High resolution melting curve analysis enables rapid and reliable detection of G6PD variants in heterozygous females.
ABSTRACT: BACKGROUND:Like glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase (G6PD) deficient hemizygous males and homozygous females, heterozygous females could also manifest hemolytic crisis, neonatal hyperbilirubinemia or kernicterus upon exposure to oxidative stress induced by certain foods such as fava beans, drugs or infections. Although hemizygous males and homozygous females are easily detected by conventional G6PD enzyme assay method, the heterozygous state could be missed by the conventional methods as the mosaic population of both normal and deficient RBCs circulates in the blood. Thus the present study aimed to apply high resolution melting (HRM) curve analysis approach to see whether HRM could be used as a supplemental approach to increase the chance of detection of G6PD heterozygosity. RESULTS:Sixty-three clinically suspected females were evaluated for G6PD status using both enzyme assay and HRM analysis. Four out of sixty-three participants came out as G6PD deficient by the enzyme assay method, whereas HRM approach could identify nine participants with G6PD variants, one homozygous and eight heterozygous. Although only three out of eight heterozygous samples had G6PD enzyme deficiency, the HRM-based heterozygous G6PD variants detection for the rest of the samples with normal G6PD enzyme activities could have significance because their newborns might fall victim to serious consequences under certain oxidative stress. CONCLUSIONS:In addition to the G6PD enzyme assay, HRM curve analysis could be useful as a supplemental approach for detection of G6PD heterozygosity.
Project description:Glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase (G6PD) is important in the control of oxidant stress in erythrocytes, the host cells for Plasmodium falciparum. Mutations in this enzyme produce X-linked deficiency states associated with protection against malaria, notably in Africa where the A- form of G6PD deficiency is widespread. Some reports have proposed that heterozygous females with mosaic populations of normal and deficient erythrocytes (due to random X chromosome inactivation) have malaria resistance similar to or greater than hemizygous males with populations of uniformly deficient erythrocytes. These proposals are paradoxical, and they are not consistent with currently hypothesized mechanisms of protection.We conducted large case-control studies of the A- form of G6PD deficiency in cases of severe or uncomplicated malaria among two ethnic populations of rural Mali, West Africa, where malaria is hyperendemic. Our results indicate that the uniform state of G6PD deficiency in hemizygous male children conferred significant protection against severe, life-threatening malaria, and that it may have likewise protected homozygous female children. No such protection was evident from the mosaic state of G6PD deficiency in heterozygous females. We also found no significant differences in the parasite densities of males and females with differences in G6PD status. Pooled odds ratios from meta-analysis of our data and data from a previous study confirmed highly significant protection against severe malaria in hemizygous males but not in heterozygous females. Among the different forms of severe malaria, protection was principally evident against cerebral malaria, the most frequent form of life-threatening malaria in these studies.The A- form of G6PD deficiency in Africa is under strong natural selection from the preferential protection it provides to hemizygous males against life-threatening malaria. Little or no such protection is present among heterozygous females. Although these conclusions are consistent with data from at least one previous study, they have not heretofore been realized to our knowledge, and they therefore give fresh perspectives on malaria protection by G6PD deficiency as an X-linked trait.
Project description:This study assessed the safety of the new World Health Organization (WHO) recommendation of adding a single low-dose of primaquine (PQ) to standard artemisinin-based combination therapy (ACT), regardless of individual glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase (G6PD) status, for treatment of acute uncomplicated Plasmodium falciparum malaria in Tanzania.Men and non-pregnant, non-lactating women aged ≥1 year with uncomplicated P. falciparum malaria were enrolled and randomized to either standard artemether-lumefantrine (AL) regimen alone or with a 0.25 mg/kg single-dose of PQ. PQ was administered concomitantly with the first AL dose. All drug doses were supervised. Safety was evaluated between days 0 and 28. G6PD status was assessed using rapid test (CareStart™) and molecular genotyping. The primary endpoint was mean percentage relative reduction in haemoglobin (Hb) concentration (g/dL) between days 0 and 7 by genotypic G6PD status and treatment arm.Overall, 220 patients, 110 per treatment arm, were enrolled, of whom 33/217 (15.2 %) were phenotypically G6PD deficient, whereas 15/110 (13.6 %) were genotypically hemizygous males, 5/110 (4.5 %) homozygous females and 22/110 (20 %) heterozygous females. Compared to genotypically G6PD wild-type/normal [6.8, 95 % confidence interval (CI) 4.67-8.96], only heterozygous patients in AL arm had significant reduction in day-7 mean relative Hb concentration (14.3, 95 % CI 7.02-21.55, p=0.045), however, none fulfilled the pre-defined haemolytic threshold value of ≥25 % Hb reduction. After adjustment for baseline parasitaemia, Hb, age and sex the mean relative Hb reduction was not statistically significant in both heterozygous and hemizygous/homozygous patients in both arms. A majority of the adverse events (AEs) were mild and unrelated to the study drugs. However, six (4.4 %) episodes, three per treatment arm, of acute haemolytic anaemia occurred between days 0 and 7. Three occurred in phenotypically G6PD deficient patients, two in AL and one in AL + PQ arm, but none in genotypically hemizygous/homozygous patients. All patients with acute haemolytic anaemia recovered without medical intervention.The findings support that the WHO recommendation of adding a single low-dose of PQ to standard AL regimen is safe for the treatment of acute uncomplicated P. falciparum malaria regardless of G6PD status in Tanzania. Trial registration number NCT02090036.
Project description:Extensive studies investigating the role of host genetic factors during malaria associate glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase deficiency with relative protection. G6PD deficiency had been reported to associate with anti-malarial drug induced with haemolytic anaemia.A total of 301 Gabonese, Ghanaian, and Kenyan children aged 6-120 months with severe malaria recruited in a multicentre trial on artesunate were included in this sub-study. G6PD normal (type B), heterozygous (type A(+)) and deficient (type A(-)) genotypes were determined by direct sequencing of the common African mutations G202A and A376G. Furthermore, multivariate analyses were executed to associate possible contributions of G6PD deficiency with baseline haemoglobin levels, parasitaemia and with severe malarial anaemia.Two hundred and seventy-eight children (132 females and 146 males) were successfully genotyped for G6PD variants. The overall prevalence of G6PD deficiency was 13 % [36/278; 3 % (4/132) female homozygous and 22 % (32/146) male hemizygous], 14 % (40/278) children were female heterozygous while 73 % (202/278) were G6PD normal [67 % (88/132) females and 78 % (114/146) males] individuals. Multivariate regression revealed a significant association of moderately and severely deficient G6PD genotypes with haemoglobin levels according to the baseline data (p < 0.0001; G6PD heterozygous: p < 0.0001; G6PD deficient: p = 0.009), but not with severe malarial anaemia (p = 0.66). No association of G6PD genotypes with baseline parasitaemia.In this study, moderately (type A(+)) and severely (type A(-)) G6PD deficiency showed significant association with lower haemoglobin concentrations at baseline in African children with severe malaria without leading to severe malarial anaemia. In addition, there was no association of G6PD variant types with parasite densities on admission.
Project description:Glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase (G6PD) deficiency is common in populations living in malaria endemic areas. G6PD genotype and phenotype were determined for malaria patients enrolled in the chlorproguanil-dapsone-artesunate (CDA) phase III clinical trial programme.Study participants, aged > 1 year, with microscopically confirmed uncomplicated Plasmodium falciparum malaria, and haemoglobin ? 70 g/L or haematocrit ? 25%, were recruited into two clinical trials conducted in six African countries (Burkina Faso, Ghana, Kenya, Nigeria, Tanzania, Mali). G6PD genotype of the three most common African forms, G6PD*B, G6PD*A (A376G), and G6PD*A- (G202A, A542T, G680T and T968C), were determined and used for frequency estimation. G6PD phenotype was assessed qualitatively using the NADPH fluorescence test. Exploratory analyses investigated the effect of G6PD status on baseline haemoglobin concentration, temperature, asexual parasitaemia and anti-malarial efficacy after treatment with CDA 2/2.5/4 mg/kg or chlorproguanil-dapsone 2/2.5 mg/kg (both given once daily for three days) or six-dose artemether-lumefantrine.Of 2264 malaria patients enrolled, 2045 had G6PD genotype available and comprised the primary analysis population (1018 males, 1027 females). G6PD deficiency prevalence was 9.0% (184/2045; 7.2% [N = 147] male hemizygous plus 1.8% [N = 37] female homozygous), 13.3% (273/2045) of patients were heterozygous females, 77.7% (1588/2045) were G6PD normal. All deficient G6PD*A- genotypes were A376G/G202A. G6PD phenotype was available for 64.5% (1319/2045) of patients: 10.2% (134/1319) were G6PD deficient, 9.6% (127/1319) intermediate, and 80.2% (1058/1319) normal. Phenotype test specificity in detecting hemizygous males was 70.7% (70/99) and 48.0% (12/25) for homozygous females. Logistic regression found no significant effect of G6PD genotype on adjusted mean baseline haemoglobin (p = 0.154), adjusted mean baseline temperature (p = 0.9617), or adjusted log mean baseline parasitaemia (p = 0.365). There was no effect of G6PD genotype (p = 0.490) or phenotype (p = 0.391) on the rate of malaria recrudescence, or reinfection (p = 0.134 and p = 0.354, respectively).G6PD deficiency is common in African patients with malaria and until a reliable and simple G6PD test is available, the use of 8-aminoquinolines will remain problematic. G6PD status did not impact baseline haemoglobin, parasitaemia or temperature or the outcomes of anti-malarial therapy.Clinicaltrials.gov: NCT00344006 and NCT00371735.
Project description:Glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase (G6PD) deficiency and hemoglobin E (HbE, ?26 Glu-Lys) are two common red cell disorders in Southeast Asia. G6PD deficiency produces hemolytic anemia, which can be triggered by certain drugs or infections. HbE is asymptomatic or is manifested as microcytic, minimally hemolytic anemia. The association between G6PD deficiency and HbE is little understood. This study aimed to investigate G6PD deficiency and HbE in a Kachin ethnic group in the China-Myanmar border area. G6PD enzyme activity was measured using a quantitative G6PD assay, G6PD variants genotyped by the SNaPshot assay, and an HbE gene mutation identified by an amplification refractory mutation system and subsequently confirmed by using a reverse dot blot hybridization assay from 100 unrelated individuals in the study area. G6PD enzyme activity ranged from 0.4 to 24.7 U/g Hb, and six males had severe G6PD deficiency (<0.12-1.2 U/g Hb), while six males and 12 females had mild G6PD deficiency (>1.2-4.5 U/g Hb). Among the 24 G6PD-deficient subjects, 22 (92%) had the Mahidol 487G>A mutation (12 male hemizygotes, one female homozygote, and nine female heterozygotes), while the G6PD genotypes in two female subjects were unknown. HbE was identified in 39 subjects (20 males and 19 females), including 15 HbEE (seven males and eight females) and 24 HbAE (13 males and 11 females). Twenty-three subjects co-inherited both G6PD deficiency and HbE (22 with HbAE and one with HbEE). Whereas mean Hb levels were not significantly different between the HbA and HbE groups, G6PD-deficient males had significantly lower Hb levels than G6PD-normal males (P < 0.05, t-test). However, it is noteworthy that two G6PD-deficient hemizygous males with HbAE were severely anemic with Hb levels below 50 g/L. This study revealed high prevalence of co-inheritance of G6PD deficiency with HbAE in the Kachin ethnicity, and a potential interaction of the G6PD Mahidol 487G>A and HbAE in males leading to severe anemia. The presence of 6% males with severe G6PD deficiency raised a major concern in the use of primaquine for radical cure of vivax malaria.
Project description:BACKGROUND:Tafenoquine, an 8-aminoquinoline, is now indicated for causal prophylaxis against all human malarias and as radical curative (anti-relapse) treatment against Plasmodium vivax and Plasmodium ovale. As with other 8-aminoquinolines, tafenoquine causes hemolysis in individuals with glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase (G6PD) deficiency (hemizygous males and homozygous females) and is contraindicated in this population. Those with intermediate G6PD activity (heterozygous females) are also at risk for hemolysis. Awareness of how to prescribe tafenoquine in relation to G6PD status is needed so it can be used safely. METHODS:A standard literature search was performed on varying combinations of the terms tafenoquine, Arakoda, Kodatef, Krintafel, Kozenis, primaquine, G6PD deficiency, malaria prophylaxis and radical cure. The data were gathered and interpreted to review how tafenoquine should be prescribed in consideration of the G6PD status of an individual and traveller. RESULTS:Tafenoquine should only be given to those with G6PD activity >70% of the local population median. Qualitative G6PD tests are sufficient for diagnosing G6PD deficiency in males. However, in females quantitative G6PD testing is necessary to differentiate deficient, intermediate and normal G6PD statuses. Testing for G6PD deficiency is mandatory before tafenoquine prescription. Measures can be taken to avoid tafenoquine administration to ineligible individuals (i.e. due to G6PD status, age, pregnancy and lactation). Primaquine is still necessary for some of these cases. This review provides actions that can be taken to diagnose and manage hemolysis when tafenoquine is given inadvertently to ineligible individuals. CONCLUSION:Attention to G6PD status is required for safe prescription of tafenoquine. A high index of suspicion is needed if hemolysis occurs. Clinicians should seek evidence-based information for the management and treatment of iatrogenicy hemolysis caused by 8-aminoquinolines.
Project description:BACKGROUND:Clinical association studies have yielded varied results regarding the impact of glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase (G6PD) deficiency upon susceptibility to malaria. Analyses have been complicated by varied methods used to diagnose G6PD deficiency. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS:We compared the association between uncomplicated malaria incidence and G6PD deficiency in a cohort of 601 Ugandan children using two different diagnostic methods, enzyme activity and G6PD genotype (G202A, the predominant East African allele). Although roughly the same percentage of males were identified as deficient using enzyme activity (12%) and genotype (14%), nearly 30% of males who were enzymatically deficient were wild-type at G202A. The number of deficient females was three-fold higher with assessment by genotype (21%) compared to enzyme activity (7%). Heterozygous females accounted for the majority (46/54) of children with a mutant genotype but normal enzyme activity. G6PD deficiency, as determined by G6PD enzyme activity, conferred a 52% (relative risk [RR] 0.48, 95% CI 0.31-0.75) reduced risk of uncomplicated malaria in females. In contrast, when G6PD deficiency was defined based on genotype, the protective association for females was no longer seen (RR = 0.99, 95% CI 0.70-1.39). Notably, restricting the analysis to those females who were both genotypically and enzymatically deficient, the association of deficiency and protection from uncomplicated malaria was again demonstrated in females, but not in males (RR = 0.57, 95% CI 0.37-0.88 for females). CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE:This study underscores the impact that the method of identifying G6PD deficient individuals has upon association studies of G6PD deficiency and uncomplicated malaria. We found that G6PD-deficient females were significantly protected against uncomplicated malaria, but this protection was only seen when G6PD deficiency is described using enzyme activity. These observations may help to explain the discrepancy in some published association studies involving G6PD deficiency and uncomplicated malaria.
Project description:Tafenoquine is an 8-aminoquinoline under investigation for the prevention of relapse in Plasmodium vivax malaria. This open-label, dose-escalation study assessed quantitatively the hemolytic risk with tafenoquine in female healthy volunteers heterozygous for the Mahidol487A glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase (G6PD)-deficient variant versus G6PD-normal females, and with reference to primaquine. Six G6PD-heterozygous subjects (G6PD enzyme activity 40-60% of normal) and six G6PD-normal subjects per treatment group received single-dose tafenoquine (100, 200, or 300 mg) or primaquine (15 mg × 14 days). All participants had pretreatment hemoglobin levels ? 12.0 g/dL. Tafenoquine dose escalation stopped when hemoglobin decreased by ? 2.5 g/dL (or hematocrit decline ? 7.5%) versus pretreatment values in ? 3/6 subjects. A dose-response was evident in G6PD-heterozygous subjects (N = 15) receiving tafenoquine for the maximum decrease in hemoglobin versus pretreatment values. Hemoglobin declines were similar for tafenoquine 300 mg (-2.65 to -2.95 g/dL [N = 3]) and primaquine (-1.25 to -3.0 g/dL [N = 5]). Two further cohorts of G6PD-heterozygous subjects with G6PD enzyme levels 61-80% (N = 2) and > 80% (N = 5) of the site median normal received tafenoquine 200 mg; hemolysis was less pronounced at higher G6PD enzyme activities. Tafenoquine hemolytic potential was dose dependent, and hemolysis was greater in G6PD-heterozygous females with lower G6PD enzyme activity levels. Single-dose tafenoquine 300 mg did not appear to increase the severity of hemolysis versus primaquine 15 mg × 14 days.
Project description:Glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase (G6PD) activity is essential for redox equilibrium of red blood cells (RBCs) and, when compromised, the RBCs are more susceptible to haemolysis. 8-aminoquinolines (primaquine and tafenoquine) are used for the radical curative treatment of Plasmodium vivax malaria and can cause haemolysis in G6PD deficient subjects. Haemolytic risk is dependent on treatment dose and patient G6PD status but ultimately it correlates with the number of G6PD deficient RBCs. The G6PD spectrophotometric assay reliably identifies deficient subjects but is less reliable in heterozygous females, especially when other blood conditions are present. In this work we analysed samples with a range of G6PD phenotypes and haematologic conditions from 243 healthy volunteers of Asian or African-American heritage using both the spectrophotomeric assay and the G6PD flow-cytometric assay. Overall 18.5% of subjects (29.3% of Asian females) presented with anaemia, associated with decreased RBCs volume (MCV) and reticulocytosis; the flow-cytometric assay showed good correlation with the spectrophotometric assay (Pearson's r 0.918-0.957) and was less influenced by haemoglobin concentration, number of RBCs and number of reticulocytes. This resulted in more precise quantification of the number of G6PD deficient RBCs and presumably higher predictive power of drug induced haemolytic risk.
Project description:BACKGROUND:Malaria transmission-blocking anti-malarial drugs, such as primaquine, offers an effective strategy for reducing the incidence of falciparum malaria. However, this drug induces haemolytic anaemia among glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase (G6PD) deficient individuals. The distribution of G6PD deficiency in Brazzaville, Republic of Congo and the association of G6PD deficiency with haemoglobin levels and blood cell counts were investigated. METHODS:A total of 212 febrile children were recruited for this study. Plasmodium falciparum diagnosis was conducted by microscopy and nested PCR. Sanger sequencing was used to assess G6PD deficiency by detecting 202G>A (rs1050828) and 376A>G (rs1050829) single nucleotide polymorphisms. RESULTS:Two hundred and twelve children were successfully genotyped for G6PD variants. Overall, 13% (27/212) of the children were G6PD deficient and 25% (25/100) females were heterozygous (11 BA- and 14 A+A-). The remaining 160 children had a normal G6PD genotype. The mean red blood and mean platelet counts were significantly lower in hemizygous male (G6PD A-) participants than in normal male (G6PD A+ or B) participants (p?<?0.05). CONCLUSION:This study gives an update on G6PD deficiency among Congolese children. Understanding the distribution of G6PD deficiency in other geographical regions is recommended before primaquine is adopted in the malaria control programme.