Prevalence and incidence of probable perinatal depression among women enrolled in Option B+ antenatal HIV care in Malawi.
ABSTRACT: BACKGROUND:Perinatal depression is a common condition of pregnancy and the postpartum period. Depression negatively affects engagement in HIV care, but systematic screening for perinatal depression is not done in most sub-Saharan African countries. Estimating the burden and timing of perinatal depression can help inform medical programs with the current scale-up of HIV care for pregnant women. METHODS:Women (n?=?299) initiating antiretroviral therapy for HIV were recruited from a government antenatal clinic in Malawi in 2015-2016 into a cohort study. Probable perinatal depression was assessed at enrollment and at 6 weeks and 3, 6, and 12 months postpartum with the Edinburgh Postnatal Depression Scale (EPDS) and Patient Health Questionnaire-9 (PHQ-9). We estimated point prevalence and incidence of depression as well as concordance between EPDS and PHQ-9 scores. RESULTS:One in ten women screened positive for probable antenatal depression, whereas 1-6% screened positive postpartum. Sensitivity analyses to account for loss to follow-up suggested that postpartum depression prevalence could have ranged from 1-11%. At postpartum time points, 0-3% of participants screened positive for incident probable depression. EPDS and PHQ-9 scores were concordant for 96% of assessments during antenatal and postpartum visits. LIMITATIONS:Lack of diagnostic psychiatric evaluation precludes actual diagnosis of major depression, and social desirability bias may have contributed to low postpartum scores. CONCLUSIONS:Probable depression was more common during the antenatal period than postpartum among our participants. Given the association between depression and negative HIV outcomes, screening for depression during pregnancy should be integrated into antenatal HIV care.
Project description:<h4>Background</h4>Variation exists regarding perinatal depression screening. A two-step screening method has been recommended. According to a maternity-focused core outcome set developed by the International Consortium for Health Outcomes Measurement, women who score 3 or more on the PHQ-2 then complete the Edinburgh Postnatal Depression Scale (EPDS). Limited evidence exists regarding the screening accuracy of the PHQ-2 in childbearing women. An alternative case-identification method may be more sensitive for perinatal women. We aimed to  evaluate the screening accuracy of the PHQ-2 during the perinatal period using two case-identification methods, and  measure the variability of accuracy over four time-points during pregnancy and postpartum.<h4>Methods</h4>A prospective, longitudinal cohort study was conducted with 309 consecutive women who completed the PHQ-2 and EPDS during pregnancy (booking, 36-weeks) and postpartum (6-, 26-weeks). EPDS was the reference standard using cut-off scores for 'at least probable minor depression' during pregnancy (??13) and postpartum (??10) and for 'probable major depression' during pregnancy (??15) and postpartum (??13). PHQ-2 was analysed using two methods:  scored (cut-points ? 2 and ? 3),  dichotomous yes/no (positive response to either question) against EPDS cut-points for at least probable minor and probable major depression. Receiver operating characteristic analyses determined accuracy.<h4>Results</h4>Probable major depression: Over four timepoints PHQ-2 ? 3 revealed lowest sensitivity (36-79%) but highest specificity (94-98%). An alternative case-identification method revealed high sensitivity (93-100%), but lowest specificity (58-71%). Minor depression: PHQ-2 ? 3 revealed the lowest sensitivity (19-50%) but highest specificity (95-98%). An alternative case-identification method revealed the highest sensitivity (81-100%) and moderate specificity (60-74%).<h4>Conclusions</h4>Recommended method of case-identification (PHQ-2 ? 3) missed an unacceptable number of women at-risk of depression. As a clinical decision-making tool, an alternative, dichotomous method maximized case-identification and is recommended. Further, the literature identified inconsistent reporting of the PHQ-2 and the alternative case-identification method hindering the ability to synthesise data. The future use and reporting of consistent question wording and response format will improve outcome reporting and synthesis. Further research in larger and diverse maternity populations is recommended.
Project description:Perinatal depression involves interplay between individual chronic and acute disease burdens, biological and psychosocial environmental and behavioural factors. Here we explored the predictive potential of specific psycho-socio-demographic characteristics for antenatal and postpartum depression symptoms and contribution to severity scores on the Edinburgh Postnatal Depression Scale (EPDS) screening tool. We determined depression risk trajectories in 480 women that prospectively completed the EPDS during pregnancy (TP1) and postpartum (TP2). Multinomial logistic and penalised linear regression investigated covariates associated with increased antenatal and postpartum EPDS scores contributing to the average or the difference of paired scores across time points. History of anxiety was identified as the strongest contribution to antenatal EPDS scores followed by the social status, whereas a history of depression, postpartum depression (PPD) and family history of PPD exhibited the strongest association with postpartum EPDS. These covariates were the strongest differentiating factors that increased the spread between antenatal and postpartum EPDS scores. Available covariates appeared better suited to predict EPDS scores antenatally than postpartum. As women move from the antenatal to the postpartum period, socio-demographic and lifestyle risk factors appear to play a smaller role in risk, and a personal and family history of depression and PPD become increasingly important.
Project description:INTRODUCTION:Deaths during the perinatal period remain a big challenge in Africa, with 38 deaths per 1000 pregnancies in Uganda. The consequences of these deaths can be detrimental to the women; some ending up with postpartum depression. We examined the association between perinatal death and postpartum depression among women in Lira district, Northern Uganda. METHODS:We conducted a community-based cross-sectional study of 1,789 women. Trained research assistants screened women for postpartum depressive symptoms on day 50 postpartum using the Edinburgh postpartum depression scale (EPDS). Socio-demographic, economic, birth and survival status of the neonate were collected during pregnancy and within one week postpartum. We used generalized estimating equation for the Poisson family with a log link using Stata to estimate the prevalence ratio of the association between postpartum depressive symptoms (EPDS scores ?14) and perinatal death. Mothers who lost their babies between 7-49 days postpartum were excluded. RESULTS:Of the 1,789 participants symptomatically screened for postpartum depression, 377 (21.1%) [95% confidence interval (95%CI): 17.2%, 23.0%] had probable depressive symptoms. The prevalence of postpartum depressive symptoms among the 77 women who had experienced perinatal death (37 stillbirths and 40 early neonatal deaths (?7 days of life)) was 62.3% [95% CI: 50.8%, 72.6%] compared to 19.2% [95% CI: 17.4%, 21.2%], among 1,712 with live infants at day 50 postpartum. Women who had experienced a perinatal death were three times as likely to have postpartum depressive symptoms as those who had a live birth [adjusted prevalence ratio 3.45 (95% CI: 2.67, 4.48)]. CONCLUSIONS:The prevalence of postpartum depressive symptoms, assessed by EPDS, was high among women who had had a perinatal death in Northern Uganda. Women experiencing a perinatal death need to be screened for postpartum depressive symptoms in order to intervene and reduce associated morbidity.
Project description:The objective of this study is to develop a simple, brief, self-report perinatal depression inventory that accurately measures severity in a number of populations. Our team developed 159 Likert-scale perinatal depression items using simple sentences with a fifth-grade reading level. Based on iterative cognitive interviewing (CI), an expert panel improved and winnowed the item pool based on pre-determined criteria. The resulting 67 items were administered to a sample of 628 pregnant and 251 postpartum women with different levels of depression at private and public sector obstetrics clinics, together with the Beck Depression Inventory (BDI-II), Edinburg Postpartum Depression Scale (EPDS), and the Patient Health Questionnaire (PHQ-9), as well as Module A of the Structured Clinical Interview for DSM-IV Diagnoses (SCID). Responses were evaluated using Item Response Theory (IRT). The Perinatal Depression Inventory (PDI)-14 items are highly informative regarding depression severity and function similarly and informatively across pregnant/postpartum, white/non-white, and private-clinic/public-clinic populations. PDI-14 scores correlate well with the PHQ-9, EPDS, and BDI-II, but the PDI-14 provides a more precise measure of severity using far fewer words. The PDI-14 is a brief depression assessment that excels at accurately measuring depression severity across a wide range of severity and perinatal populations.
Project description:BACKGROUND:Option B+ has increased the number of pregnant women initiating antiretroviral therapy for HIV, yet retention in HIV care is sub-optimal. Retention may be affected by antenatal depression. However, few data exist on antenatal depression in this population. AIM:Describe the prevalence and factors associated with antenatal depression among Malawian women enrolled in Option B+. METHOD:At their first antenatal visit, women with HIV provided demographic and psychosocial information, including depression as measured with the locally validated Edinburgh Postnatal Depression Scale (EPDS). Prevalence ratios (PR) for factors associated with probable depression (EPDS ?6) were estimated with log binomial regression. RESULTS:9.5% (95% CI: 7.5-11.9%) of women screened positive for current depression, and 46% self-reported a history of depression or anxiety. Women were more likely to screen positive for current depression if they reported a history of depression (adjusted PR: 2.42; 95% CI: 1.48-3.95) or had ever experienced intimate partner violence (1.77; 1.11-2.81). Having an unintended current pregnancy (1.78; 0.99-3.21), being unmarried (1.66; 0.97-2.84), or employed (1.56; 1.00-2.44) had potential associations with probable depression. CONCLUSIONS:Probable antenatal depression affected a notable proportion of women living with HIV, comparable to other global regions. Screening for antenatal depression in HIV care should be considered.
Project description:BACKGROUND:The sleep quality of pregnant women in the third trimester is related to mental health. However, there is still a lack of large-scale cohort research exploring this relationship in the second trimester. Thus, we assessed the associations of sleep quality during the second trimester with antenatal stress and antenatal and postnatal depression. METHODS:We examined 1152 pregnant women from a prospective cohort study in China to assess the associations of sleep quality in the second trimester with antenatal stress, antenatal depression, and postnatal depression. We used linear regression models and logistic regression models to examine the associations of sleep quality (Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index [PSQI]) during pregnancy with perinatal stress (Pregnancy Pressure Scale [PPS]) and depression (Edinburgh Postnatal Depression Scale [EPDS]) status. We further assessed the relationship in groups divided according to maternal age. RESULTS:PSQI scores were positively associated with antenatal PPS scores (?: 1.52, 95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.28, 1.76), antenatal EPDS scores (?: 0.68, 95% CI: 0.58, 0.78), and postpartum EPDS scores (?: 0.51, 95% CI: 0.38, 0.64). Poor sleep quality (PSQI scores ?5) was associated with antenatal stress status (odds ratio [OR]: 2.60, 95% CI: 1.79, 3.77), antenatal depression status (OR: 3.42, 95% CI: 2.48, 4.72), and postpartum depression status (OR: 2.40, 95% CI: 1.58, 3.64) after adjusting maternal age, BMI, gestational age, smoking, educational level, annual household income and social support. The association of poor sleep quality (PSQI scores ?5) in the second trimester with postnatal depression status was significant among women more than or equal to 30?years old (OR: 4.12, 95% CI: 2.18, 7.78) but not among women less than 30?years old after adjusting covariates above. CONCLUSION:Poor sleep quality in the second trimester among Chinese pregnant women is associated with stress and depression symptoms. Strategies to boost sleep quality should be considered during prenatal health care to improve women's mental health status.
Project description:OBJECTIVE:To estimate the association of probable antenatal depression with postpartum HIV care engagement among pregnant women in Malawi. DESIGN:We conducted a prospective cohort study of 299 women who were initiating antiretroviral therapy (ART) through Option B+ at a government antenatal clinic in Malawi. METHODS:Probable antenatal depression was assessed on the day of ART initiation with the validated Chichewa version of the Edinburgh Postnatal Depression Scale (EPDS). We estimated crude and adjusted risk differences (RD, aRD) of visit attendance and prevalence differences (PD, aPD) of viral suppression through 12 months post-ART initiation comparing women with versus without probable antenatal depression. RESULTS:One in 10 women had probable antenatal depression. Most women were engaged in care through 12 months post-ART initiation: 85% attended all scheduled ART visits, and 81% were in care and virally suppressed. Women with and without probable antenatal depression had a comparable probability of attending all scheduled visits (RD: -0.02; 95% CI -0.16 to 0.12; aRD: -0.04; 95% CI -0.18 to 0.10), and of viral suppression (PD: -0.02; 95% CI -0.17 to 0.13; aPD: -0.01; 95% CI -0.17 to 0.15) in crude and adjusted analyses. CONCLUSION:Probable antenatal depression was not associated with engagement in HIV care through 12 months post-ART initiation. In a population with high HIV care engagement, antenatal depression may not impair HIV-related outcomes.
Project description:Perinatal depression is highly prevalent in low-and-middle-income countries and has been linked to poor child health. Suboptimal maternal nutrition may be a risk factor for perinatal depression. In this randomised-controlled trial conducted in rural Malawi, we set out to test the hypothesis that women taking a fatty acid-rich lipid-based nutrient supplement (LNS) would have fewer depressive symptoms postpartum than those taking iron-folate (IFA) or multiple-micronutrient (MMN) capsules. Women were recruited from antenatal clinics and randomised to receive LNS or MMN during pregnancy and for 6?months postpartum, or IFA during pregnancy only. Maternal depressive symptoms were measured using validated translations of the Self Reporting Questionnaire (SRQ) and Edinburgh Postnatal Depression Scale (EPDS), antenatally (SRQ only) and at 6?months postpartum (SRQ and EPDS). Analysis was by modified intention to treat. One thousand three hundred and ninety one women were randomised (LNS?=?462, MMN?=?466, IFA?=?463). The groups were similar across a range of baseline variables. At 6?months postpartum, 1078 (77.5%) had SRQ completed; mean (SD) scores were LNS 1.76(2.73), MMN 1.92(2.75), IFA 1.71(2.66), P?=?0.541. One thousand and fifty seven (76.0%) had EPDS completed; mean (SD) scores were LNS 5.77(5.53), MMN 5.43(4.97), IFA 5.52(5.18), P?=?0.676. There were no statistically significant differences between the groups on SRQ or EPDS scores (continuous or dichotomised) in unadjusted or adjusted models. In conclusion, fortification of maternal diet with LNS compared with MMN or IFA did not reduce postnatal depressive symptoms in this study.
Project description:The objective of this study is to explore the associations between the patient-reported Edinburgh Postnatal Depression Scale (EPDS) and Patient Health Questionnaire (PHQ)-9 and clinician-reported 17-item Hamilton Depression Rating Scale (HAMD-17) in order to facilitate clinical decision-making. An integrated efficacy dataset of three randomized placebo-controlled trials (NCT02614547, NCT02942004, and NCT02942017) evaluating brexanolone injection, a neuroactive steroid chemically identical to allopregnanolone, in women with postpartum depression was used for this post hoc analysis. Data were pooled across treatment arms. Associations were assessed at day 30 (end-of-trial follow-up). Pearson correlation assessed the relationship between EPDS and PHQ-9 item and total scores and HAMD-17 total score. Cohen's kappa assessed agreement of EPDS remission (score?<?10) and PHQ-9 remission (score?<?5) with HAMD-17 remission (score???7). Ordinary least squares (OLS) regression models were used to develop equations estimating HAMD-17 total scores from EPDS and PHQ-9 scores, respectively. The total scores showed large correlations (HAMD-17/EPDS: r?= 0.71, p?< 0.001; HAMD-17/PHQ-9: r?=?0.75, p?< 0.001). Individual EPDS and PHQ-9 items significantly correlated (r=?0.35 to 0.67, all p?< 0.001) with HAMD-17 total score. EPDS had 79% sensitivity and 67% specificity to detect HAMD-17 remission; corresponding estimates for PHQ-9 were 76% and 78%. OLS models yielded the following equations: HAMD-17 total?=?2.66?+?(EPDS total?×?0.87) and HAMD-17 total?=?3.99?+?(PHQ-9 total?×?0.97). There were large and statistically significant associations between patient-reported outcomes (EPDS, PHQ-9) and clinician-reported outcomes (HAMD-17) as clinical improvements were associated with patient-reported symptom improvement. These results provide tools to help translate clinical trial data to clinical practice, thus aiding shared decision-making for this critical population.
Project description:BACKGROUND:Data linking labor pain and postpartum depression are emerging. Robust, prospective evaluations of this relationship while factoring other important variables are lacking. We assessed perinatal pain and other factors predicting postpartum depression (PPD) symptoms. METHODS:Third trimester women, stratified by a priori plan to receive or avoid labor epidural analgesia, were longitudinally followed from the prenatal period through labor and delivery, until 6 weeks and 3 months postpartum. Electronic pain data was collected hourly during labor in real time, capturing pain unpleasantness, intensity, pain management satisfaction, and expectations. Prenatal and postpartum data included anxiety, depression, the Brief Pain Inventory (BPI), pain catastrophizing, resiliency, and perceived social support and stress. The primary outcome was Edinburgh Postnatal Depression Score (EPDS) as a marker of PPD symptoms. The primary pain variable of interest was labor pain emotional valence (unpleasantness burden, area under the curve for entire labor duration). Single and multivariable linear regressions examined perinatal pain variables in relation to EPDS. RESULTS:Of 72 subjects included, 55 planned/received labor epidural analgesia and 17 planned avoidance/avoided it. In the planned epidural group, the emotional valence of labor pain independently predicted six-week EPDS (labor pain unpleasantness burden, R2?=?0.42, P?=?0.002). In addition to labor pain, prenatal and postpartum pain variables from the BPI independently predicted six-week EPDS. Three-month depression scores were linked to labor and acute pain (6 weeks postpartum), but not to chronic (3 months postpartum) pain variables. Intrapartum pain management satisfaction and expectations were largely met or exceeded and did not differ between analgesia groups. CONCLUSION:For susceptible women, pain at all perinatal time points-prenatal, labor, and postpartum-appear to be independently linked to depression scores at 6 weeks postpartum. The relationships are true, even though satisfaction and expectations regarding labor pain management were met or exceeded. These data support the concept that labor and acute postpartum pain influences both acute and long-term PPD symptoms, although additional data are needed to assess how analgesia preference interacts with these relationships.