Duck enteritis virus activates CaMKKβ-AMPK to trigger autophagy in duck embryo fibroblast cells via increased cytosolic calcium.
ABSTRACT: BACKGROUND:The results of our previous study showed that impaired cellular energy metabolism contributes to duck enteritis virus-induced autophagy via the 5`-adenosine monophosphate-activated protein kinase (AMPK)/tuberous sclerosis complex 2/mammalian target of rapamycin pathway in duck embryo fibroblast (DEF) cells. However, it remains unknown whether any other underlying mechanisms of AMPK activation are involved in autophagy induction. METHODS:The activity of CaMKKβ and AMPK in DEF cells infected with DEV were evaluated.The Effect of inhibitory activity of CaMKKβ on DEV-induced autophagy was investigated. In addtion to, the cytosolic calcium level in DEF cells infected with DEV were evaluated.The Effect of inhibitory cytosolic calcium level on DEV-induced autophagy was investigated. RESULTS:In this study, duck enteritis virus (DEV) infection activated CaMKKβ and its substrate molecule AMPK at 36, 48, and 60 h post-infection (hpi). STO-609, a CaMKKβ inhibitor, or CaMKKβ siRNA significantly inhibited the activation of DEV to AMPK, LC3I to LC3II transformation, and GFP-LC3 puncta distribution. In addition, inhibition of CaMKKβ activity also significantly reduced progeny DEV titer and gB protein expression. Besides, cytosolic calcium (Ca2+) was higher in DEV-infected cells than mock controls at 36, 48, and 60 hpi, respectively. Treatment of DEV-infected cells with 1,2-Bis (2-aminophenoxy) ethane-N, N, N', N-tetraacetic acid (BAPTA-AM) significantly reduced intracellular Ca2+ ion concentrations, as well as CaMKKβ and AMPK activities, and subsequent autophagy, in addition to viral protein synthesis and viral titer. CONCLUSIONS:These results showed that elevated [Ca2+]cyto-mediated activation of CaMKKβ managed the activation of AMPK, which then positively regulated autophagy, thereby providing further insight into DEV-host interactions.
Project description:Duck enteritis virus (DEV) is a large, complex double-stranded DNA virus that induces duck embryo fibroblast (DEF) cells autophagy, which is beneficial to its own replication, but the mechanism has not been described. In this study, we showed that impaired cell energy metabolism is involved in DEV-induced autophagy, whereby ATP synthesis is disrupted in cells after DEV infection, which causes metabolic stress and activation of autophagy. Methyl pyruvate (MP) inhibited conversion of LC3I to LC3II and accumulation of GFP-LC3, which could reverse the energy loss caused by DEV infection. Inhibition of DEV replication by MP confirmed the above view. We found that infection with DEV activated the metabolic regulator 5' AMP-activated kinase (AMPK) and inhibited activity of mechanistic target of rapamycin (mTOR). In the cases where AMPK expression was inhibited, the LC3-I conversion to LC3-II ratio was decreased, as was GFP-LC3 point and DEV replication; in addition, inhibition of p-mTOR showed a reverse trend. We also found that tuberous sclerosis (TSC) 2 was a key mediator between AMPK and mTOR through activation by phosphorylation. siRNA targeting TSC2 was transfected to reverse the inhibition of mTOR, and down-regulate autophagy level and DEV replication, but AMPK expression was not changed, while siRNA targeting AMPK inhibited activation of TSC2. In conclusion, our findings indicate that energy metabolism in cell damage induced by DEV contributes to autophagy via the AMPK-TSC2-MTOR signaling pathway, which provides a new perspective for DEV and host interactions.
Project description:BACKGROUND:MicroRNAs (miRNAs) is increasingly recognized as an important element in regulating virus-host interactions. Our previous results showed that cellular miR-30a-5p was significantly downregulated after duck enteritis virus (DEV) infection cell. However, whehter or not the miR-30a-5p is involved in DEV infection has not been known. METHODS:Quantitative reverse-transcription PCR (qRT-PCR) was used to measure the expression levels of miRNAs(miR-30a-5p) and Beclin-1 mRNA. The miR-30a-5p - Beclin-1 target interactions were determined by Dual luciferase reporter assay (DLRA). Western blotting was utilized to analyze Beclin-1-mediated duck embryo fibroblast (DEF) cells autophagy activity. DEV titers were estimated by the median tissue culture infective dose (TCID50). RESULTS:The miR-30a-5p was significantly downregulated and the Beclin-1 mRNA was significantly upregulated in DEV-infected DEF cells. DLRA confirmed that miR-30a-5p directly targeted the 3'- UTR of the Beclin-1 gene. Overexpression of miR-30a-5p significantly reduced the expression level of Beclin-1protein (p?<?0.05), leading to the decrease of Beclin-1-mediated autophagy activity, which ultimately suppressed DEV replication (P?<?0.05). Whereas transfection of miR-30a-5p inhibitor increased Beclin-1-mediated autophagy and triggered DEV replication during the whole process of DEV infection (P?<?0.01). CONCLUSIONS:This study shows that miR-30a-5p can inhibit DEV replication through reducing autophagy by targeting Beclin-1. These findings suggest a new insight into virus-host interaction during DEV infection and provide a potential new antiviral therapeutic strategy against DEV infection.
Project description:Duck enteritis virus (DEV) belongs to the subfamily Alphaherpesvirinae, and information on the DEV UL41 gene is limited.The DEV UL41 gene was cloned into the pET32a(+) vector and expressed in a prokaryotic expression system. Antiserum was raised against a bacterially expressed UL41-His fusion protein for further experiments. Transcription was quantified and UL41 protein expression levels were determined in DEV-infected cells at different time points by RT-qPCR and western blotting, respectively. DEV virions were purified by sucrose gradient centrifugation and analyzed by mass spectrometry to identify protein content. We confirmed the DEV UL41 gene kinetic class using a pharmacological test. IFA was used to analyze the intracellular localization of pUL41.The recombinant expression plasmid, pET-32a(+)-UL41, which highly expresses a 76.0 kDa fusion protein, was constructed and expressed in E. coli BL21 (DE3) after induction with 0.2 mM IPTG at 30 °C for 10 h, generating a specific mouse anti-UL41 protein polyclonal antibody. RT-qPCR and western blot analyses revealed that the UL41 transcript number peaked at 36 hpi, and peak protein expression occurred at 48 hpi. The pharmacological test showed that UL41 was a γ2 gene. Mass spectrometry analysis showed that pUL41 was a virion component. IFA results revealed that pUL41 was localized throughout DEV-infected cells but only localized to the cytoplasm of transfected cells. DEV pUL47 translocated pUL41 to the nuclei of DEF cells; this translocation was dependent on predicted pUL47 NLS signals (40-50 aa and 768-777 aa).DEV UL41 is a γ2 gene that encodes a virion structural protein, pUL41 localizes throughout DEV-infected cells but only localizes to the cytoplasm of transfected cells. pUL41 cannot autonomously localize to the nucleus, as this nuclear localization is dependent on predicted DEV pUL47 NLS signals (40-50 aa and 768-777 aa).
Project description:Duck enteritis virus (DEV) can successfully evade the host innate immune responses and establish a lifelong latent infection in the infected host. However, the study about how DEV escapes host innate immunity is still deficient up to now. In this study, for the first time, we identified a viral protein VP16 by which DEV can obviously downregulate the production of IFN-? in duck embryo fibroblast (DEF). Our results showed that ectopic expression of VP16 decreased duck IFN-? (duIFN-?) promoter activation and significantly inhibited the mRNA transcription of IFN-?. Further study showed that VP16 can also obviously inhibit the mRNA transcription of interferon-stimulated genes (ISGs), such as myxovirus resistance protein (Mx) and interferon-induced oligoadenylate synthetase-like (OASL). Furthermore, we found that this anti-interferon activity of VP16 depended on its N-terminus (aa1-200). Coexpression analysis revealed that VP16 selectively blocked duIFN-? promoter activity at the duIRF7 level rather than duIRF1. Based on the results of coimmunoprecipitation analysis (co-IP) and indirect immunofluorescence assay (IFA), VP16 was able to bind to duck IRF7 (duIRF7) directly, but did not interact with duck IRF1 (duIRF1) in vitro.
Project description:Lethal Duck Enteritis Virus (DEV) infection can cause high morbidity and mortality of many species of waterfowl within the order Anseriformes. However, little is known about the function of viral genes including the conserved UL55 gene among alpha herpes virus due to the obstacles in maintenance and manipulation of DEV genome in host cells.In this paper, we constructed an infectious bacteria artificial chromosome (BAC) clone of the lethal clinical isolate duck enteritis virus Chinese virulent strain (DEV CHv) by inserting a transfer vector containing BAC mini-F sequence and selection marker EGFP into UL23 gene using homologous recombination. UL55 deletion and its revertant mutant were generated by two-step RED recombination in E. coli on basis of rescued recombinant virus. The function of UL55 gene in DEV replication and its effect on distribution of UL26.5 protein were carried out by growth characteristics and co-localization analysis.The complete genome of DEV CHv can be stably maintained in E. coli as a BAC clone and reconstituted again in DEF cells. The generated UL55 deletion mutant based on DEV CHv-BAC-G displayed similar growth curves, plaque morphology and virus titer of its parental virus in infected Duck Embryo Fibroblast (DEF) cells. Immunofluorescence assay indicated that the loss of UL55 gene do not affect the distribution of UL26.5 protein in intracellular. These data also suggest infectious BAC clone of DEV CHv will facilitate the gene function studies of DEV genome.We have successfully developed an infectious BAC clone of lethal clinical isolate DEV CHv for the first time. The generated UL55 gene mutant based on that demonstrated this platform would be a very useful tool for functional study of DEV genes. We found the least known DEV UL55 is dispensable for virus replication and UL26.5 distribution, and it could be a very promise candidate locus for developing bivalent vaccine. Experiment are now in progress for testifying the possibility of UL55 gene locus as an exogenous gene insertion site for developing DEV vectored vaccine.
Project description:Duck enteritis virus (DEV) can infect ducks, geese, and many other poultry species and leads to acute, septic and highly fatal infectious disease. Autophagy is an evolutionarily ancient pathway that plays an important role in many viral infections. We previously reported that DEV infection induces autophagy for its own benefit, but how this occurs remains unclear. In this study, endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress was triggered by DEV infection, as demonstrated by the increased expression of the ER stress marker glucose-regulated protein 78 (GRP78) and the dilated morphology of the ER. Pathways associated with the unfolded protein response (UPR), including the PKR-like ER protein kinase (PERK) and inositol-requiring enzyme 1 (IRE1) pathways, but not the activating transcription factor 6 (ATF6) pathway, were activated in DEV-infected duck embryo fibroblast (DEF) cells. In addition, the knockdown of both PERK and IRE1 by small interfering RNAs (siRNAs) reduced the level of LC3-II and viral yields, which suggested that the PERK-eukaryotic initiation factor 2? (eIF2?) and IRE1-x-box protein1 (XBP1) pathways may contribute to DEV-induced autophagy. Collectively, these data offer new insight into the mechanisms of DEV -induced autophagy through activation of the ER stress-related UPR pathway.
Project description:Duck enteritis virus (DEV) belongs to the family Herpesviridae and is an important epornitic agent that causes economic losses in the waterfowl industry. The Chinese virulent (CHv) and attenuate vaccines (VAC) are two different pathogenic DEV strains. MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are a class of non-coding RNAs that regulate gene expression in viral infection. Nonetheless, there is little information on virulent duck enteritis virus (DEV)-encoded miRNAs.Using high-throughput sequencing, we identified 39 mature viral miRNAs from CHv-infected duck embryo fibroblasts cells. Compared with the reported 33 VAC-encoded miRNAs, only 13 miRNA sequences and 22 "seed sequences" of miRNA were identical, and 8 novel viral miRNAs were detected and confirmed by stem-loop RT-qPCR in this study. Using RNAhybrid and PITA software, 38 CHv-encoded miRNAs were predicted to target 41 viral genes and formed a complex regulatory network. Dual luciferase reporter assay (DLRA) confirmed that viral dev-miR-D8-3p can directly target the 3'-UTR of CHv US1 gene (p < 0.05). Gene Ontology analysis on host target genes of viral miRNAs were mainly involved in biological regulation, cellular and metabolic processes. In addition, 598 novel duck-encoded miRNAs were detected in this study. Thirty-eight host miRNAs showed significant differential expression after CHv infection: 13 miRNAs were up-regulated, and 25 miRNAs were down-regulated, which may affect viral replication in the host cell.These data suggested that CHv encoded a different set of microRNAs and formed a unique regulatory network compared with VAC. This is the first report of DEF miRNAs expression profile and an analysis of these miRNAs regulatory mechanisms during DEV infection. These data provide a basis for further exploring miRNA regulatory roles in the pathogenesis of DEV infection and contribute to the understanding of the CHv-host interaction at the miRNA level.
Project description:The duplicate US1 genes of duck enteritis virus (DEV) encode a protein with a conserved Herpes_IE68 domain, which was found to be closely related to the herpes virus immediate early regulatory protein family and is highly conserved among counterparts encoded by Herpes_IE68 genes. Previous studies found the homologous proteins HSV-1 ICP22 and VZV ORF63/ORF70 to be critical for virus transcription and replication. However, little is known about the DEV ICP22 protein. In this paper, we describe the characteristics of this protein based on pharmacological experiments, real-time quantitative Polymerase Chain Reaction, Western blot, and immunofluorescence assays. We also investigate the role of the protein in DEV replication via mutation of US1. As a result, we found that the DEV ICP22 protein is a non-essential immediate early protein predominantly located in the nucleus of infected DEF cells and that DEV replication is impaired by US1 deletion. We also found that ICP22 contains a classical nuclear localization signal (NLS) at 305-312AA, and ICP22 cannot enter the nucleus by itself after mutating residue 309.
Project description:Duck Tembusu virus (DTMUV) has recently appeared in ducks in China and the key cellular determiners for DTMUV replication in host cells remain unknown. Autophagy is an evolutionarily conserved cellular process that has been reported to facilitate flavivirus replication. In this study, we utilized primary duck embryo fibroblast (DEF) as the cell model and found that DTMUV infection triggered LC3-II increase and polyubiquitin-binding protein sequestosome 1 (p62) decrease, confirming that complete autophagy occurred in DEF cells. The induction of autophagy by pharmacological treatment increased DTMUV replication in DEF cells, whereas the inhibition of autophagy with pharmacological treatments or RNA interference decreased DTMUV replication. Inhibiting autophagy enhanced the activation of the nuclear factor kappa-light-chain-enhancer of activated B cells (NF-?B) and interferon regulatory factor 7 (IRF7) pathways and increased the p62 protein level in DTMUV-infected cells. We further found that the overexpression of p62 decreased DTMUV replication and inhibited the activation of the NF-?B and IRF7 pathways, and changes in the NF-?B and IRF7 pathways were consistent with the level of phosphorylated TANK-binding kinase 1 (p-TBK1). Opposite results were found in p62 knockdown cells. In summary, we found that autophagy-mediated p62 degradation acted as a new strategy for DTMUV to evade host innate immunity.
Project description:Duck is susceptible to many pathogens, such as duck hepatitis virus, duck enteritis virus (DEV), duck tembusu virus, H5N1 highly pathogenic avian influenza virus (HPAIV) in particular. With the significant role of duck in the evolution of H5N1 HPAIV, control and eradication of H5N1 HPAIV in duck through vaccine immunization is considered an effective method in minimizing the threat of a pandemic outbreak. Consequently, a practical strategy to construct a vaccine against these pathogens should be determined. In this study, the DEV was examined as a candidate vaccine vector to deliver the hemagglutinin (HA) gene of H5N1, and its potential as a polyvalent vaccine was evaluated. A modified mini-F vector was inserted into the gB and UL26 gene junction of the attenuated DEV vaccine strain C-KCE genome to generate an infectious bacterial artificial chromosome (BAC) of C-KCE (vBAC-C-KCE). The HA gene of A/duck/Hubei/xn/2007 (H5N1) was inserted into the C-KCE genome via the mating-assisted genetically integrated cloning (MAGIC) to generate the recombinant vector pBAC-C-KCE-HA. A bivalent vaccine C-KCE-HA was developed by eliminating the BAC backbone. Ducks immunized with C-KCE-HA induced both the cross-reactive antibodies and T cell response against H5. Moreover, C-KCE-HA-immunized ducks provided rapid and long-lasting protection against homologous and heterologous HPAIV H5N1 and DEV clinical signs, death, and primary viral replication. In conclusion, our BAC-C-KCE is a promising platform for developing a polyvalent live attenuated vaccine.