A combined planning approach for improved functional and esthetic outcome of bimaxillary rotation advancement for treatment of obstructive sleep apnea using 3D biomechanical modeling.
ABSTRACT: In recent years, bimaxillary rotation advancement (BRA) has become the method of choice for surgical treatment of obstructive sleep apnea (OSA). As dislocation of the jaw bones affects both, airways and facial contours, surgeons are facing the challenge of finding an optimal jaw position that allows for the reestablishment of normal airway ventilation and esthetic surgical outcome. Owing to the complexity of the facial anatomy and its mechanical behavior, individual planning of surgical OSA treatment under consideration of functional and esthetic aspects presents a challenge that surgeons typically approach in a non-quantitative manner using subjective evaluation and clinical experience. This paper describes a framework for individual planning of OSA treatment using bimaxillary rotation advancement, which relies on computational modeling of hard and soft tissue mechanics. The described framework for simulation of functional and esthetic post-surgery outcome was used in 10 OSA patients. Comparison of the simulation results with post-surgery data reveals that biomechanical simulation provides a reliable estimate for post-surgery facial tissue behavior and antero-posterior airway extension, but fails to accurately describe a surprisingly large lateral stretch of the velopharyngeal region. This discrepancy is traced back to anisotropic effects of pharyngeal muscles. Possible approaches to improving the accuracy of model predictions and defining sharp criteria for optimizing combined OSA planning are discussed.
Project description:Mandibular advancement surgery may positively affect pharyngeal airways and therefore potentially beneficial to obstructive sleep apnea (OSA).To collect evidence from published systematic reviews that have evaluated pharyngeal airway changes related to mandibular advancement with or without maxillary procedures.PubMed, EMBASE, Web of Science, and Cochrane Library were searched without limiting language or timeline. Eligible systematic reviews evaluating changes in pharyngeal airway dimensions and respiratory parameters after mandibular advancement with or without maxillary surgery were identified and included.This overview has included eleven systematic reviews. Maxillomandibular advancement (MMA) increases linear, cross-sectional plane and volumetric measurements of pharyngeal airways significantly (p<0.0001), while reducing the apnea-hypopnea index (AHI) and the respiratory disturbance index (RDI) significantly (p<0.0001). Two systematic reviews included primary studies that have evaluated single-jaw mandibular advancement, but did not discuss their effect onto pharyngeal airways. Based on the included primary studies of those systematic reviews, single-jaw mandibular advancement was reported to significantly increase pharyngeal airway dimensions (p<0.05); however, conclusive long-term results were lacking.MMA increases pharyngeal airway dimensions and is beneficial to patients suffering from OSA. However, more evidence is still needed to draw definite conclusion related to the effect of single-jaw mandibular advancement osteotomies on pharyngeal airways.
Project description:Two-jaw surgery including mandibular and maxillary backward movement procedures are commonly performed to correct class III malocclusion. Bimaxillary surgery can reposition the maxillofacial bone together with soft tissue, such as the soft palate and the tongue base. We analyzed changes of pharyngeal airway narrowing to ascertain clinical correlations with the prevalence of snoring after two-jaw surgery.A prospective clinical study was designed including a survey on snoring and three-dimensional (3D) computed tomography (CT) in class III malocclusion subjects before and after bimaxillary surgery. We conducted an analysis on changes of the posterior pharyngeal space find out clinical correlations with the prevalence of snoring.Among 67 subjects, 12 subjects complained about snoring 5 weeks after the surgical correction, and examining the 12 subjects after 6 months, 6 patients complained about the snoring. The current findings demonstrated the attenuation of the largest transverse width (LTW), anteroposterior length (APL), and cross-sectional area (CSA) following bimaxillary surgery given to class III malocclusion patients, particularly at the retropalatal level. The average distance of maxillary posterior movements were measured to be relatively higher (horizontal distance 3.9 mm, vertical distance 2.6 mm) in case of new snorers.This study found that bimaxillary surgery could lead to the narrowing of upper airway at the retropalatal or retroglossal level as well as triggering snoring in subjects with class III malocclusion. Based on the current clinical findings, we also found that upper airway narrowing at retropalatal level may contribute to increasing the probability of snoring and that polysonography may need to be performed before orthognathic surgery in subjects with class III malocclusion.
Project description:Patients with a skeletal Class III deformity may present with a concave contour of the anteromedial cheek region. Le Fort I maxillary advancement and rotational movements correct the problem but information on the impact on the anteromedial cheek soft tissue change has been insufficient to date. This three-dimensional (3D) imaging-assisted study assessed the effect of surgical maxillary advancement and clockwise rotational movements on the anteromedial cheek soft tissue change. Two-week preoperative and 6-month postoperative cone-beam computed tomography scans were obtained from 48 consecutive patients who received 3D-guided two-jaw orthognathic surgery for the correction of Class III malocclusion associated with a midface deficiency and concave facial profile. Postoperative 3D facial bone and soft tissue models were superimposed on the corresponding preoperative models. The region of interest at the anteromedial cheek area was defined. The 3D cheek volumetric change (mm3; postoperative minus preoperative models) and the preoperative surface area (mm2) were computed to estimate the average sagittal movement (mm). The 3D cheek mass position from orthognathic surgery-treated patients was compared with published 3D normative data. Surgical maxillary advancement (all p < 0.001) and maxillary rotation (all p < 0.006) had a significant effect on the 3D anteromedial cheek soft tissue change. In total, 78.9%, 78.8%, and 78.8% of the variation in the cheek soft tissue sagittal movement was explained by the variation in the maxillary advancement and rotation movements for the right, left, and total cheek regions, respectively. The multiple linear regression models defined ratio values (relationship) between the 3D cheek soft tissue sagittal movement and maxillary bone advancement and rotational movements of 0.627 and 0.070, respectively. Maxillary advancements of 3-4 mm and >4 mm resulted in a 3D cheek mass position (1.91 ± 0.53 mm and 2.36 ± 0.72 mm, respectively) similar (all p > 0.05) to the 3D norm value (2.15 ± 1.2 mm). This study showed that both Le Fort I maxillary advancement and rotational movements affect the anteromedial cheek soft tissue change, with the maxillary advancement movement presenting a larger effect on the cheek soft tissue movement than the maxillary rotational movement. These findings can be applied in future multidisciplinary-based decision-making processes for planning and executing orthognathic surgery.
Project description:AIM:The purpose of this study was to present and validate an innovative semi-automatic approach to quantify the accuracy of the surgical outcome in relation to 3D virtual orthognathic planning among patients who underwent bimaxillary surgery. MATERIAL AND METHOD:For the validation of this new semi-automatic approach, CBCT scans of ten patients who underwent bimaxillary surgery were acquired pre-operatively. Individualized 3D virtual operation plans were made for all patients prior to surgery. During surgery, the maxillary and mandibular segments were positioned as planned by using 3D milled interocclusal wafers. Consequently, post-operative CBCT scan were acquired. The 3D rendered pre- and postoperative virtual head models were aligned by voxel-based registration upon the anterior cranial base. To calculate the discrepancies between the 3D planning and the actual surgical outcome, the 3D planned maxillary and mandibular segments were segmented and superimposed upon the postoperative maxillary and mandibular segments. The translation matrices obtained from this registration process were translated into translational and rotational discrepancies between the 3D planning and the surgical outcome, by using the newly developed tool, the OrthoGnathicAnalyser. To evaluate the reproducibility of this method, the process was performed by two independent observers multiple times. RESULTS:Low intra-observer and inter-observer variations in measurement error (mean error < 0.25 mm) and high intraclass correlation coefficients (> 0.97) were found, supportive of the observer independent character of the OrthoGnathicAnalyser. The pitch of the maxilla and mandible showed the highest discrepancy between the 3D planning and the postoperative results, 2.72° and 2.75° respectively. CONCLUSION:This novel method provides a reproducible tool for the evaluation of bimaxillary surgery, making it possible to compare larger patient groups in an objective and time-efficient manner in order to optimize the current workflow in orthognathic surgery.
Project description:Mandibular setback osteotomies potentially lead to narrowing of the pharyngeal airways, subsequently resulting in post-surgical obstructive sleep apnea (OSA).To summarize current evidence from systematic reviews that has evaluated pharyngeal airway changes after mandibular setback with or without concomitant upper jaw osteotomies.PubMed, EMBASE, Web of Science, and Cochrane Library databases were searched with no restriction of language or date. Systematic reviews studying changes in pharyngeal airway dimensions and respiratory parameters after mandibular setback with or without concomitant upper jaw osteotomies have been identified, screened for eligibility, included and analyzed in this study.Six systematic reviews have been included. While isolated mandibular setback osteotomies result in reduced oropharyngeal airway dimensions, the reduction is lesser in cases with concomitant upper jaw osteotomies. Only scarce evidence exists currently to what happens to naso- and hypo-pharyngeal airways. There is no evidence for post-surgical OSA, even though some studies reported reduced respiratory parameters after single-jaw mandibular setback with or without concomitant upper jaw osteotomies.Although mandibular setback osteotomies reduce pharyngeal airway dimensions, evidence confirming post-surgical OSA was not found. Nevertheless, potential post-surgical OSA should be taken into serious consideration during the treatment planning of particular orthognathic cases. As moderate evidence exists that double-jaw surgeries lead to less compromised post-surgical pharyngeal airways, they should be considered as the method of choice especially in cases with severe dentoskeletal Class III deformity.PROSPERO (registration number: CRD42016046484).
Project description:Upper airway changes following bimaxillary advancement surgery to treat obstructive sleep apnea syndrome remain controversial. The main objective of this systematic review and meta-analysis was to investigate the effects of bimaxillary advancement surgery on the upper airway (UA) of obstructive sleep apnea syndrome patients through examining changes three-dimensionally in vertical and supine position and through changes in oximetric variables (AHI, RDI, O2 Sat) and in the quality of life measured by the Epworth sleepiness scale (ESS). A thorough search of the PubMed, Scopus, Embase and Cochrane databases and a grey literature search (Opengrey) were conducted. No limit was placed on publication year or language. The inclusion criteria were: adult obstructive sleep apnea patients who had undergone bimaxillary advancement surgery, three-dimensional CBCT or CT and oximetric measurements and at least six weeks follow-up. Sample sizes of under 10 patients were excluded. Finally, 26 articles were included in the qualitative review and 23 in the meta-analysis. Bimaxillary advancement surgery has been shown to be beneficial in terms of increased upper airway size, improved oximetric indicators and the quality of life measured on the Epworth sleepiness scale.
Project description:Maxillomandibular advancement (MMA) is effective for the treatment of obstructive sleep apnea (OSA). In previous studies, the airway was increased in the anteroposterior and transverse dimensions after MMA. However, the effect of the opposite of mandibular movement (mandibular setback) on the airway is still controversial. Mandibular setback surgery has been suggested to be one of the risk factors in the development of sleep apnea. Previous studies have found that mandibular setback surgery could reduce the total airway volume and posterior airway space significantly in both the one-jaw and two-jaw surgery groups. However, a direct cause-and-effect relationship between the mandibular setback and development of sleep apnea has not been clearly established. Moreover, there are only a few reported cases of postoperative OSA development after mandibular setback surgery. These findings may be attributed to a fundamental difference in demographic variables such as age, sex, and body mass index (BMI) between patients with mandibular prognathism and patients with OSA. Another possibility is that the site of obstruction or pattern of obstruction may be different between the awake and sleep status in patients with OSA and mandibular prognathism. In a case-controlled study, information including the BMI and other presurgical conditions potentially related to OSA should be considered when evaluating the airway. In conclusion, the preoperative evaluation and management of co-morbid conditions would be essential for the prevention of OSA after mandibular setback surgery despite its low incidence.
Project description:INTRODUCTION:Facial transplantation represents one of the most complicated scenarios in craniofacial surgery because of skeletal, aesthetic, and dental discrepancies between donor and recipient. However, standard off-the-shelf vendor computer-assisted surgery systems may not provide custom features to mitigate the increased complexity of this particular procedure. We propose to develop a computer-assisted surgery solution customized for preoperative planning, intraoperative navigation including cutting guides, and dynamic, instantaneous feedback of cephalometric measurements/angles as needed for facial transplantation and other related craniomaxillofacial procedures. METHODS:We developed the Computer-Assisted Planning and Execution (CAPE) workstation to assist with planning and execution of facial transplantation. Preoperative maxillofacial computed tomography (CT) scans were obtained on 4 size-mismatched miniature swine encompassing 2 live face-jaw-teeth transplants. The system was tested in a laboratory setting using plastic models of mismatched swine, after which the system was used in 2 live swine transplants. Postoperative CT imaging was obtained and compared with the preoperative plan and intraoperative measures from the CAPE workstation for both transplants. RESULTS:Plastic model tests familiarized the team with the CAPE workstation and identified several defects in the workflow. Live swine surgeries demonstrated utility of the CAPE system in the operating room, showing submillimeter registration error of 0.6 ± 0.24 mm and promising qualitative comparisons between intraoperative data and postoperative CT imaging. CONCLUSIONS:The initial development of the CAPE workstation demonstrated that integration of computer planning and intraoperative navigation for facial transplantation are possible with submillimeter accuracy. This approach can potentially improve preoperative planning, allowing ideal donor-recipient matching despite significant size mismatch, and accurate surgical execution for numerous types of craniofacial and orthognathic surgical procedures.
Project description:For patients with bimaxillary protrusion, significant retraction and intrusion of the anterior teeth are sometimes essential to improve the facial profile. However, severe root resorption of the maxillary incisors occasionally occurs after treatment because of various factors. For instance, it has been reported that approximation or invasion of the incisive canal by the anterior tooth roots during retraction may cause apical root damage. Thus, determination of the position of the maxillary incisors is key for orthodontic diagnosis and treatment planning in such cases. Cone-beam computed tomography (CBCT) may be useful for simulating the post-treatment position of the maxillary incisors and surrounding structures in order to ensure safe teeth movement. Here, we present a case of Class II malocclusion with bimaxillary protrusion, wherein apical root damage due to treatment was minimized by pretreatment evaluation of the anatomical structures and simulation of the maxillary central incisor movement using CBCT. Considerable retraction and intrusion of the maxillary incisors, which resulted in a significant improvement in the facial profile and smile, were achieved without severe root resorption. Our findings suggest that CBCT-based diagnosis and treatment simulation may facilitate safe and dynamic orthodontic tooth movement, particularly in patients requiring maximum anterior tooth retraction.
Project description:Current computational tools for planning and simulation in plastic and reconstructive surgery lack sufficient precision and are time-consuming, thus resulting in limited adoption. Although computer-assisted surgical planning systems help to improve clinical outcomes, shorten operation time and reduce cost, they are often too complex and require extensive manual input, which ultimately limits their use in doctor-patient communication and clinical decision making. Here, we present the first large-scale clinical 3D morphable model, a machine-learning-based framework involving supervised learning for diagnostics, risk stratification, and treatment simulation. The model, trained and validated with 4,261 faces of healthy volunteers and orthognathic (jaw) surgery patients, diagnoses patients with 95.5% sensitivity and 95.2% specificity, and simulates surgical outcomes with a mean accuracy of 1.1 ± 0.3 mm. We demonstrate how this model could fully-automatically aid diagnosis and provide patient-specific treatment plans from a 3D scan alone, to help efficient clinical decision making and improve clinical understanding of face shape as a marker for primary and secondary surgery.