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Local protein dynamics during microvesicle exocytosis in neuroendocrine cells.

ABSTRACT: Calcium-triggered exocytosis is key to many physiological processes, including neurotransmitter and hormone release by neurons and endocrine cells. Dozens of proteins regulate exocytosis, yet the temporal and spatial dynamics of these factors during vesicle fusion remain unclear. Here we use total internal reflection fluorescence microscopy to visualize local protein dynamics at single sites of exocytosis of small synaptic-like microvesicles in live cultured neuroendocrine PC12 cells. We employ two-color imaging to simultaneously observe membrane fusion (using vesicular acetylcholine ACh transporter tagged to pHluorin) and the dynamics of associated proteins at the moments surrounding exocytosis. Our experiments show that many proteins, including the SNAREs syntaxin1 and VAMP2, the SNARE modulator tomosyn, and Rab proteins, are preclustered at fusion sites and rapidly lost at fusion. The ATPase N-ethylmaleimide-sensitive factor is locally recruited at fusion. Interestingly, the endocytic Bin-Amphiphysin-Rvs domain-containing proteins amphiphysin1, syndapin2, and endophilins are dynamically recruited to fusion sites and slow the loss of vesicle membrane-bound cargo from fusion sites. A similar effect on vesicle membrane protein dynamics was seen with the overexpression of the GTPases dynamin1 and dynamin2. These results suggest that proteins involved in classical clathrin-mediated endocytosis can regulate exocytosis of synaptic-like microvesicles. Our findings provide insights into the dynamics, assembly, and mechanistic roles of many key factors of exocytosis and endocytosis at single sites of microvesicle fusion in live cells.

PROVIDER: S-EPMC6085826 | BioStudies | 2018-01-01T00:00:00Z

REPOSITORIES: biostudies

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