Functional and anatomical connectivity-based parcellation of human cingulate cortex.
ABSTRACT: Human cingulate cortex (CC) has been implicated in many functions, which is highly suggestive of the existence of functional subregions.In this study, we used resting-state functional magnetic resonance imaging (rs-fMRI) and diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) to parcellate the human cingulate cortex (CC) based on resting-state functional connectivity (rsFC) patterns and anatomical connectivity (AC) patterns, to analyze the rsFC patterns and the AC patterns of different subregions, and to recognize whether the parcellation results obtained by the two different methods were consistent.The CC was divided into six functional subregions, including the anterior cingulate cortex, dorsal anterior midcingulate cortex, ventral anterior midcingulate cortex, posterior midcingulate cortex, dorsal posterior cingulate cortex, and ventral posterior cingulate cortex. The CC was also divided into ten anatomical subregions, termed Subregion 1 (S1) to Subregion 10 (S10). Each subregion showed specific connectivity patterns, although the functional subregions and the anatomical subregions were internally consistent.Using different model MRI images, we established a parcellation scheme, which is internally consistent for the human CC, which may provide an in vivo guide for subregion-level studies and improve our understanding of this brain area at subregional levels.
Project description:Although extensive resting-state functional connectivity (rsFC) changes have been reported in schizophrenia, rsFC changes of the frontal pole (FP) remain unclear. The FP contains several subregions with different connection patterns; however, it is unknown whether the FP subregions are differentially affected in schizophrenia. To explore this possibility, we compared rsFC differences of the FP subregions between schizophrenia patients and healthy controls.One hundred healthy controls and 91 patients with schizophrenia underwent resting-state functional MRI with a sensitivity-encoded spiral-in (SENSE-SPIRAL) imaging sequence to reduced susceptibility-induced signal loss and distortion. The FP was subdivided into the orbital (FPo), medial (FPm), and lateral (FPl) subregions. Mean fMRI time series were extracted for each FP subregion and entered into a seed-based rsFC analysis.The FP subregions exhibited differential rsFC patterns in both healthy controls and schizophrenia patients. Direct comparison between groups revealed reduced rsFCs between the bilateral FPl and several cognitive-related regions, including the dorsolateral prefrontal cortex, medial prefrontal cortex, anterior cingulate cortex, posterior cingulate cortex/precuneus, temporal cortex and inferior parietal lobule in schizophrenia. Although the FPl exhibited obvious atrophy, rsFC changes were unrelated to volumetric atrophy in the FPl, to duration of illness, and to antipsychotic medication dosage. No significant differences were observed in the rsFCs of other FP subregions.These findings suggest a selective (the lateral subregion) functional disconnection of the FP subregions in schizophrenia.
Project description:Background and Purpose: The human supplementary motor area (SMA) contains two functional subregions of the SMA proper and preSMA; however, the reorganization patterns of the two SMA subregions after stroke remain uncertain. Meanwhile, a focal subcortical lesion may affect the overall functional reorganization of brain networks. We sought to identify the differential reorganization of the SMA subregions after subcortical stroke using the resting-state functional connectivity (rsFC) analysis. Methods: Resting-state functional MRI was conducted in 25 patients with chronic capsular stroke exhibiting well-recovered global motor function (Fugl-Meyer score >90). The SMA proper and preSMA were identified by the rsFC-based parcellation, and the rsFCs of each SMA subregion were compared between stroke patients and healthy controls. Results: Despite common rsFC with the fronto-insular cortex (FIC), the SMA proper and preSMA were mainly correlated with the sensorimotor areas and cognitive-related regions, respectively. In stroke patients, the SMA proper and preSMA exhibited completely different functional reorganization patterns: the former showed increased rsFCs with the primary sensorimotor area and caudal cingulate motor area (CMA) of the motor execution network, whereas the latter showed increased rsFC with the rostral CMA of the motor control network. Both of the two SMA subregions showed decreased rsFC with the FIC in stroke patients; the preSMA additionally showed decreased rsFC with the prefrontal cortex (PFC). Conclusion: Although both SMA subregions exhibit functional disconnection with the cognitive-related areas, the SMA proper is implicated in the functional reorganization within the motor execution network, whereas the preSMA is involved in the functional reorganization within the motor control network in stroke patients.
Project description:Although extensive resting-state functional connectivity (rsFC) changes have been reported in schizophrenia, rsFC changes in the temporal pole (TP) remain unknown. The TP contains several subregions with different connection patterns; however, it is not known whether TP subregions are differentially affected in schizophrenia. Sixty-six schizophrenia patients and 76 healthy comparison subjects underwent resting-state fMRI using a sensitivity-encoded spiral-in (SENSE-SPIRAL) imaging sequence to reduce susceptibility-induced signal loss and distortion. The TP was subdivided into the dorsal (TPd) and ventral (TPv) subregions. Mean fMRI time series were extracted for each TP subregion and entered into a seed-based rsFC analysis. Direct between-group comparisons revealed reduced rsFC between the right TPd and brain regions involved in language processing and multisensory integration in schizophrenia, including the left superior temporal gyrus, left mid-cingulate cortex, and right insular cortex. The rsFC changes of the right TPd in schizophrenia were independent of the grey matter reduction of this subregion. Moreover, these rsFC changes were unrelated to illness severity, duration of illness and antipsychotic medication dosage. No significant group differences were observed in the rsFC of the left TPd and bilateral TPv subregions. These findings suggest a selective (the right TPd) functional disconnection of TP subregions in schizophrenia.
Project description:Structural and functional alterations in the inferior parietal lobule (IPL) in schizophrenia have been frequently reported; however, the IPL connectivity changes in schizophrenia remain largely unknown. Based on heterogeneity of the IPL in structure, connection and function, we hypothesize that the resting-state functional connectivities (rsFCs) of the IPL subregions are differentially affected in schizophrenia. This study included 95 schizophrenia patients and 104 healthy controls. The IPL subregions were defined according to a previous in vivo connection-based parcellation study. We calculated the rsFC of each IPL subregion and compared them between the two groups while controlling for the effects of age, gender, and grey matter volume. Among the six subregions of the left IPL and the five subregions of the right IPL, only the bilateral PFm (a transition zone of the IPL) subregions exhibited abnormal rsFC in schizophrenia. Specifically, the left PFm showed increased rsFC with the bilateral lingual gyri in schizophrenia patients than in healthy controls. The right PFm exhibited increased rsFC with the right lingual gyrus and inferior occipital gyrus, and bilateral mid-cingulate and sensorimotor cortices in schizophrenia patients. These findings suggest a selective rsFC abnormality in the IPL subregions in schizophrenia, characterized by the increased rsFC between the PFm subregion of the IPL and the visual and sensorimotor areas.
Project description:Although the middle temporal gyrus (MTG) has been parcellated into subregions with distinguished anatomical connectivity patterns, whether the structural topography of MTG can inform functional segregations of this area remains largely unknown. Accumulating evidence suggests that the brain's underlying organization and function can be directly and effectively delineated with resting-state functional connectivity (RSFC) by identifying putative functional boundaries between cortical areas. Here, RSFC profiles were used to explore functional segregations of the MTG and defined four subregions from anterior to posterior in two independent datasets, which showed a similar pattern with MTG parcellation scheme obtained using anatomical connectivity. The functional segregations of MTG were further supported by whole brain RSFC, coactivation, and specific RFSC, and coactivation mapping. Furthermore, the fingerprint with predefined 10 networks and functional characterizations of each subregion using meta-analysis also identified functional distinction between subregions. The specific connectivity analysis and functional characterization indicated that the bilateral most anterior subregions mainly participated in social cognition and semantic processing; the ventral middle subregions were involved in social cognition in left hemisphere and auditory processing in right hemisphere; the bilateral ventro-posterior subregions participated in action observation, whereas the left subregion was also involved in semantic processing; both of the dorsal subregions in superior temporal sulcus were involved in language, social cognition, and auditory processing. Taken together, our findings demonstrated MTG sharing similar structural and functional topographies and provide more detailed information about the functional organization of the MTG, which may facilitate future clinical and cognitive research on this area.
Project description:Schizophrenia patients have shown altered resting-state functional connectivity (rsFC) of the cingulate cortex; however, it is unknown whether rsFCs of the cingulate subregions are differentially affected in this disorder. We aimed to clarify the issue by comparing rsFCs of each cingulate subregion between healthy controls and schizophrenia patients. A total of 102 healthy controls and 94 schizophrenia patients underwent resting-state functional magnetic resonance imaging with a sensitivity-encoded spiral-in imaging sequence to reduce susceptibility-induced signal loss and distortion. The cingulate cortex was divided into nine subregions, including the subgenual anterior cingulate cortex (ACC), areas 24 and 32 of the pregenual ACC, areas 24 and 32 of the anterior mid-cingulate cortex (aMCC), posterior MCC (pMCC), dorsal (dPCC) and ventral (vPCC) posterior cingulate cortex (PCC) and retrosplenial cortex (RSC). The rsFCs of each cingulate subregion were compared between the two groups and the atrophy effect was considered. Results with and without global signal regression were reported. Most cingulate subregions exhibited decreased rsFCs in schizophrenia after global signal regression (GSR). Without GSR, only increased rsFC was found in schizophrenia, which primarily restricted to the aMCC, PCC and RSC. Some of these increased rsFCs were also significant after GSR. These findings suggest that GSR can greatly affect between-group differences in rsFCs and the consistently increased rsFCs may challenge the functional disconnection hypothesis of schizophrenia.
Project description:Background: The human striatum is a heterogeneous structure involved in diverse functional domains that related to distinct striatum subregions. Striatal dysfunction was thought to be a fundamental element in schizophrenia. However, the connectivity pattern of striatum solely based on functional or structural characteristics leads to inconsistent findings in healthy adult and also schizophrenia. This study aims to develop an integrated striatal model and reveal the altered functional connectivity pattern of the striatum in schizophrenia. Methods: Two data-driven approaches, task-dependent meta-analytic connectivity modeling (MACM) and task-independent resting-state functional connectivity (RSFC), were used for seven anatomical connectivity-based striatum subregions to provide an integrated striatal model. Then, RSFC analyses of seven striatal subregions were applied to 45 first-episode schizophrenia (FES) and 27 healthy controls to examine the difference, based on the integrated model, of functional connectivity pattern of striatal subregions. Results: MACM and RSFC results showed that striatum subregions were associated with discrete cortical regions and involved in distinct cognitive processes. Besides, RSFC results overlapped with MACM findings but showed broader distributions. Importantly, significantly reduced functional connectivity was identified between limbic subregion and thalamus, medial prefrontal cortex, anterior cingulate cortex, and insula and also between executive subregions and thalamus, supplementary motor area, and insula in FES. Conclusions: Combing functional and structural connectivity information, this study provides the integrated model of corticostriatal subcircuits and confirms the abnormal functional connectivity of limbic and executive striatum subregions with different networks and thalamus, supporting the important role of the corticostriatal-thalamic loop in the pathophysiology of schizophrenia.
Project description:The right dorsal premotor cortex (PMd) of humans has been reported to be involved in a broad range of motor and cognitive functions. We explored the basis of this behavioral heterogeneity by performing a connectivity-based parcellation using meta-analytic approach applied to PMd coactivations. We compared our connectivity-based parcellation results with parcellations obtained through resting-state functional connectivity and probabilistic diffusion tractography. Functional connectivity profiles and behavioral decoding of the resulting PMd subregions allowed characterizing their respective behavior profile. These procedures divided the right PMd into 5 distinct subregions that formed a cognitive-motor gradient along a rostro-caudal axis. In particular, we found 1) a rostral subregion functionally connected with prefrontal cortex, which likely supports high-level cognitive processes, such as working memory, 2) a central subregion showing a mixed behavioral profile and functional connectivity to parietal regions of the dorsal attention network, and 3) a caudal subregion closely integrated with the motor system. Additionally, we found 4) a dorsal subregion, preferentially related to hand movements and connected to both cognitive and motor regions, and 5) a ventral subregion, whose functional profile fits the concept of an eye movement-related field. In conclusion, right PMd may be considered as a functional mosaic formed by 5 subregions.
Project description:Harm avoidance (HA) is a personality dimension involving the tendency to respond intensely to signals of aversive stimuli. Many previous neuroimaging studies have associated HA scores with the structural and functional organization of the amygdala, but none of these studies have evaluated the correlation between HA score and amygdala resting-state functional connectivity (rsFC). Moreover, the amygdala is not a homogeneous structure, and it has been divided into several structurally and functionally distinct subregions. Investigating the associations between HA score and properties of subregions of the amygdala could greatly improve our understanding of HA. In the present study, using a large sample of 291 healthy young adults, we aimed to uncover correlations between HA scores and the rsFCs of each amygdala subregion and to uncover possible sex-based differences in these correlations. We found that subregions of the amygdala showed different rsFC patterns, which contributed differently to individual HA scores. More specifically, HA scores were correlated with rsFCs between the laterobasal amygdala subregion and temporal and occipital cortices related to emotional information input, between the centromedial subregion and the frontal cortices associated with emotional output control, and between the superficial subregion and the frontal and temporal areas involved in both functions. Moreover, significant gender-based differences were uncovered in these correlations. Our findings provide a more detailed model of association between HA scores and amygdala rsFC, extend our understanding of the connectivity of subregions of the amygdala, and confirm sex-based differences in HA associations.