Local protein dynamics during microvesicle exocytosis in neuroendocrine cells.
ABSTRACT: Calcium-triggered exocytosis is key to many physiological processes, including neurotransmitter and hormone release by neurons and endocrine cells. Dozens of proteins regulate exocytosis, yet the temporal and spatial dynamics of these factors during vesicle fusion remain unclear. Here we use total internal reflection fluorescence microscopy to visualize local protein dynamics at single sites of exocytosis of small synaptic-like microvesicles in live cultured neuroendocrine PC12 cells. We employ two-color imaging to simultaneously observe membrane fusion (using vesicular acetylcholine ACh transporter tagged to pHluorin) and the dynamics of associated proteins at the moments surrounding exocytosis. Our experiments show that many proteins, including the SNAREs syntaxin1 and VAMP2, the SNARE modulator tomosyn, and Rab proteins, are preclustered at fusion sites and rapidly lost at fusion. The ATPase N-ethylmaleimide-sensitive factor is locally recruited at fusion. Interestingly, the endocytic Bin-Amphiphysin-Rvs domain-containing proteins amphiphysin1, syndapin2, and endophilins are dynamically recruited to fusion sites and slow the loss of vesicle membrane-bound cargo from fusion sites. A similar effect on vesicle membrane protein dynamics was seen with the overexpression of the GTPases dynamin1 and dynamin2. These results suggest that proteins involved in classical clathrin-mediated endocytosis can regulate exocytosis of synaptic-like microvesicles. Our findings provide insights into the dynamics, assembly, and mechanistic roles of many key factors of exocytosis and endocytosis at single sites of microvesicle fusion in live cells.
Project description:Altered regulation of exocytosis is an important mechanism controlling many diseases, including cancer. Defects in exocytosis have been implicated in many cancer cell types and are generally attributed to mutations in cellular transport, trafficking, and assembly of machinery necessary for exocytosis of secretory vesicle cargo. In these cancers, up-regulation of trafficking and secretion of matrix metalloproteinase-9 (MMP-9), a proteolytic enzyme, is responsible for degrading the extracellular matrix, a necessary step in tumor progression. Using TIRF microscopy, we identified proteins associated with secretory vesicles containing MMP-9 and imaged the local dynamics of these proteins at fusion sites during regulated exocytosis of MMP-9 from MCF-7 breast cancer cells. We found that many regulators of exocytosis, including several Rab GTPases, Rab effector proteins, and SNARE/SNARE modulator proteins, are stably assembled on docked secretory vesicles before exocytosis. At the moment of fusion, many of these components are quickly lost from the vesicle, while several endocytic proteins and lipids are simultaneously recruited to exocytic sites at precisely that moment. Our findings provide insight into the dynamic behavior of key core exocytic proteins, accessory proteins, lipids, and some endocytic proteins at single sites of secretory vesicle fusion in breast cancer cells.
Project description:After synaptic vesicle fusion, vesicle proteins must be segregated from plasma membrane proteins and recycled to maintain a functional vesicle pool. We monitored the distribution of synaptobrevin, a vesicle protein required for exocytosis, in Caenorhabditis elegans motor neurons by using a pH-sensitive synaptobrevin GFP fusion protein, synaptopHluorin. We estimated that 30% of synaptobrevin was present in the plasma membrane. By using a panel of endocytosis and exocytosis mutants, we found that the majority of surface synaptobrevin derives from fusion of synaptic vesicles and that, in steady state, synaptobrevin equilibrates throughout the axon. The surface synaptobrevin was enriched near active zones, and its spatial extent was regulated by the clathrin adaptin AP180. These results suggest that there is a plasma membrane reservoir of synaptobrevin that is supplied by the synaptic vesicle cycle and available for retrieval throughout the axon. The size of the reservoir is set by the relative rates of exo- and endocytosis.
Project description:Neurotransmitter release from the presynaptic terminal is under very precise spatial and temporal control. Following neurotransmitter release, synaptic vesicles are recycled by endocytosis and refilled with neurotransmitter. During the exocytosis event leading to release, SNARE proteins provide most of the mechanical force for membrane fusion. Here, we show one of these proteins, Syntaxin1A, is SUMOylated near its C-terminal transmembrane domain in an activity-dependent manner. Preventing SUMOylation of Syntaxin1A reduces its interaction with other SNARE proteins and disrupts the balance of synaptic vesicle endo/exocytosis, resulting in an increase in endocytosis. These results indicate that SUMOylation regulates the emerging role of Syntaxin1A in vesicle endocytosis, which in turn, modulates neurotransmitter release and synaptic function.
Project description:Synaptic vesicle recycling is essential for maintaining efficient synaptic transmission. Detailed dissection of single-vesicle recycling still remains a major challenge. We have developed a fluorescent pH reporter that permits us to follow the fate of individual vesicles at hippocampal synapses after exocytosis. Here we show that, during low-frequency stimulation, single-vesicle fusion leads to two distinct vesicle internalizations, instead of one, as in general perception: one by a fast endocytosis pathway ( approximately 3 s), the other by a slow endocytosis pathway (after 10 s). The exocytosed vesicular proteins are preferentially recaptured in both pathways. RNAi knockdown of clathrin inhibits both pathways. As stimulation frequency increases, the number of endocytosed vesicles begins to match antecedent exocytosis. Meanwhile, the slow endocytosis is accelerated and becomes the predominant pathway. These results reveal that two pathways of endocytosis are orchestrated during neuronal activity, establishing a highly efficient endocytosis at central synapses.
Project description:Endophilins-A are conserved endocytic adaptors with membrane curvature-sensing and -inducing properties. We show here that, independently of their role in endocytosis, endophilin-A1 and endophilin-A2 regulate exocytosis of neurosecretory vesicles. The number and distribution of neurosecretory vesicles were not changed in chromaffin cells lacking endophilin-A, yet fast capacitance and amperometry measurements revealed reduced exocytosis, smaller vesicle pools and altered fusion kinetics. The levels and distributions of the main exocytic and endocytic factors were unchanged, and slow compensatory endocytosis was not robustly affected. Endophilin-A's role in exocytosis is mediated through its SH3-domain, specifically via a direct interaction with intersectin-1, a coordinator of exocytic and endocytic traffic. Endophilin-A not able to bind intersectin-1, and intersectin-1 not able to bind endophilin-A, resulted in similar exocytic defects in chromaffin cells. Altogether, we report that two endocytic proteins, endophilin-A and intersectin-1, are enriched on neurosecretory vesicles and regulate exocytosis by coordinating neurosecretory vesicle priming and fusion.
Project description:The dynamics of the fusion pore that forms between a secretory vesicle and the plasma membrane are important in the regulation of both exocytosis and endocytosis. Here, we describe characteristics of fusion during zymogen granule exocytosis in exocrine pancreatic acinar cells. By using fluorescence recovery after photobleaching techniques, we show that the fusion pore remains open to allow free aqueous exchange with the vesicle lumen. There is no lipid interchange between the plasma and granule membranes during this time, and at the end of its life, the intact granule shrinks in situ, probably by a gradual pinching off of membrane patches. We propose that the protracted fusion pore lifetime is adapted to permit compound exocytosis, whereby the lingering primary granule acts as a conduit through which the contents of a secondary granule can be released. The lack of lipid intermixing may then facilitate selective recycling of granule membrane and preservation of apical membrane integrity.
Project description:Soluble N-ethylmaleimide-sensitive fusion protein attachment protein receptors (SNAREs) mediate vesicle fusion with the plasma membrane on activation by calcium binding to synaptotagmin. In the present study, we used fluorescence resonance energy transfer (FRET) and fluorescence lifetime imaging microscopy between fluorescently labeled SNARE proteins expressed in cultured rat hippocampal neurons to detect resting SNARE complexes, their conformational rearrangement on exocytosis, their disassembly before endocytosis of vesicular proteins, and SNARE assembly at newly docked vesicles. Assembled SNAREs are not only present in docked vesicles; unexpected residual "orphan SNARE complexes" also reside in para-active zone regions. Real-time changes in FRET between N-terminally labeled SNAP-25 and VAMP reported a reorientation of the SNARE motif upon exocytosis, SNARE disassembly in the active zone periphery, and SNARE reassembly in newly docked vesicles. With VAMP labeled C-terminally, decreased fluorescence in C-terminally labeled syntaxin (extracellular) reported trans-cis-conformational changes in SNAREs on vesicle fusion. After fusion SNAP-25 and syntaxin disperse along with VAMP, as well as the FRET signal itself, indicating diffusion of intact SNAREs after vesicle fusion but before their peripheral disassembly. Our measurements of spatiotemporal dynamics of SNARE conformational changes and movements refine models of SNARE function. Technical advances required to detect tiny changes in fluorescence in small fractions of labeled proteins in presynaptic boutons on a time scale of seconds permit the detection of rapid intermolecular interactions between small proportions of protein partners in cellular subcompartments.
Project description:Astrocytes are the most abundant glial cell type in the brain. Although not apposite for long-range rapid electrical communication, astrocytes share with neurons the capacity of chemical signaling via Ca(2+)-dependent transmitter exocytosis. Despite this recent finding, little is known about the specific properties of regulated secretion and vesicle recycling in astrocytes. Important differences may exist with the neuronal exocytosis, starting from the fact that stimulus-secretion coupling in astrocytes is voltage independent, mediated by G-protein-coupled receptors and the release of Ca(2+) from internal stores. Elucidating the spatiotemporal properties of astrocytic exo-endocytosis is, therefore, of primary importance for understanding the mode of communication of these cells and their role in brain signaling. We here take advantage of fluorescent tools recently developed for studying recycling of glutamatergic vesicles at synapses (Voglmaier et al., 2006; Balaji and Ryan, 2007); we combine epifluorescence and total internal reflection fluorescence imaging to investigate with unprecedented temporal and spatial resolution, the stimulus-secretion coupling underlying exo-endocytosis of glutamatergic synaptic-like microvesicles (SLMVs) in astrocytes. Our main findings indicate that (1) exo-endocytosis in astrocytes proceeds with a time course on the millisecond time scale (tau(exocytosis) = 0.24 +/- 0.017 s; tau(endocytosis) = 0.26 +/- 0.03 s) and (2) exocytosis is controlled by local Ca(2+) microdomains. We identified submicrometer cytosolic compartments delimited by endoplasmic reticulum tubuli reaching beneath the plasma membrane and containing SLMVs at which fast (time-to-peak, approximately 50 ms) Ca(2+) events occurred in precise spatial-temporal correlation with exocytic fusion events. Overall, the above characteristics of transmitter exocytosis from astrocytes support a role of this process in fast synaptic modulation.
Project description:Exocytosis at synapses involves fusion between vesicles and the plasma membrane. Although compound fusion between vesicles was proposed to occur at ribbon-type synapses, whether it exists, how it is mediated, and what role it plays at conventional synapses remain unclear. Here we report the existence of compound fusion, its underlying mechanism, and its role at a nerve terminal containing conventional active zones in rats and mice. We found that high potassium application and high frequency firing induced giant capacitance up-steps, reflecting exocytosis of vesicles larger than regular ones, followed by giant down-steps, reflecting bulk endocytosis. These intense stimuli also induced giant vesicle-like structures, as observed with electron microscopy, and giant miniature excitatory postsynaptic currents (mEPSCs), reflecting more transmitter release. Calcium and its sensor for vesicle fusion, synaptotagmin, were required for these giant events. After high frequency firing, calcium/synaptotagmin-dependent mEPSC size increase was paralleled by calcium/synaptotagmin-dependent post-tetanic potentiation. These results suggest a new route of exocytosis and endocytosis composed of three steps. First, calcium/synaptotagmin mediates compound fusion between vesicles. Second, exocytosis of compound vesicles increases quantal size, which increases synaptic strength and contributes to the generation of post-tetanic potentiation. Third, exocytosed compound vesicles are retrieved via bulk endocytosis. We suggest that this vesicle cycling route be included in models of synapses in which only vesicle fusion with the plasma membrane is considered.
Project description:The Ca(2+)-dependent exocytosis of dense-core vesicles in neuroendocrine cells requires a priming step during which SNARE protein complexes assemble. CAPS (aka CADPS) is one of several factors required for vesicle priming; however, the localization and dynamics of CAPS at sites of exocytosis in live neuroendocrine cells has not been determined. We imaged CAPS before, during, and after single-vesicle fusion events in PC12 cells by TIRF micro-scopy. In addition to being a resident on cytoplasmic dense-core vesicles, CAPS was present in clusters of approximately nine molecules near the plasma membrane that corresponded to docked/tethered vesicles. CAPS accompanied vesicles to the plasma membrane and was present at all vesicle exocytic events. The knockdown of CAPS by shRNA eliminated the VAMP-2-dependent docking and evoked exocytosis of fusion-competent vesicles. A CAPS(?C135) protein that does not localize to vesicles failed to rescue vesicle docking and evoked exocytosis in CAPS-depleted cells, showing that CAPS residence on vesicles is essential. Our results indicate that dense-core vesicles carry CAPS to sites of exocytosis, where CAPS promotes vesicle docking and fusion competence, probably by initiating SNARE complex assembly.