12-month trajectories of depressive symptoms among nurses-Contribution of personality, job characteristics, coping, and burnout.
ABSTRACT: Job related factors have been associated with higher risk for developing depression, but past studies lacked full consideration of individual factors such as personality and coping. We sought to evaluate associations of personality, coping, job characteristics, and burnout with 12-month trajectories of depressive symptoms among nursing workers.Cohort of nursing workers (N?=?281) in a private hospital system, with baseline assessments of personality, job characteristics, and coping. Burnout and depression were measured at baseline and during monthly follow-ups. Linear mixed modeling was used to examine contributions to between- and within-individual variation in monthly depressive symptoms.Personality trait of negative affectivity accounted for 36% of between-individual variation in depressive symptoms over 12 months, while job characteristics and coping explained an additional 5% and 8% of this variation, respectively. Exhaustion dimension of burnout was associated with between-individual variation in depressive symptoms (fixed effect ? coefficient 2.44, p?
Project description:Background:The burnout syndrome is characterized by emotional exhaustion, depersonalization, and lack of personal accomplishment. It was identified in some professional categories, the most often being affected those in public health services. Objectives:This study mainly aims to identify and analyze the value of the personality traits and work characteristics as predictive factors for the occurrence of the burnout syndrome in nurses, under the new approach of predictive, preventive, and personalized medicine. Method:A total of 192 nurses were included in the study. The NEO-Five-Factor Inventory, the Copenhagen Burnout Inventory, and the Inventory of Nursing Work Characteristics were administered to all of the participants. Results:Some personality traits proved to be predictive factors for the occurrence of the burnout syndrome. Neuroticism, negative self-esteem, and negative emotionality predict burnout vulnerability. The negative correlations between sociability and the burnout dimensions show that the positive affectivity of the extraverted individuals and the strong positive orientation of the extraverts towards others are protective factors against burnout. There are also significant associations between certain personality traits and nursing work characteristics (work overload, the existence of problems in the department, and satisfaction in the professional and family life), which could be defined, also, as predictive factors for burnout. Conclusions:This study confirms the influence of the Big Five personality traits and nursing work characteristics as predictive factors of the burnout occurrence, opening real possibilities to perform a targeted prevention and provide personalized interventions as organizational services.
Project description:<h4>Objectives</h4>The objectives of this study are twofold. First, to examine the direct effect of psychosocial work characteristics (as measured by job autonomy and work-related pressure) in relation to self-reported psychological morbidity symptoms and early retirement intentions among a sample of hospital consultants in the National Health Service (NHS). Second, to investigate burnout as mediating variable (ie, indirect effect) of these postulated associations.<h4>Design</h4>A cross-sectional observational study.<h4>Participants</h4>593 NHS consultants (male=63.1%) from hospitals in England, Scotland and Wales.<h4>Measures</h4>Self-reported online questionnaires on work-related pressure and job autonomy (Job Demands-Resources Questionnaire); emotional exhaustion and depersonalisation (Maslach Burnout Inventory); depressive and anxiety symptoms (State Trait Personality Inventory) and a single-item on early retirement intention.<h4>Results</h4>This study observed high prevalence rates across all adverse health measures: emotional exhaustion (38.7%), depersonalisation (20.7%), anxiety symptoms (43.1%) and depressive symptoms (36.1%). Multiple linear regressions examined the postulated direct and indirect effects. Job autonomy had significant negative direct effects on the frequency of NHS consultants' anxiety and depressive symptoms, and their intention to retire early. Both emotional exhaustion and depersonalisation mediated the relationships that work-related pressure (full mediation) and job autonomy (partial mediation) had with self-reported symptoms of psychological morbidities. Only emotional exhaustion mediated the relationships where early retirement intention was the outcome. In terms of sociodemographic factors, age and years' experience predicted both burnout dimensions and psychological morbidity.<h4>Conclusions</h4>This is the first study to observe job autonomy to be associated with the number of self-reported psychological morbidity symptoms and early retirement intentions in a sample of NHS consultants. Burnout dimensions mediated these relationships, indicating that interventions need to focus on enhancing working conditions and addressing burnout among NHS consultants before more severe symptoms of psychological morbidity are reported. This study has implications for NHS policy makers and senior leadership.
Project description:Burnout is a major problem among nurses working in emergency departments and is closely related to a high turnover of personnel, nursing errors, and patient dissatisfaction. The aims of this study were to estimate burnout, perceived stress, job satisfaction, coping and general health levels experienced by nurses working in emergency departments in Spain and to analyze the relationships between sociodemographic, occupational, and psychological variables and the occurrence of burnout syndrome among these professionals. A cross-sectional study was conducted in four emergency departments in Andalusia (Spain) from March to December 2016. The study sample was composed of n = 171 nurses. An ad hoc questionnaire was prepared to collect sociodemographic and work data, and the Maslach Burnout Inventory, the Perceived Stress Scale, the Font-Roja Questionnaire, the Brief Cope Orientation to Problem Experience and the General Health Questionnaire were used. The prevalence of high burnout was 8.19%. The levels of perceived stress and job satisfaction were moderate. The most frequent clinical manifestations were social dysfunction and somatic symptoms, and problem-focused coping was the strategy most used by nurses. Lack of physical exercise, gender, years worked at an emergency department, anxiety, social dysfunction, and avoidance coping were significant predictors of the dimensions of burnout.
Project description:<h4>Background</h4>Knowledge about important factors in reduction of burnout is needed, but there is a dearth of burnout intervention program studies and their effects among physicians. The present three-year follow-up study aimed to investigate the roles of coping strategies, job stress and personality traits in burnout reduction after a counselling intervention for distressed physicians.<h4>Methods</h4>227 physicians who attended a counselling intervention for burnout at the Resource Centre Villa Sana, Norway in 2003-2005, were followed with self-report assessments at baseline, one-year, and three-year follow-up. Main outcome measures were emotional exhaustion (one dimension of burnout), job stress, coping strategies and neuroticism. Changes in these measures were analyzed with repeated measures ANOVA. Temporal relationships between changes were examined using structural modelling with cross-lagged and synchronous panel models.<h4>Results</h4>184 physicians (81%, 83 men, 101 women) completed the three-year follow-up assessment. Significantly reduced levels of emotional exhaustion, job stress, and emotion-focused coping strategies from baseline to one year after the intervention, were maintained at three-year follow-up.Panel modelling indicated that changes in emotion-focused coping (z = 4.05, p < 0.001) and job stress (z = 3.16, p < 0.01) preceded changes in emotional exhaustion from baseline to three-year follow-up. A similar pattern was found from baseline to one-year follow-up.<h4>Conclusion</h4>A sequential relationship indicated that reduction in emotion-focused coping and in job stress preceded reduction in emotional exhaustion. As a consequence, coping strategies and job stress could be important foci in intervention programs that aim to reduce or prevent burnout in help-seeking physicians.
Project description:Research shows an instability in the way workers in the healthcare field live, and a prevalence of an unhealthy lifestyle. Exhaustion, an overload of obligations and responsibilities and dissatisfaction are all factors that may result in both physical and mental disorders. The aim of our study is to analyze the association between individual and occupational aspects of hospital workers and their job satisfaction, burnout syndrome, and depressive symptoms, as well as the relationship between these 3 factors.A transversal study was carried out from August to November 2016 in a teaching hospital that is a reference in healthcare to 13 cities in the State of São Paulo, Brazil. Workers with an employment relationship of a period of 3 months or longer were included in the study. Subjects for the study were recruited through random probability sampling. Data were collected using psychometric tools in order to analyze job satisfaction (Job Satisfaction Survey [JSS]), the presence of burnout syndrome (Maslach Burnout Inventory [MBI]) and depressive symptoms (Patient Health Questionnaire-9). Adjusted analyses were conducted and the prevalence ratio (PR) was calculated using Poisson regression. The partial least squares structural equation modeling (PLS-SEM) was used for the analyses.The final sample of this study comprised 271 professionals. Administrative workers or technical support workers from the hospital showed to be more satisfied in their jobs compared to the healthcare professionals (P?=?.02). Time of professional activity was also associated with job satisfaction (P?=?.03). Men displayed burnout syndrome approximately twice as often as women (PR?=?1.98; 95% CI: 1.03-3.79; P?=?.04). Workers who had a low household income presented a predominance twice as high of depressive symptoms (PR?=?2.84; 95% CI: 1.24-6.51; P?=?.01). PLS-SEM confirmed the causal and inverse relationship between burnout syndrome and job satisfaction (P?<?.001). Depressive symptoms were considered predictors for professional exhaustion (P?<?.001).Personal and occupational factors of hospital workers were associated with job satisfaction, burnout syndrome, and depressive symptoms. The absence of burnout was identified as a predictive aspect for job satisfaction, and depressive symptoms as a predictor for professional exhaustion.
Project description:Job burnout, characterized by feelings of exhaustion, cynicism and reduced personal efficacy, has been defined as a risk state for the development of diseases, but its association with somatic diseases is underexplored. Study participants were 5671 respondents (mean age 44.1 years, range 18-70; 38.6% men) to an online survey of job burnout, using a mobile health web application. Respondents provided data on sociodemographic characteristics, symptoms of burnout, measured with the Maslach Burnout Inventory-General Survey, depressive symptoms, measured with the Profile of Mood States, and 11 categories of somatic diseases. Adjusting for age, sex, educational level, depressive symptoms, and all disease categories included, network analysis showed a significant association of high exhaustion with "high blood pressure" and a category of "other chronic somatic diseases". Low personal efficacy showed a significant association with "chronic lung diseases". In network analysis, clinically relevant depressive symptoms were also significantly associated with "high blood pressure", "other chronic somatic diseases" and "skin diseases". Logistic regression analysis confirmed these associations. Burnout dimensions were significantly associated with an increased risk for somatic diseases, independently of sociodemographic factors and clinically relevant depressive symptoms. This relationship seems particularly evident for the exhaustion dimension of job burnout.
Project description:Burnout is a pathological syndrome in which emotional exhaustion (EE), depersonalization (DEP), and a reduced sense of personal accomplishment (PA) develop in response to prolonged occupational stress. Those working in the physiotherapy profession appear to be at risk for professional burnout brought on by the specific character of the medical professions, involving continuous contact with patients and associated stress, as well as poor working conditions. However, literature data concerning the scale of professional burnout and its psychosocial correlates remain scarce. The aim of the present study was to assess the scale of professional burnout among physiotherapists and to determine the interrelationships between coping styles and burnout symptoms. The sample consisted of 117 professionally active physiotherapists (90 women and 27 men) aged 21 to 55 years (mean [M] 31.88, standard deviation [SD] = 9.14, responsiveness rate of 80.6%) from randomly selected medical institutions of the Lodz Region. The study was conducted using the Maslach Burnout Inventory (MBI) and Coping Inventory for Stressful Situations (CISS) by Endler and Parker. Demographic and job-related data on the respondents were also collected. Task-oriented coping correlated negatively with DEP, EE, and low PA, in contrast to emotion-oriented coping. No correlation was found between avoidance-oriented coping and burnout symptoms. Similarly, no interactive correlations between coping styles and particular burnout symptoms were confirmed. Coping styles correlate independently with professional burnout, without any mutual correlations. Physiotherapists employing a wider spectrum of task-oriented strategies are slightly more satisfied with their job. The incidence of burnout syndrome in the analyzed group is similar to that observed in other medical professions and requires the adoption of preventive measures.
Project description:<h4>Background</h4>Burnout is a health problem in nurses. Individuals with a certain personality are more susceptible to job-related burnout. General self-efficacy (GSE) is an important predictor of job-related burnout. The relationships between general self-efficacy, job-related burnout and different personality types are still not clear. This study aims to analyze the relationships of job-related burnout, stress, general self-efficacy and personality types, as well as their interactions in job-related burnout.<h4>Method</h4>A cross-sectional survey of 860 nurses was conducted between June and July 2015 in China. We measured their job-related burnout using the scale of the Maslach Occupational Burnout Scale, and personality, stress, and GSE. Machine learning of generalized linear model were performed.<h4>Results</h4>Maslach Burnout Inventory (MBI) professional efficacy was significantly associated with gender, marital status, age, job title and length of service. A machine learning algorithm showed that stress was the most important factor in job-related burnout, followed by GSE, personality type (introvert unstable), and job title. Individuals with low GSE and either introversion or unstable (high neuroticism) personality seemed to have stronger burnout when they faced stress (regardless of stress intensity) compared to others.<h4>Conclusion</h4>Stress, GSE and introvert unstable personality are the top three factors of job-related burnout. GSE moderates the effect of stress on burnout in nurses with extroversion or neuroticism personality. Reducing stress, increasing GSE, and more social support may alleviate job-related burnout in nurses. Nurses with introvert unstable personality should be given more social support in reducing stress and enhancing their GSE.
Project description:The main goal of this research was to investigate the complex relationships among coping styles, personality, burnout, and anxiety using a moderated mediation analysis.A random cluster sampling procedure was used to select a total of 1274 physicians from two tertiary grade A hospitals in Heilongjiang Province, which is located in northeast China. The Zung Self-Rating Anxiety Scale (SAS), Chinese Maslach Burnout Inventory (CMBI), Chinese version of the EPQ-revised Short Scale, and the Trait Coping Style Questionnaire (TCSQ) were used to gather data. Moderated mediation analysis was used in this study; it was executed using the PROCESS macro so that the mediators and moderator could function together in the same model.The prevalence of anxiety symptoms among the physicians was 31%, and there were no differences between the sexes. The results showed that positive and negative coping styles partially mediated the association between burnout and anxiety symptoms in physicians. The mediated effect of positive coping styles was moderated by Eysenck's Psychoticism traits.Personality traits moderate the strength of the relationships between burnout and anxiety mediated by positive coping styles; however, personality traits do not moderate the strength of the relationships between burnout and anxiety mediated by negative coping styles.
Project description:We examined the association of burnout with borderline personality (BP) traits in a study of 1,163 educational staff (80.9% women; mean age: 42.96). Because burnout has been found to overlap with depression, parallel analyses of burnout and depression were conducted. Burnout symptoms were assessed with the Shirom-Melamed Burnout Measure, depressive symptoms with the PHQ-9, and BP traits with the Borderline Personality Questionnaire. Burnout was found to be associated with BP traits, controlling for neuroticism and history of depressive disorders. In women, burnout was linked to both the "affective insecurity" and the "impulsiveness" component of BP. In men, only the link between burnout and "affective insecurity" reached statistical significance. Compared to participants with "low" BP scores, participants with "high" BP scores reported more burnout symptoms, depressive symptoms, neuroticism, and occupational stress and less satisfaction with life. Disattenuated correlations between burnout and depression were close to 1, among both women (0.91) and men (0.94). The patterns of association of burnout and depression with the main study variables were similar, pointing to overlapping nomological networks. Burnout symptoms were only partly attributed to work by our participants. Our findings suggest that burnout is associated with BP traits through burnout-depression overlap.