in COPD Study (SPIROMICS) cohort, we analysed patients aged 40-80 years with COPD for whom 3 years of prospective data were available, identified through various means including care at academic and non-academic medical centres, word of mouth, and existing patient registries. Participants were enrolled in the study between Nov 12, 2010, and July 31, 2015. We classified patients according to yearly exacerbation frequency: no exacerbations in any year; one exacerbation in every year during 3 years of follow-up; and those with inconsistent exacerbations (individuals who had both years with exacerbations and years without during the 3 years of follow-up). Participants were characterised by the Global Initiative for Chronic Obstructive Lung Disease (GOLD) spirometric category (1-4) on the basis of post-bronchodilator FEV1. Stepwise logistic regression was used to compare factors associated with one or more acute exacerbations of COPD every year for 3 years versus no exacerbations in the same timeframe. Additionally, a stepwise zero-inflated negative binomial model was used to assess predictors of exacerbation count during follow-up in all patients with available data. Baseline symptom burden was assessed with the COPD assessment test. This trial is registered with ClinicalTrials.gov, number NCT01969344. FINDINGS:2981 patients were enrolled during the study. 1843 patients had COPD, of which 1105 patients had 3 years of complete, prospective follow-up data. 538 (49%) of 1105 patients had at least one acute exacerbation during the 3 years of follow-up, whereas 567 (51%) had none. 82 (7%) of 1105 patients had at least one acute exacerbation each year, whereas only 23 (2%) had two or more acute exacerbations in each year. An inconsistent pattern (both years with and without acute exacerbations) was common (456 [41%] of the group), particularly among GOLD stages 3 and 4 patients (256 [56%] of 456). In logistic regression, consistent acute exacerbations (?1 event per year for 3 years) were associated with higher baseline symptom burden, previous exacerbations, greater evidence of small airway abnormality on CT, lower interleukin-15 concentrations, and higher interleukin-8 concentrations, than were no acute exacerbations. INTERPRETATION:Although acute exacerbations are common, the exacerbation status of most individuals varies markedly from year to year. Among patients who had any acute exacerbation over 3 years, very few repeatedly had two or more events per year. In addition to symptoms and history of exacerbations in the year before study enrolment, we identified several novel biomarkers associated with consistent exacerbations, including CT-defined small airway abnormality, and interleukin-15 and interleukin-8 concentrations. FUNDING:National Institutes of Health, and National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute.
Project description:BACKGROUND:Decreased but measurable serum IgA levels (?70 mg/dL) have been associated with risk for infections in some populations, but are unstudied in COPD. This study tested the hypothesis that subnormal serum IgA levels would be associated with exacerbation risk in COPD. METHODS:Data were analyzed from 1,049 COPD participants from the observational cohort study SPIROMICS (535 (51%) women; mean age 66.1 (SD 7.8), 338 (32%) current smokers) who had baseline serum IgA measured using the Myriad RBM biomarker discovery platform. Exacerbation data was collected prospectively (mean 944.3 (SD 281.3) days), and adjusted linear, logistic and zero-inflated negative binomial regressions were performed. RESULTS:Mean IgA was 269.1 mg/dL (SD 150.9). One individual had deficient levels of serum IgA (<7 mg/dL) and 25 (2.4%) had IgA level ?70 mg/dL. Participants with IgA ?70 mg/dL were younger (62 vs. 66 years, p = 0.01) but otherwise similar to those with higher IgA. In adjusted models, IgA ?70 mg/dL was associated with higher exacerbation incidence rates (IRR 1.71, 95% CI 1.01-2.87, p = 0.044) and greater risk for any severe exacerbation (OR 2.99, 95% CI 1.30-6.94, p = 0.010). In adjusted models among those in the lowest decile (<120 mg/dL), each 10 mg/dL decrement in IgA (analyzed continuously) was associated with more exacerbations during follow-up (? 0.24, 95% CI 0.017-0.46, p = 0.035). CONCLUSIONS:Subnormal serum IgA levels were associated with increased risk for acute exacerbations, supporting mildly impaired IgA levels as a contributing factor in COPD morbidity. Additionally, a dose-response relationship between lower serum IgA and number of exacerbations was found among individuals with serum IgA in the lowest decile, further supporting the link between serum IgA and exacerbation risk. Future COPD studies should more comprehensively characterize immune status to define the clinical relevance of these findings and their potential for therapeutic correction.
Project description:Background:Chronic cough and phlegm are frequently reported chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) symptoms. Prior research classified chronic mucus hypersecretion (CMH) based on the presence of these symptoms for ?3 months, called chronic bronchitis (CB) if respiratory infection symptoms were present for 1-2 years (Medical Research Council [MRC] definition). We explored whether the COPD Assessment Test (CAT), a simple measure developed for routine clinical use, captures CMH populations and outcomes similarly to MRC and St. George's Respiratory Questionnaire (SGRQ) definitions. Methods:We identified CMH in the SPIROMICS COPD cohort using (a) MRC definitions, (b) SGRQ questions for cough and phlegm (both as most/several days a week), and (c) CAT cough and phlegm questions. We determined optimal cut-points for CAT items and described exacerbation frequencies for different CMH definitions. Moderate exacerbations required a new prescription for antibiotics/oral corticosteroids or emergency department visit; severe exacerbations required hospitalization. Results were stratified by smoking status. Results:In a population of 1431 participants (57% male; mean FEV1% predicted 61%), 47% and 49% of evaluable participants had SGRQ- or CAT-defined CMH, respectively. A cut-point of ?2 for cough and phlegm items defined CMH in CAT. Among SGRQ-CMH+ participants, 80% were also defined as CMH+ by the CAT. CMH+ participants were more likely to be current smokers. A higher exacerbation frequency was observed for presence of CMH+ versus CMH- in the year prior to baseline for all CMH definitions; this trend continued across 3 years of follow-up, regardless of smoking status. Conclusion:Items from the CAT identified SGRQ-defined CMH, a frequent COPD trait that correlated with exacerbation frequency. The CAT is a short, simple questionnaire and a potentially valuable tool for telemedicine or real-world trials. CAT-based CMH is a novel approach for identifying clinically important characteristics in COPD that can be ascertained in these settings.
Project description:Levels of iron and iron-related proteins including ferritin are higher in the lung tissue and lavage fluid of individuals with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD), when compared to healthy controls. Whether more iron in the extracellular milieu of the lung associates with distinct clinical phenotypes of COPD, including increased exacerbation susceptibility, is unknown. We measured iron and ferritin levels in the bronchoalveolar lavage fluid (BALF) of participants enrolled in the SubPopulations and InteRmediate Outcome Measures In COPD (SPIROMICS) bronchoscopy sub-study (n?=?195). BALF Iron parameters were compared to systemic markers of iron availability and tested for association with FEV1 % predicted and exacerbation frequency. Exacerbations were modelled using a zero-inflated negative binomial model using age, sex, smoking, and FEV1 % predicted as clinical covariates. BALF iron and ferritin were higher in participants with COPD and in smokers without COPD when compared to non-smoker control participants but did not correlate with systemic iron markers. BALF ferritin and iron were elevated in participants who had COPD exacerbations, with a 2-fold increase in BALF ferritin and iron conveying a 24% and 2-fold increase in exacerbation risk, respectively. Similar associations were not observed with plasma ferritin. Increased airway iron levels may be representative of a distinct pathobiological phenomenon that results in more frequent COPD exacerbation events, contributing to disease progression in these individuals.
Project description:BACKGROUND:Elevated N-terminal pro-B-type natriuretic peptide (NT-proBNP) is associated with clinically overt heart failure (HF). However, whether it provides additive prognostic information for incident HF beyond traditional risk factors and left ventricular (LV) mass index among multi-ethnic asymptomatic individuals has not yet been determined. We studied the associations of plasma NT-proBNP and magnetic resonance imaging defined LV mass index with incident HF in an asymptomatic multi-ethnic population. METHODS AND RESULTS:A total of 5597 multi-ethnic participants without clinically apparent cardiovascular disease underwent baseline measurement of NT-proBNP and were followed for 5.5±1.1 years. Among them, 4163 also underwent baseline cardiac magnetic resonance imaging. During follow-up, 111 participants experienced incident HF. Higher NT-proBNP was significantly associated with incident HF, independent of baseline age, sex, ethnicity, systolic blood pressure, diabetes mellitus, smoking, estimated glomerular filtration rate, medications (anti-hypertensive and statin), LV mass index, and interim myocardial infarction (hazard ratio: 1.95 per 1U log NT-proBNP increment, 95% CI 1.54-2.46, P<0.001). This relationship held among different ethnic groups, non-Hispanic whites, African-Americans, and Hispanics. Most importantly, NT-proBNP provided additive prognostic value beyond both traditional risk factors and LV mass index for predicting incident HF (integrated discrimination index=0.046, P<0.001; net reclassification index; 6-year risk probability categorized by <3%, 3-10%, >10% =0.175, P=0.019; category-less net reclassification index=0.561, P<0.001). CONCLUSIONS:Plasma NT-proBNP provides incremental prognostic information beyond traditional risk factors and the magnetic resonance imaging-determined LV mass index for incident symptomatic HF in an asymptomatic multi-ethnic population. CLINICAL TRIAL REGISTRATION:URL: http://www.clinicaltrials.gov. Unique identifier: NCT00005487.
Project description:BACKGROUND:Pulmonary and systemic inflammation are central features of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). Previous studies have demonstrated relationships between biologically active extracellular matrix components, or matrikines, and COPD pathogenesis. We studied the relationships between the matrikine acetyl-proline-glycine-proline (AcPGP) in sputum and plasma and clinical features of COPD. METHODS:Sputum and plasma samples were obtained from COPD participants in the SPIROMICS cohort at enrollment. AcPGP was isolated using solid phase extraction and measured by mass spectrometry. Demographics, spirometry, quality of life questionnaires, and quantitative computed tomography (CT) imaging with parametric response mapping (PRM) were obtained at baseline. Severe COPD exacerbations were recorded at 1-year of prospective follow-up. We used linear and logistic regression models to measure associations between AcPGP and features of COPD, and Kaplan-Meier analyses to measure time-to-first severe exacerbation. RESULTS:The 182 COPD participants in the analysis were 66?±?8?years old, 62% male, 84% White race, and 39% were current smokers. AcPGP concentrations were 0.61?±?1.89?ng/mL (mean?±?SD) in sputum and 0.60?±?1.13?ng/mL in plasma. In adjusted linear regression models, sputum AcPGP was associated with FEV1/FVC, spirometric GOLD stage, PRM-small airways disease, and PRM-emphysema. Sputum AcPGP also correlated with severe AECOPD, and elevated sputum AcPGP was associated with shorter time-to-first severe COPD exacerbation. In contrast, plasma AcPGP was not associated with symptoms, pulmonary function, or severe exacerbation risk. CONCLUSIONS:In COPD, sputum but not plasma AcPGP concentrations are associated with the severity of airflow limitation, small airways disease, emphysema, and risk for severe AECOPD at 1-year of follow-up. TRIAL REGISTRATION:ClinicalTrials.gov: NCT01969344 (SPIROMICS).
Project description:High-sensitivity troponin T (hsTnT) and N-terminal pro-B-type natriuretic peptide (NT-proBNP) strongly predict heart failure (HF) in the general population. However, the interpretation of levels of these biomarkers as predictors of HF is uncertain among patients with CKD. Here, we investigated whether hsTnT and NT-proBNP are associated with incident HF among patients with CKD. In a prospective cohort analysis, we studied 3483 people with CKD in the Chronic Renal Insufficiency Cohort (CRIC) Study recruited from June of 2003 to August of 2008 who were free of HF at baseline. We used Cox regression to examine the association of baseline levels of hsTnT and NT-proBNP with incident HF after adjustment for demographic factors, traditional cardiovascular risk factors, markers of kidney disease, pertinent medication use, and mineral metabolism markers. At baseline, hsTnT levels ranged from ?5.0 to 738.7 pg/ml, and NT-proBNP levels ranged from ?5 to 35,000 pg/ml. Compared with those who had undetectable hsTnT, participants in the highest quartile (>26.5 pg/ml) had a significantly higher rate of HF (hazard ratio, 4.77; 95% confidence interval, 2.49 to 9.14). Similarly, compared with those in the lowest NT-proBNP quintile (<47.6 pg/ml), participants in the highest quintile (>433.0 pg/ml) experienced a substantially higher rate of HF (hazard ratio, 9.57; 95% confidence interval, 4.40 to 20.83) [corrected]. In conclusion, hsTnT and NT-proBNP were strongly associated with incident HF among a diverse cohort of individuals with mild to severe CKD. Elevations in these biomarkers may indicate subclinical changes in volume and myocardial stress that subsequently contribute to clinical HF.
Project description:BACKGROUND:N-terminal-pro-B-type natriuretic peptide (NT-proBNP) and cardiac troponin T (TnT) predict cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk in a variety of populations. Whether their predictive value varies by ethnicity is unknown. We sought to determine whether NT-proBNP and TnT improve prediction of incident coronary heart disease (CHD) and CVD, independent of CVD risk factors, in a multiethnic population; whether NT-proBNP improves prediction compared with the Framingham Risk Score or the Pooled Cohort Risk Equation; and whether a second NT-proBNP further improves prediction. METHODS:Both NT-proBNP and TnT were measured in 5,592 MESA white, black, Hispanic, and Chinese participants (60% nonwhite; mean age 62.3 ± 10.3 years) in 2000 to 2002 and 2004 to 2005. We evaluated adjusted risk of incident CHD and CVD based on baseline and change in biomarker concentration. RESULTS:Participants were followed up through 2011 and incurred 370 CVD events (232 CHD). Concentrations of NT-proBNP and TnT varied by ethnicity. Both NT-proBNP and TnT were associated with an increased risk of events (adjusted hazard ratio [HR] for CHD [95% CI] for fifth quintile vs other 4 quintiles of NT-proBNP, 2.03 [1.50-2.76]; HR for CHD for detectable vs undetectable TnT, 3.95 [2.29-6.81]). N-terminal-pro-B-type natriuretic peptide improved risk prediction and classification compared with the Framingham Risk Score and the Pooled Cohort Risk Equation. Change in NT-proBNP was independently associated with events (HR for CHD per unit increase in ?logNT-proBNP, 1.95 [1.16-3.26]). None of the observed associations varied by ethnicity. CONCLUSIONS:Both NT-proBNP and TnT are predictors of incident CHD, independent of established risk factors and ethnicity, in a multiethnic population without known CVD. Change in NT-proBNP may add additional prognostic information.
Project description:<h4>Background</h4>Cardiovascular disease is prevalent and frequently unrecognized in patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). NT-proBNP is an established risk factor in patients with heart failure. NT-proBNP may also be released from the right ventricle. Thus serum NT-proBNP may be elevated during acute exacerbations of COPD (AECOPD). The prognostic value of NT-proBNP in patients hospitalized with AECOPD is sparsely studied. Our objective was to test the hypothesis that NT-proBNP independently predicts long term mortality following AECOPD.<h4>Methods</h4>A prospective cohort study of 99 patients with 217 admissions with AECOPD. Clinical, electrocardiographic, radiological and biochemical data were collected at index and repeat admissions and analyzed in an extended survival analysis with time-dependent covariables.<h4>Results</h4>Median follow-up time was 1.9 years, and 57 patients died during follow-up. NT-proBNP tertile limits were 264.4 and 909 pg/mL, and NT-proBNP in tertiles 1 through 3 was associated with mortality rates of 8.6, 35 and 62 per 100 patient-years, respectively (age-adjusted log-rank p<0.0001). After adjustment for age, gender, peripheral edema, cephalization and cTnT in a multivariable survival model, the corresponding hazard ratios for dying were 2.4 (0.95-6.0) and 3.2 (1.3-8.1) (with 95% confidence intervals in parentheses, p-value for trend 0.013).<h4>Conclusions</h4>NT-proBNP is a strong and independent determinant of mortality after AECOPD.
Project description:In the aging society, it is important to identify very old persons at high risk of functional decline, cardiovascular disease and mortality. However, traditional risk markers lose their predictive value with age. We investigated whether plasma N-terminal pro-B-type natriuretic peptide (NT-proBNP) levels predict change in functional status, cardiovascular morbidity and mortality in very old age. Here we present an observational prospective cohort study (Leiden 85-plus Study, 1997-2004) in a population-based sample of 560 individuals aged 85 years with a 5-year complete follow-up for functional status, cardiovascular morbidity and cause-specific mortality. Median NT-proBNP for men was 351 pg/ml (cutoff values for low-medium tertiles 201 pg/ml and medium-high tertiles 649 pg/ml) and, for women, 297 pg/ml (cutoffs 204 and 519 pg/ml, respectively). During the 5-year follow-up, participants with high NT-proBNP had an accelerated cognitive decline and increase of activities of daily living (ADL) disability over time (all at p?<?0.01) and an increased risk of incident heart failure [hazard ratio (HR) 3.3 (95 % confidence interval (CI) 1.8-6.1)], atrial fibrillation [HR 4.1 (2.0-8.7)], myocardial infarction [HR 2.1 (1.2-3.7)], stroke [HR 3.4 (1.9-6.3)], cardiovascular mortality [HR 5.5 (3.1-10)], non-cardiovascular mortality [HR 2.0 (1.4-3.0)] and all-cause mortality [HR 2.9 (2.1-4.0)], independent of other known risk markers. All results remained similar after exclusion of participants with heart failure at baseline. In very old age, high-NT-proBNP levels predict accelerated cognitive and functional decline, as well as cardiovascular morbidity and mortality. Results suggest that NT-proBNP can help clinicians to identify very old people at high risk of functional impairment and incident cardiovascular morbidity.