Mid-and long-term efficacy of endovascular-based procedures for Cockett syndrome.
ABSTRACT: To investigate the mid- and long-term results of endovascular-based procedures for Cockett syndrome. The clinical data of 412 patients with Cockett syndrome treated between January 2003 and September 2017 were retrospectively analyzed. In these patients, 231 cases were acute left iliac femoral vein thrombosis (group A), and 181 cases were chronic venous insufficiency (group B), and different endovascular procedures and/or hybrid procedures were performed. In group A, the technique success rate was 100% (231/231); the left iliac vein in 5 patients showed no stenosis or occlusion, and the incidence of pathological changes in the left iliac vein was 97.8% (226/231); a total of 182 stents were implanted. In group B, the technique success rate was 99.4% (180/181); the average pressure difference between the proximal and distal portion of the pathological left iliac veins decreased from preoperative (18?±?4.45) cmH2O to postoperative (4?±?3.02) cmH2O (P?
Project description:A pregnant woman aged 29 years, G1P0 at 21?weeks of gestation of a dichorionic diamniotic twin, presented with suspected deep vein thrombosis (DVT) of the left leg. Repeated (compression) ultrasonography was not diagnostic for DVT but showed reduced flow over the left external iliac vein, common femoral vein and superficial femoral vein. In pursue of a definite diagnosis, magnetic resonance direct thrombus imaging was performed showing a clear high signal in the left common iliac vein which is diagnostic for acute thrombosis in this venous segment. Phase contrast venography supported this diagnosis, showing no flow in the left common iliac vein. Treatment with anticoagulants was started. 6 months after the diagnosis, the patient is doing well and does not report signs of post-thrombotic syndrome.
Project description:We present a series of kidney transplant dysfunction secondary to lower extremity deep venous thrombosis (DVT). A 70-year-old man underwent living unrelated kidney transplantation and presented 2 months postoperatively with acute kidney injury (AKI) secondary to external iliac vein thrombosis. Graft function improved after endovascular intervention. A 43-year-old man underwent living unrelated kidney transplantation and presented 3 years postoperatively with AKI secondary to external iliac vein thrombosis. Graft function recovered after thrombolysis. A 42-year-old woman underwent simultaneous pancreas and kidney transplantation. Four weeks postoperatively, she had AKI secondary to common femoral vein DVT. Her graft function improved after common iliac vein stenting. A 67-year-old man underwent living unrelated kidney transplantation and presented a week later with lower extremity DVT and AKI. His graft function improved with anticoagulation. Iliofemoral DVT can cause allograft dysfunction. The cause may be multifactorial. Endovascular intervention is safe and feasible when anticoagulation fails.
Project description:May-Thurner syndrome (MTS) belongs to a group of uncommon vascular syndromes. It consists in left common iliac vein (LCIV) compression between the right common iliac artery (RCIA) anteriorly and the lumbar spine posteriorly. A compression of LCIV by the left common iliac artery (LCIA) or by both iliac arteries were described. We present a rare case of "double MTS" which consist in double stenosis of LCIV by both RCIA and LCIA. Double MTS can cause acute or chronic DVT; this latter could be clinical manifest or well compensated. A 58-year-old woman with chronic mild pelvic pain underwent Doppler Ultrasound (US) of the pelvis and lower extremity vessels which showed thrombosis of both LCIV and ipsilateral common femoral vein caused by the extrinsic compression by both common iliac arteries against the spine. CT angiography confirmed the US data and ruled out other causes of compression. CT scan also showed the development of a natural venous femoro-femoral bypass which allowed to counteract the venous stasis and compensate venous drainage. Therefore, we decide for a long-term prophylaxis with anticoagulant drugs and doppler US follow-up at 6 months. In conclusion, doppler US is a non-invasive, low-cost, repeatable and sensitive method which allows to diagnose MTS and associated DVT. It may be considered the first level exam which allows to easily detect pelvic vascular compression syndrome.
Project description:Mild hypothermia therapy (33-36 °C) is useful in preventing anoxic brain injury occurring after return of spontaneous circulation among survivors of cardiac arrest. Adverse events generally include bleeding, pneumonia, bradycardia, and deep vein thrombosis (DVT). However, one rare complication is huge DVT. We recently encountered a boy with ventricular fibrillation due to hypertrophic cardiomyopathy complicated by huge DVT from bilateral common femoral veins close to the hepatic vein during endovascular cooling therapy via his femoral vein. We successfully managed this case without any complications after infusion of unfractionated heparin to maintain a relatively high activated partial thromboplastin time. <Learning objective: We should be more careful in screening for deep vein thrombosis before and after endovascular cooling therapy.>.
Project description:Abstract <h4>Background</h4> Spontaneous iliac vein ruptures have only been reported in approximately 50 cases. An accurate preoperative diagnosis is difficult even with contrast-enhanced computed tomography (CT), and the operative mortality and morbidity rates are quite high. The cause of spontaneous iliac vein ruptures and their optimal diagnosis and management remain unclear. <h4>Case summary</h4> A 69-year-old woman without a history of prior trauma presented with low back pain, left lower limb swelling, and hypovolaemic shock. An initial contrast-enhanced CT revealed a large retroperitoneal haematoma without arterial extravasation. Her blood pressure dropped again under a noradrenaline administration. A second venous phase contrast-enhanced CT revealed venous extravasation in the external iliac vein with a suspected compression of the common iliac vein (May–Thurner syndrome) and deep vein thrombosis (DVT). Her haemodynamics were stabilized whilst a laparotomy was arranged. An inferior vena cava (IVC) filter was placed due to concerns about rebleeding with initiating anticoagulation therapy. Given the failed conservative management, elective endovascular treatment (EVT) was performed including percutaneous Fogarty venous thrombectomy and placement of self-expanding and covered stents. After the intervention, the lower limb swelling significantly improved under oral anticoagulation therapy, and the IVC filter was retrieved. At the 3-month follow-up, the lower limb swelling completely disappeared, and the contrast-enhanced CT demonstrated the complete disappearance of the retroperitoneal haematoma and DVT. <h4>Discussion</h4> This case provided not only the potential value of the venous phase contrast-enhanced CT in diagnosing a spontaneous iliac vein rupture but also the potential benefit of conservative management followed by elective EVT.
Project description:Study Design Case report. Objective Although May-Thurner syndrome or iliac vein compression syndrome is covered in the vascular literature, it remains absent from the orthopedic and neurosurgery literature and has not been previously reported to occur in concordance with spine surgery. We review the salient points of disease presentation, diagnosis, and treatment. Methods A 33-year-old woman was followed postoperatively via clinical and radiographic findings. Her presentation, operative treatment, postoperative extensive deep venous thrombosis (DVT) formation, and management are described. Results We present a unique case of a healthy 33-year-old woman who developed an extensive left iliac vein DVT after anterior lumbar spine fusion. Although she had multiple risk factors for thrombosis, the size of the thrombus was atypical. A subsequent venogram showed compression of the left common iliac vein by the right common iliac artery, consistent with May-Thurner syndrome. Conclusions May-Thurner syndrome or iliac vein compression syndrome is a rare diagnosis that is absent from the spine literature. The condition can predispose patients to extensive iliac vein DVT. The contributing anatomy and subsequent clot often require catheter-directed thrombolysis and stenting to achieve a favorable outcome.
Project description:This study was performed to assess the probability of post-thrombotic syndrome (PTS) after treatment of lower extremity deep venous thrombosis (LEDVT). Patients with LEDVT undergoing their first treatments in Nanjing First Hospital from January 2013 to December 2014 were enrolled in this study (156 patients were enrolled in the training cohort, and 135 patients were enrolled in the validation cohort). 51 and 45 patients developed PTS in the two cohorts, respectively. Independent risk factors for PTS were investigated in the training cohort, and these independent risk factors were employed to develop the APTSD scoring system with which to predict the probability of PTS. Four independent risk factors for PTS were identified: iliac vein compression syndrome, residual iliac-femoral vein thrombosis, residual femoral-popliteal vein thrombosis and insufficient anticoagulation. Patients in the training cohort were divided into 2 groups according to the APTSD score of ?7.0 and >7.0 points regarding the probability of PTS (median PTS-free time, 21.82 vs. 18.84 months; P?<?0.001). The accuracy of this score system was 81.7% for the training cohort and 82.5% for the validation cohort. Patients with an APTSD score of >7.0 points may have an increased probability of developing PTS.
Project description:Several anatomic abnormalities predispose patients to iliofemoral deep venous thrombosis, the most common of which is compression of the left iliac vein between the right common iliac artery and lumbar vertebrae, or May-Thurner syndrome. Other areas of venous compression can occur but are rare. This case report describes the presentation, diagnosis, and management of a patient with compression of the right iliac vein "sandwiched" between the right internal and external iliac arteries. After treatment, the patient demonstrated significant improvement in symptoms.
Project description:The aim of the present study was to evaluate magnetic resonance venography (MRV) scanned by breath-hold volume interpolated body examination with spectral fat saturation (VIBE-fs), combined with Dixon fat-suppressed VIBE (VIBE-Dixon) by using a 1.5T MR scanner for detecting deep venous thrombosis (DVT) compared with duplex sonography. A total of 31 patients with DVT were identified using duplex sonography and were enrolled in the present study for MRV examination, from the inferior vena cava to the ankle level after injection of gadopentetate dimeglumine. Venous segment-to-segment comparison was assessed for DVT detection between MRV and duplex sonography. A total of two radiologists separately performed subjective image quality assessment using a 5-point scale. Cohen's ? coefficient, Wilcoxon rank sum test and intraclass correlation coefficient values were used for statistical analysis. Of the 303 evaluated vein segments, duplex sonography identified 119 (39.3%; 119/303) venous segments with thrombus, while MRV detected 170 (56.1%; 170/303) venous segments with thrombus. The diagnostic agreement rate of DVT between duplex sonography and MRV was poor in the deep femoral vein and anterior tibial veins, while it was excellent in the inferior vena cava (IVC), common iliac vein, external iliac vein, femoral vein, popliteal vein, posterior tibial veins and peroneal veins. In addition, poor reliability was detected in the deep femoral vein, anterior tibial veins and peroneal veins, but good to excellent reliability was observed in IVC, common iliac vein, external iliac vein, femoral vein, popliteal vein and posterior tibial veins. Furthermore, image quality scores of each venous segment between the two radiologists indicated no statistical difference. Therefore, MRV scanned using VIBE-fs for the suprainguinal and VIBE-Dixon for the infrainguinal region may be a useful method for detecting DVT compared with duplex sonography. The results of present study proved this MR protocol to be a beneficial alternative imaging modality for the detection of DVT when duplex sonography is inadequate or not able to be performed.
Project description:Abstract <h4>Background</h4> Venous thrombo-embolic events have been described in hospitalized patients with coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19), suggesting the presence of coagulopathy induced by the viral infection. To date, only rare cases of arterial thrombosis related to COVID-19 have been reported. <h4>Case summary</h4> A 54-year-old patient with an influenza-like illness 15 days earlier, which resolved, and no known cardiovascular risk factor presented with acute right lower limb ischaemia. A computed tomography angiogram of the abdominal aorta and lower extremities showed, in the absence of vascular disease, a subocclusive thrombosis of the right common iliac artery and an occlusion of the right internal iliac, profunda femoral, and popliteal arteries. On the left side, the computed tomography angiogram demonstrated a non-occlusive thrombosis of the common femoral artery. The patient underwent emergency surgical thrombectomy as well as endovascular revascularization on the right side followed by therapeutic anticoagulation, with normalization of the limb perfusion. A nasopharyngeal swab for severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) by real-time reverse transcription–PCR (rRT–PCR) was negative three times. Haemostasis analysis showed a mild hyperfibrinogenaemia and a shortening of the activated partial thromboplastin time. An extensive screening for cardio-embolism was negative. As the thrombotic event was unexplained, antibody testing for SARS-CoV-2 was performed and the result was positive. <h4>Discussion</h4> Venous thrombosis and pulmonary embolisms have been observed in COVID-19. As in our case, the first reports on COVID-19-associated arterial thrombotic events have emerged. A better understanding of the coagulopathy in COVID-19 is essential to guide prevention and treatment of venous as well as arterial thrombo-embolic events.