Exosomes derived from mesenchymal stem cells enhance radiotherapy-induced cell death in tumor and metastatic tumor foci.
ABSTRACT: BACKGROUND:We have recently shown that radiotherapy may not only be a successful local and regional treatment but, when combined with MSCs, may also be a novel systemic cancer therapy. This study aimed to investigate the role of exosomes derived from irradiated MSCs in the delay of tumor growth and metastasis after treatment with MSC?+?radiotherapy (RT). METHODS:We have measured tumor growth and metastasis formation, of subcutaneous human melanoma A375 xenografts on NOD/SCID-gamma mice, and the response of tumors to treatment with radiotherapy (2 Gy), mesenchymal cells (MSC), mesenchymal cells plus radiotherapy, and without any treatment. Using proteomic analysis, we studied the cargo of the exosomes released by the MSC treated with 2 Gy, compared with the cargo of exosomes released by MSC without treatment. RESULTS:The tumor cell loss rates found after treatment with the combination of MSC and RT and for exclusive RT, were: 44.4% % and 12,1%, respectively. Concomitant and adjuvant use of RT and MSC, increased the mice surviving time 22,5% in this group, with regard to the group of mice treated with exclusive RT and in a 45,3% respect control group. Moreover, the number of metastatic foci found in the internal organs of the mice treated with MSC?+?RT was 60% less than the mice group treated with RT alone. We reasoned that the exosome secreted by the MSC, could be implicated in tumor growth delay and metastasis control after treatment. CONCLUSIONS:Our results show that exosomes derived form MSCs, combined with radiotherapy, are determinant in the enhancement of radiation effects observed in the control of metastatic spread of melanoma cells and suggest that exosome-derived factors could be involved in the bystander, and abscopal effects found after treatment of the tumors with RT plus MSC. Radiotherapy itself may not be systemic, although it might contribute to a systemic effect when used in combination with mesenchymal stem cells owing the ability of irradiated MSCs-derived exosomes to increase the control of tumor growth and metastasis.
Project description:BACKGROUND:Malignant behavior and radioresistance, which severely limits the efficacy of radiation therapy (RT) in nasopharyngeal carcinoma (NPC), are associated with tumor progression and poor prognosis. Mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) are used as a therapeutic tool in a variety of tumors. The aim of this study was to reveal the effect of tumor suppressor microRNA-34c-5p (miR-34c) on NPC development and radioresistance, as well as to confirm that exosomes derived from MSCs overexpressing miR-34c restore the sensitivity to radiotherapy in NPCs. METHODS:Potentially active microRNAs were screened by cell sequencing, Gene Expression Omnibus (GEO) database analysis, and analysis of clinical serum samples from 70 patients. The expression of genes and proteins was detected by Western blotting, quantitative reverse transcription PCR (qRT-PCR), and immunohistochemistry (IHC). Proliferation, apoptosis, invasion, migration and radioresistance of NPC were detected. Luciferase reporter assays were used to verify the interactions of microRNAs with their downstream targets. MSCs exosomes were isolated by ultrafiltration and verified by electron microscopy and nanoparticle tracking technology. RESULTS:The expression of miR-34c was associated with the occurrence and radiation resistance of NPC. In vitro and in vivo experiments indicated that overexpression of miR-34c inhibit malignant behavior such as invasion, migration, proliferation and epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT) in NPCs by targeting ?-Catenin. In addition, we found alleviated radioresistance upon miR-34c overexpression or ?-catenin knockdown in NPCs. Exosomes derived from miR-34c-transfected MSCs attenuated NPC invasion, migration, proliferation and EMT. Moreover, miR-34c-overexpressing exosomes drastically increased radiation-induced apoptosis in NPC cells. CONCLUSION:miR-34c is a tumor suppressor miR in NPC, which inhibits malignant behavior as well as radioresistance of tumor. Therefore, exogenous delivery of miR-34c to NPCs via MSC exosomes inhibits tumor progression and increases the efficiency of RT. Combination IR with miR-34c-overexpressing exosomes may be effective treatment for radioresistant NPCs.
Project description:Mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) are a class of adult stem cells derived from the mesoderm. They can self-renew, have multidirectional differentiation potential, and can differentiate into a variety of mesenchymal tissues. MSCs can produce a large number of exosomes, which can mediate information exchange and transmission between cells in the tumor microenvironment under conditions of rest or stress. Recent studies have reported conflicting findings regarding the effect of MSC-derived exosomes on tumors. Some studies have suggested that MSC-derived exosomes can promote tumor growth and metastasis, but others have reported that they can inhibit tumor cell growth. Here, we investigate the two sides of the debate regarding the effect of MSC-derived exosomes on tumors and analyze the reasons for the divergent findings.
Project description:This study aimed to investigate the underlying mechanism of mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) on protection of renal ischemia reperfusion injury (IRI). Exosomes originated from MSCs (MSC-ex) were extracted according to the instructions of Total Exosome Isolation Reagent. Rats were divided into five groups: sham-operated, IRI, MSC, MSC-ex, and MSC-ex + RNAase group. MSCs or MSC-ex were injected via carotid artery. The renal function test and pathological detection were applied to determine the renoprotection of MSC-ex on IRI. Western blotting and quantitative reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-qPCR) were conducted to examine the levels of apoptosis-related proteins and inflammatory cytokines. Our results revealed that MSC-derived exosomes attenuated renal dysfunction, histologic damage, and decreased apoptosis. The expression levels of inflammatory cytokines, such as interleukin 6 (IL-6), tumor necrosis factor-? (TNF-?), nuclear factor kappa B (NF-?B), and interferon gamma (IFN-?), were decreased by the MSC-ex treatment. The expression levels of caspase-9, cleaved caspase-3, Bax, and Bcl-2 caused by IR were also inhibited by MSC-ex. MSC-ex + RNAase group shared the similar pattern of changes with IRI group, likely due to the ability of RNA hydrolase to eliminate the function of exosomes. Our results demonstrated that exosomes originating from MSCs have protective effects on IRI via inhibiting cell apoptosis and inflammatory responses. Out findings may provide a new insight into therapeutic mechanism of MSCs on renal IRI.
Project description:BACKGROUND:Radiotherapy to cancer patients is inevitably accompanied by normal tissue injury, and the bone is one of the most commonly damaged tissues. Damage to bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells (BM-MSCs) induced by radiation is thought to be a major cause of radiation-induced bone loss. Exosomes exhibit great therapeutic potential in the treatment of osteoporosis, but whether exosomes are involved in radiation-induced bone loss has not been thoroughly elucidated to date. The main purpose of this study is to investigate the role of exosomes derived from BM-MSCs in restoring recipient BM-MSC function and alleviating radiation-induced bone loss. METHODS:BM-MSC-derived exosomes were intravenously injected to rats immediately after irradiation. After 28?days, the left tibiae were harvested for micro-CT and histomorphometric analysis. The effects of exosomes on antioxidant capacity, DNA damage repair, proliferation, and cell senescence of recipient BM-MSCs were determined. Osteogenic and adipogenic differentiation assays were used to detect the effects of exosomes on the differentiation potential of recipient BM-MSCs, and related genes were measured by qRT-PCR and Western blot analysis. ?-Catenin expression was detected at histological and cytological levels. RESULTS:BM-MSC-derived exosomes can attenuate radiation-induced bone loss in a rat model that is similar to mesenchymal stem cell transplantation. Exosome-treated BM-MSCs exhibit reduced oxidative stress, accelerated DNA damage repair, and reduced proliferation inhibition and cell senescence-associate protein expression compared with BM-MSCs that exclusively received irradiation. Following irradiation, exosomes promote ?-catenin expression in BM-MSCs and restore the balance between adipogenic and osteogenic differentiation. CONCLUSIONS:Our findings indicate that BM-MSC-derived exosomes take effects by restoring the function of recipient BM-MSCs. Therefore, exosomes may represent a promising cell-free therapeutic approach for the treatment of radiation-induced bone loss.
Project description:We have previously shown that the combination of radiotherapy with human umbilical-cord-derived mesenchymal stromal/stem cells (MSCs) cell therapy significantly reduces the size of the xenotumors in mice, both in the directly irradiated tumor and in the distant nonirradiated tumor or its metastasis. We have also shown that exosomes secreted from MSCs preirradiated with 2 Gy are quantitatively, functionally and qualitatively different from the exosomes secreted from nonirradiated mesenchymal cells, and also that proteins, exosomes and microvesicles secreted by MSCs suffer a significant change when the cells are activated or nonactivated, with the amount of protein present in the exosomes of the preirradiated cells being 1.5 times greater compared to those from nonirradiated cells. This finding correlates with a dramatic increase in the antitumor activity of the radiotherapy when is combined with MSCs or with preirradiated mesenchymal stromal/stem cells (MSCs*). After the proteomic analysis of the load of the exosomes released from both irradiated and nonirradiated cells, we conclude that annexin A1 is the most important and significant difference between the exosomes released by the cells in either status. Knowing the role of annexin A1 in the control of hypoxia and inflammation that is characteristic of acute respiratory-distress syndrome (ARDS), we designed a hypothetical therapeutic strategy, based on the transplantation of mesenchymal stromal/stem cells stimulated with radiation, to alleviate the symptoms of patients who, due to pneumonia caused by SARS-CoV-2, require to be admitted to an intensive care unit for patients with life-threatening conditions. With this hypothesis, we seek to improve the patients' respiratory capacity and increase the expectations of their cure.
Project description:BACKGROUND:Machado-Joseph disease is the most common autosomal dominant hereditary ataxia worldwide without effective treatment. Mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) could slow the disease progression, but side effects limited their clinical application. Besides, MSC-derived exosomes exerted similar efficacy and have many advantages over MSCs. The aim of this study was to examine the efficacy of MSC-derived exosomes in YACMJD84.2 mice. METHODS:Rotarod performance was evaluated every 2?weeks after a presymptomatic administration of intravenous MSC-derived exosomes twice in YACMJD84.2 mice. Loss of Purkinje cells, relative expression level of Bcl-2/Bax, cerebellar myelin loss, and neuroinflammation were assessed 8?weeks following treatment. RESULTS:MSC-derived exosomes were isolated and purified through anion exchange chromatography. Better coordination in rotarod performance was maintained for 6?weeks in YACMJD84.2 mice with exosomal treatment, compared with those without exosomal treatment. Neuropathological changes including loss of Purkinje cells, cerebellar myelin loss, and neuroinflammation were also attenuated 8?weeks after exosomal treatment. The higher relative ratio of Bcl-2/Bax was consistent with the attenuation of loss of Purkinje cells. CONCLUSIONS:MSC-derived exosomes could promote rotarod performance and attenuate neuropathology, including loss of Purkinje cells, cerebellar myelin loss, and neuroinflammation. Therefore, MSC-derived exosomes have a great potential in the treatment of Machado-Joseph disease.
Project description:Mesenchymal stem/stromal cells (MSCs) have been demonstrated to hold great potential for the treatment of several diseases. Their therapeutic effects are largely mediated by paracrine factors including exosomes, which are nanometer-sized membrane-bound vesicles with functions as mediators of cell-cell communication. MSC-derived exosomes contain cytokines and growth factors, signaling lipids, mRNAs, and regulatory miRNAs. Increasing evidence suggests that MSC-derived exosomes might represent a novel cell-free therapy with compelling advantages over parent MSCs such as no risk of tumor formation and lower immunogenicity. This paper reviews the characteristics of MSC exosomes and their fate after in vivo administration, and highlights the therapeutic potential of MSC-derived exosomes in liver, kidney, cardiovascular and neurological disease. Particularly, we summarize the recent clinical trials performed to evaluate the safety and efficacy of MSC exosomes. Overall, this paper provides a general overview of MSC-exosomes as a new cell-free therapeutic paradigm.
Project description:The acquisition of radioresistance by breast cancer cells during radiotherapy may lead to cancer recurrence and poor survival. Signal transducer and activator of transcription 3 (Stat3) is activated in breast cancer cells and, therefore, may be an effective target for overcoming therapeutic resistance. Mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) have been investigated for use in cancer treatment. Here, we investigated the potential of MSC conditioned medium (MSC-CM) in sensitizing breast cancer to radiotherapy. It was found that MSC-CM could inhibit the level of activated Stat3, suppress cancer growth, and exhibit synergetic effects with radiation treatment in vitro and in vivo. Furthermore, MSC-CM reduced the ALDH-positive cancer stem cells (CSCs) population, modulated several potential stem cell markers, and decreased tumor migration, as well as metastasis. These results demonstrate that MSC-CM suppresses breast cancer cells growth and sensitizes cancer cells to radiotherapy through inhibition of the Stat3 signaling pathway, thus, providing a novel strategy for breast cancer therapy by overcoming radioresistance.
Project description:We speculate that exosomes derived from human umbilical cord mesenchymal stromal cells (HUC-MSCs) will accumulate within tumors and have the potential for both tumor location or drug delivery. Methods: To determine proof of concept, HUC-MSC exosomes were labeled with an MRI contrast agent, gadolinium, or a near infrared dye. Exosome accumulation within ectopic osteosarcoma tumor-bearing mice was determined by 14.1 T MRI or bioimaging over 24-48 h after injection. In vitro studies examine the accumulation and physiological effect of exosomes on human and mouse osteosarcoma cell lines by MTT assay, confocal microscopy, and flow cytometry. Results: Systemic HUC-MSC exosomes accumulated continuously in tumor over a 24-48 h post-injection period. In contrast, synthetic lipid nanoparticles accumulate in tumor only for the first 3 h post-injection. Conclusion: These results suggest that HUC-MSCs exosomes accumulate within human or mouse osteosarcoma cells in vitro and in vivo over a 24 to 48 h after infusion.
Project description:The incidence of dementia is higher in diabetic patients, but no effective treatment has been developed. This study showed that rat bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells (BM-MSCs) can improve the cognitive impairments of STZ-diabetic mice by repairing damaged neurons and astrocytes. The Morris water maze test demonstrated that cognitive impairments induced by diabetes were significantly improved by intravenous injection of BM-MSCs. In the CA1 region of the hippocampus, degeneration of neurons and astrocytes, as well as synaptic loss, were prominent in diabetes, and BM-MSC treatment successfully normalized them. Since a limited number of donor BM-MSCs was observed in the brain parenchyma, we hypothesized that humoral factors, especially exosomes released from BM-MSCs, act on damaged neurons and astrocytes. To investigate the effectiveness of exosomes for treatment of diabetes-induced cognitive impairment, exosomes were purified from the culture media and injected intracerebroventricularly into diabetic mice. Recovery of cognitive impairment and histological abnormalities similar to that seen with BM-MSC injection was found following exosome treatment. Use of fluorescence-labeled exosomes demonstrated that injected exosomes were internalized into astrocytes and neurons; these subsequently reversed the dysfunction. The present results indicate that exosomes derived from BM-MSCs might be a promising therapeutic tool for diabetes-induced cognitive impairment.