Epidemiology and surveillance of human animal-bite injuries and rabies post-exposure prophylaxis, in selected counties in Kenya, 2011-2016.
ABSTRACT: BACKGROUND:Human animal-bite injuries are a serious public health problem due to associated risk for rabies virus exposure. Animal-bite injuries especially dog bites are useful indicators for assessing the risk of rabies virus transmission and need for rabies post exposure prophylaxis (PEP). Understanding the epidemiology and surveillance of animal bites and rabies post-exposure prophylaxis is critical in implementing Kenya's national rabies elimination strategy. We aimed to describe the incidence of human animal-bite injuries, patient/biting animal characteristics, uptake of rabies PEP and factors associated with animal bite incidents. METHODS:We reviewed animal bite records from outpatient and anti-rabies vaccine (ARV) registers of 17 health facilities from five counties. An animal bite was defined as an entry of an animal bite of the class mammal including humans in registers in a person of any age from January 2011 to December 2016. We collected demographic and information on PEP uptake. We calculated descriptive statistics, odds ratios (OR) and 95% confidence interval (CI) to examine factors associated with being an animal bite case-patient. We also calculated incidence of animal bites using health facility catchment population for year 2016 as the denominator. RESULTS:We analyzed 7307 records. The median age was 22 years (IQR?=?31 years); there were 4019 (55%) male and age?
Project description:OBJECTIVE:Animal injury is a significant cause of morbidity and mortality worldwide. Dog bites account for tens of millions of injuries annually and the highest risk is among children. However, children may not receive postexposure prophylaxis (PEP) treatment timely and appropriately after rabies exposure. This study aimed to investigate the characteristics and factors associated with PEP treatment of dog and cat bites among left-behind children. DESIGN:A cross-sectional study using questionnaire was conducted in primary and high schools. SETTING:Shenzhen and Shantou cities, Guangdong Province, China. PARTICIPANTS:A total of 9380 participants were included and 2236 of them were with a history of dog and cat bites. RESULTS:1188 (53.1%) boys and 1048 (46.9%) girls suffered from animal bites. Bitten in holidays was less likely to receive PEP treatment (OR 0.512, 95% CI 0.377 to 0.695) than those bitten in school days. Bitten while being with family (OR 1.418, 95% CI 1.040 to 1.934) and bitten at roadside (OR 1.842, 95% CI 1.297 to 2.171), bitten by unvaccinated animals (OR 1.745, 95% CI 1.246 to 2.443) tended to receive PEP treatment. Compared with unbroken skin, bleeding (OR 1.789, 95% CI 1.165 to 2.745) and laceration (OR 3.834, 95% CI 2.310 to 6.366) were showed as treatment prompting factors. CONCLUSIONS:Bitten in holidays was found as a risk factor of receiving PEP treatment of animal bites. Certain measures should be taken to raise left-behind children's awareness of receiving PEP treatment timely and appropriately after dog and cat bites.
Project description:Dog bites in humans are a major public health problem in India in general and Kashmir in particular. Canine rabies is almost non-existent in developed countries and exists mainly in the poorer, low socioeconomic strata of society in the developing world. The objective of this study was to determine the characteristics, pattern, and burden of dog bite injuries in the Kashmir valley. Data from Anti-Rabies Clinic of a tertiary care hospital in Srinagar, the summer capital of the state of Jammu & Kashmir, was collated and analyzed. Analysis of records of all the patients who had reported between April 2016 and March 2017 was done. A total of 6172 patients had reported to the Anti-Rabies Clinic for management of animal bites from 1st April 2016 to 31st March 2017. Most of the patients were young males. Almost half (47.7%) of the patients were bitten in the afternoon. Lower limbs were the most common site of bite (71.7%). Most of the bites were of Category III (57.6%) followed by Category II (42.3%); only one case of Category I was recorded. Almost all (98.0%) cases reported being bitten by dogs. Conclusions: Category III dog bites on lower limbs were the most common type of animal bites presenting to the Anti-Rabies Clinic of a tertiary care hospital. Children have more chances of a bite on head and neck region. Serious and workable efforts have to be made to reduce the incidence and consequences of animal bites.
Project description:Direct contact with domestic animals and wildlife is linked to zoonotic spillover risk. Patients presenting with animal-bite injuries provide a potentially valuable source of surveillance data on rabies viruses that are transmitted primarily by animal bites. Here, we used passive surveillance data of bite patients to identify areas with high potential risk of rabies transmission to humans across Brazil, a highly diverse and populous country, where rabies circulates in a range of species. We analyzed one decade of bite patient data from the national health information system (SINAN) comprising over 500,000 patients attending public health facilities after being bitten by a domestic or wild animal. Our analyses show that, between 2008 and 2016, patients were mostly bitten by domestic dogs (average annual dog bite patients: 502,043 [436,391-544,564], annual incidence per state: 258 dog bites/100,000 persons) and cats (76,512 [56,588-97,580] cat bites, 41 cat bites/100,000/year), but bites from bats (4,172 [3,351-5,365] bat bites, 2.3/100,000/year), primates (3,320 [3,013-3,710] primate bites, 2.0/100,000/year), herbivores (1,908 [1,492-2,298] herbivore bites, 0.9/100,000/year) and foxes (883 [609-1,086] fox bites, 0.6/100,000/year) were also considerable. Incidence of bites due to dogs and herbivores remained relatively stable over the last decade. In contrast bites by cats and bats increased while bites by primates and foxes decreased. Bites by wild animals occurred in all states but were more frequent in the North and Northeast of Brazil, with over 3-fold differences in incidence between states across all animal groups. Most bites reported from domestic animals and wildlife occurred in urban settings (71%), except for bites from foxes, which were higher in rural settings (57%). Based upon the Ministry of Health guidelines, only half of patients received the correct Post-Exposure Prophylaxis following a bite by a suspect rabid animal. We identified areas and species of high-risk for potential zoonotic transmission of rabies in Brazil and reveal that, despite increasing human encroachment into natural ecosystems, only patients reporting bites by bats increased. Our study calls for future research to identity the socio-ecological factors underlying bites and the preventive measures needed to reduce their incidence and potential risk of rabies transmission.
Project description:Despite the existence of safe and efficacious human and animal rabies vaccines, millions of people remain at risk of exposure to this deadly zoonotic disease through bites of infected dogs. Sub-Saharan African countries, such as the Democratic Republic of the Congo (DRC), bear the highest per capita death rates from rabies where dog vaccination and availability of lifesaving post-exposure prophylaxis (PEP) is scarce. Mass dog vaccination is the most cost-effective and sustainable approach to prevent human rabies deaths. We conducted a cross-sectional household survey in a rabies-affected community in Matadi, DRC, to estimate the size of the owned dog population and dog bite incidence and assess knowledge and practices regarding rabies, as preparation for future mass dog vaccination campaigns. Our study revealed that the owned dog population in Matadi was almost ten times larger than assumed by local veterinary officials, with a large proportion of free-roaming unvaccinated dogs. The annual dog bite incidence of 5.2 per 1000 person years was high, whereas community rabies knowledge was low resulting in poor practices. Given these findings, human rabies deaths are likely to occur in this community. Lack of disease awareness could negatively affect participation in future mass dog vaccination campaigns. A public sensitization campaign is needed to promote appropriate rabies prevention (washing bite wounds and PEP) and control (dog vaccination) measures in this community.
Project description:BACKGROUND:Costs of rabies post-exposure prophylaxis (PEP) often remain high in regions where rabies has been controlled in dogs, presenting a challenge for sustaining rabies elimination programmes. We investigated the potential for bite patient risk assessments to improve PEP provision and surveillance in settings approaching elimination of dog-mediated rabies. METHODS:We conducted a longitudinal study of patients presenting to animal bite treatment centres (ABTCs) on the island province of Bohol in the Philippines to investigate the health status of biting dogs and to quantify current expenditure on PEP. RESULTS:Incidence of bite patients presenting to ABTCs was high (>300/100,000 persons/year) and increasing, resulting in substantial health provider costs. Over $142,000 was spent on PEP in 2013 for a population of 1.3 million. From follow up of 3820 bite patients we found that? >92% were bitten by healthy dogs (alive 14?days after the bite) and just 1.4% were bitten by probable or confirmed rabid dogs. The status of dogs that bit 6% of patients could not be determined. During the course of investigations of bites by suspect dogs, we were able to obtain samples for case confirmation, identify exposed persons who had not sought PEP as well as in-contact dogs at risk of developing rabies. We calculate that expenditure on PEP could at least be halved through more judicious approaches to provision of PEP, based on the histories of biting animals determined through risk assessments with bite patients. CONCLUSIONS:We conclude that a One Health approach to surveillance based on Integrated Bite Case Management could improve the sustainability and effectiveness of rabies elimination programmes while also improving patient care by identifying those genuinely in need of lifesaving PEP.
Project description:BACKGROUND:In canine rabies endemic countries the World Health Organization recommends post-exposure prophylaxis (PEP) be initiated immediately after exposure to an animal suspected to have rabies. Limited capacity in low and middle income countries to assess biting animals for rabies may result in the over prescription of rabies biologics. Few guidelines exist to determine the risk of whether a dog that has bitten someone is rabid. Given PEP cost and access limitations in many countries, accurate and timely assessment of dogs that have bitten people may reduce unwarranted PEP use and improve healthcare seeking behaviors. METHODS:Haiti's animal rabies surveillance program utilizes veterinary professionals to conduct rabies assessments on reported biting dogs and records characteristics of the dog, health outcomes, and laboratory results in a national database. Characteristics of rabid dogs were assessed through a retrospective cohort study of biting dogs investigated during the period from January 2013?December 2015. 1409 biting dogs were analyzed; 1361 dogs that were determined to not have rabies were compared to 48 laboratory-confirmed rabid dogs. Rate ratios, sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive values, negative predictive values, likelihood ratios, quarantine survival of biting dogs, and a risk matrix were developed. FINDINGS:The assessor's determination that the animal likely had rabies was the most significant predictive factor for a rabid dog (RR = 413.4, 95% CI 57.33?2985, Sn = 79.17, Sp = 91.92). Clinical factors significantly associated with rabid dogs included hypersalivation, paralysis, and lethargy (RR = 31.2, 19.7, 15.4, respectively). Rabid dogs were 23.2 times more likely to be found dead at the time of the investigation compared to case negative dogs (95% CI 14.0?38.6). Rabid dogs were also significantly more likely to lack a history of rabies vaccination or be unowned (RR = 10.3 95% CI 2.5?42.3 and RR = 4.5 95% CI 2.0?10.1, respectively). Rabid dogs were four times more likely to have bitten multiple people (RR = 4.0 95% CI 1.9?8.3). Most rabid dogs died or were killed before quarantine (75%) and all died by day 3 of quarantine, compared to <1% of quarantined case-negatives. The greatest risk of death was predicted to be for persons bitten on the head or neck from symptomatic dogs. Bites from dogs deemed healthy by veterinary assessors and which were available for quarantine presented less than a 0.05% risk of rabies death to the victim. CONCLUSIONS:Vaccination of all persons exposed to a suspected rabid dog is a highly effective approach to minimize human rabies deaths. However, this may place undue financial burden on bite victims that have had a low-risk exposure and over-prescription may contribute to regional supply shortages. The results here indicate that in a low-resource country such as Haiti, a well-trained veterinary assessor can provide an accurate risk assessment of biting dogs based on a standard case investigation protocol. In canine rabies endemic countries with limited access to PEP, or where PEP costs may cause undue burden on bite victims, structured risk assessments by trained professionals may be a reliable method of triaging PEP for bite victims. Evaluating rabies risk through a matrix of bite location and risk factor in the dog presents a clear delineation of high and low risk encounters and should be used to develop data-derived PEP recommendations.
Project description:Dog bites are common in rural areas of underdeveloped countries or regions, affecting persons of different ages. Suspected rabid dog bites will lead to more severe outcomes, especially in children because injuries often occur on their heads and faces that are highly innervated parts of the body. In such circumstances, immediate and complete post-exposure prophylaxis (PEP) will be essential, though vaccine hesitancy is a problem. Herein, we report a 4-y-old girl who was seriously bitten by a confirmed rabid dog in rural China. Multiple lacerations and punctures distributed on her head, neck, face, extremities, and back after being bitten. It was in question that surgery or PEP should be performed in priority when the dog was not confirmed rabid at first, but considering the risks of rabies, immediate PEP was provided to her, along with immunogenicity tests to ensure an adequate protective immune response. Because of the severity of her injuries, medical practitioners suggested her parents to bring her to take immunogenicity tests in 1-, 5-, and 10-y intervals to ensure adequate rabies virus-neutralizing antibodies (RVNA) titers. Her parents had a good preference for medical advices, and in the 10-y interval, it was found that her RVNA titer was below protection level, so a booster vaccination was given to her, and 14 d after that, according to immunogenicity test, RVNA titer arose quickly above the protection level.
Project description:Introduction Each year, an estimated 25000 rabies death occurs in Africa. Post-exposure prophylaxis (PEP) remains the only proven approach in preventing rabies deaths. Most of rabies deaths occur among those who delayed, did not receive, or complete rabies PEP. The aim of this study was to determine the pattern of animal bite, factors associated with delays in initiating, and nonadherence to rabies PEP regimen. Method Data on clients reporting for rabies PEP in a tertiary hospital setting in Ghana were collected from 2013 to 2016. Demographics, place, and source of exposure were collected. Other information obtained included adherence to the PEP protocol and GPS coordinates of the town of animal bites. The shortest distance between the GPS coordinates of town of animal bite and the site of administration of the rabies PEP was calculated. A total of 1030 individuals received rabies PEP over the period. Results Overall, 52.9% (545) were males while 47.1% (485) were females. Majority of the cases were between the age group 1–10 years accounting for 29.2%. Dog bites accounted for 96.5% (n?=?994). Cats, nonhuman primates, human bites, respectively, accounted for 1.8% (n?=?18), 1.2% (n?=?12), and 0.6% (n?=?6) of all bites. Majority of bites occurred at home (66.2% (n?=?646)). Also, 31.6% (n??=?308) and 2.3% (n?=?22) of bites occurred on the streets and neighbors/friends' homes, respectively. Only, 18.7% initiated PEP within 24 hours of bite. Rabies PEP regimen completion rate was 95.2% (n?=?976). The median distance travelled to access rabies PEP was 7.87?km (IQR, 3.58–16.27) km. Overall, 34.7% (n?=?344) had the animal bite within 4.99?km radius of the treatment room of KBTH. Clients who delayed in initiating rabies PEP were 2.6 (95% CI, 1.3–5.1) times more likely to be males and 2.0 (1.1–3.9) times more likely to receive bites in a location more than 5?km radius from the KBTH treatment room. Gender, age, and distance of bite from the treatment room were not associated with the likelihood of not completing rabies PEP schedule. Discussion. Bites from suspected rabies infected animals remain a problem in southern Ghana. There are significant delays in initiating PEP for rabies prevention. Most animal bite victims are children ten years and below. Male gender and bites more than 5?km radius from the site of rabies PEP administration were most significant factors associated with delays in initiating rabies PEP. There is the need for adopting strategies to encourage prompt initiation and adherence to PEP.
Project description:An effective surveillance system is critical for the elimination of canine rabies in Latin America. Brazil has made substantial progress towards canine rabies elimination, but outbreaks still occurred in the last decade in two states. Brazil uses a health information system (SINAN) to record patients seeking post-exposure prophylaxis (PEP) following contact with an animal suspected of having rabies. This study evaluated: (i) whether SINAN can be reliably used for rabies surveillance; (ii) if patients in Brazil are receiving appropriate PEP and (iii) the benefits of implementing the latest World Health Organization (WHO) recommendations on PEP. Analysing SINAN records from 2008 to 2017 reveals an average of 506,148 bite-injury patients/year [range: 437k-545k] in the country, equivalent to an incidence of 255 bite-injuries/100,000 people/year [range: 231-280]. The number of reports of bites from suspect rabid dogs generally increased over time. In most states, records from SINAN indicating a suspect rabid dog do not correlate with confirmed dog rabies cases reported to the Regional Information System for Epidemiological Surveillance of Rabies (SIRVERA) maintained by the Pan American Health Organization (PAHO). Analyses showed that in 2017, only 45% of patients received appropriate PEP as indicated by the Brazilian Ministry of Health guidance. Implementation of the latest WHO guidance using an abridged intradermal post-exposure vaccination regimen including one precautionary dose for dog bites prior to observation would reduce the volume of vaccine required by up to 64%, with potential for annual savings of over USD 6 million from reduced vaccine use. Our results highlight the need to improve the implementation of SINAN, including training of health workers responsible for delivering PEP using an Integrated Bite Case Management approach so that SINAN can serve as a reliable surveillance tool for canine rabies elimination.
Project description:Dog bites in humans are a major public health problem. Globally, millions of people are bitten by dogs but most of the fatal cases occur in children. There is paucity of data on dog bite related diseases among Nigerian children. Objectives: to determine the pattern of dog bite injuries and associated health problems among children seen at Ekiti State University Teaching Hospital.This is a retrospective study on the clinical data of patients managed for dog bite related injuries between January 2010 and June 2014.In all, 84 cases of dog bite injuries were managed constituting 0.89% of the total consultations; six (7.1%) had rabies. Most of the victims were aged 6-12 years (60.7%) and majority (71.4%) was boys. Eighty two percent of the victims presented within 24hrs of the injury. Thirty-six (43%) had WHO grade 3 dog bite injury at presentation and the lower limb was the commonest (57.1%) bite site. Use of herbal preparation was the most common pre-hospital treatment 60%. Although 92.9% received anti-rabies vaccine, only 64.3% of them completed the vaccination schedule. The case fatality rate for dog bite was 7.14%. The six that died all presented late, had no post exposure prophylaxis and died within 24 hours of admission.There is need for public enlightenment on dangers associated with dog bites and also for the government to defray the high cost of post exposure prophylaxis treatment for children.