Stereospecific Synthesis of the Saccharosamine-Rhamnose-Fucose Fragment Present in Saccharomicin B.
ABSTRACT: A synthetic route has been developed for constructing the d-saccharosamine-l-rhamnose-d-fucose (Sac-Rha-Fuc) trisaccharide fragment present in the antibacterial natural product saccharomicin B. The Sac monosaccharide was synthesized through a modified nine step procedure starting from d-rhamnal in 23% overall yield. 1- O-TBS Sac donors were used to construct the ?-linked Sac-Rha disaccharide. This disaccharide was coupled to a Fuc acceptor under BSP/Tf2O conditions to afford a trisaccharide properly functionalized for elaboration to saccharomicin B.
Project description:A synthesis of the nonreducing end hexasaccharide of saccharomicin B, ?-l-Eva-(1?4)-?-l-Eva-(1?4)-?-l-Dig-(1?4)-?-l-Eva-(1?4)-?-l-Dig-(1?4)-?-d-Fuc, has been developed. Selective glycosylations of l-digitoxose (l-Dig) using AgPF6/TTBP-mediated thioether activation and l-4-e pi-vancosamine (l-Eva) using Tf2O/DTBMP-mediated sulfoxide activation produced the hexasaccharide as a single diastereomer in very good yield. This hexasaccharide is properly functionalized to serve as a glycosyl donor for the total synthesis of saccharomicin B.
Project description:A concise synthesis of a branched trisaccharide, ?-l-Dig-(1 ? 3)-[?-l-Eva-(1 ? 4)]-?-d-Fuc, corresponding to saccharomicin B, has been developed via reagent-controlled ?-selective glycosylations. Starting from the d-fucose acceptor, l- epi-vancosamine was selectively installed using 2,3-bis(2,3,4-trimethoxyphenyl)cyclopropene-1-thione/oxalyl bromide mediated dehydrative glycosylation. Following deprotection, l-digitoxose was installed using the AgPF6/TTBP thioether-activation method to produce the trisaccharide as a single ?-anomer. This highly functionalized trisaccharide can potentially serve as both a donor and an acceptor for the total synthesis of the antibiotic saccharomicin B.
Project description:The disaccharide motif fucose-?(1-2)-galactose (Fuc?(1-2)Gal) is involved in many important physiological processes, such as learning and memory, inflammation, asthma, and tumorigenesis. However, the size and structural complexity of Fuc?(1-2)Gal-containing glycans have posed a significant challenge to their detection. We report a new chemoenzymatic strategy for the rapid, sensitive detection of Fuc?(1-2)Gal glycans. We demonstrate that the approach is highly selective for the Fuc?(1-2)Gal motif, detects a variety of complex glycans and glycoproteins, and can be used to profile the relative abundance of the motif on live cells, discriminating malignant from normal cells. This approach represents a new potential strategy for biomarker detection and expands the technologies available for understanding the roles of this important class of carbohydrates in physiology and disease.
Project description:Appropriate glycoprotein O-glycosylation is essential for normal development and tissue function in multicellular organisms. To comprehensively assess the developmental and functional impact of altered O-glycosylation, we have extensively analyzed the non-glycosaminoglycan, O-linked glycans expressed in Drosophila embryos. Through multidimensional mass spectrometric analysis of glycans released from glycoproteins by beta-elimination, we detected novel as well as previously reported O-glycans that exhibit developmentally modulated expression. The core 1 mucin-type disaccharide (Galbeta1-3GalNAc) is the predominant glycan in the total profile. HexNAcitol, hexitol, xylosylated hexitol, and branching extension of core 1 with HexNAc (to generate core 2 glycans) were also evident following release and reduction. After Galbeta1-3GalNAc, the next most prevalent glycans were a mixture of novel, isobaric, linear, and branched forms of a glucuronyl core 1 disaccharide. Other less prevalent structures were also extended with HexA, including an O-fucose glycan. Although the expected disaccharide product of the Fringe glycosyltransferase, (GlcNAcbeta1-3)fucitol, was not detectable in whole embryos, mass spectrometry fragmentation and exoglycosidase sensitivity defined a novel glucuronyl trisaccharide as GlcNAcbeta1-3(GlcAbeta1-4)fucitol. Consistent with the spatial distribution of the Fringe function, the GlcA-extended form of the Fringe product was enriched in the dorsal portion of the wing imaginal disc. Furthermore, loss of Fringe activity reduced the prevalence of the O-Fuc trisaccharide. Therefore, O-Fuc glycans necessary for the modulation of important signaling events in Drosophila are, as in vertebrates, substrates for extension beyond the addition of a single HexNAc.
Project description:We have previously characterized from Lactobacillus casei BL23 three ?-L-fucosidases, AlfA, AlfB, and AlfC, which hydrolyze in vitro natural fucosyl-oligosaccharides. In this work, we have shown that L. casei is able to grow in the presence of fucosyl-?-1,3-N-acetylglucosamine (Fuc-?-1,3-GlcNAc) as a carbon source. Interestingly, L. casei excretes the L-fucose moiety during growth on Fuc-?-1,3-GlcNAc, indicating that only the N-acetylglucosamine moiety is being metabolized. Analysis of the genomic sequence of L. casei BL23 shows that downstream from alfB, which encodes the ?-L-fucosidase AlfB, a gene, alfR, that encodes a transcriptional regulator is present. Divergently from alfB, three genes, alfEFG, that encode proteins with homology to the enzyme IIAB (EIIAB), EIIC, and EIID components of a mannose-class phosphoenolpyruvate:sugar phosphotransferase system (PTS) are present. Inactivation of either alfB or alfF abolishes the growth of L. casei on Fuc-?-1,3-GlcNAc. This proves that AlfB is involved in Fuc-?-1,3-GlcNAc metabolism and that the transporter encoded by alfEFG participates in the uptake of this disaccharide. A mutation in the PTS general component enzyme I does not eliminate the utilization of Fuc-?-1,3-GlcNAc, suggesting that the transport via the PTS encoded by alfEFG is not coupled to phosphorylation of the disaccharide. Transcriptional analysis with alfR and ccpA mutants shows that the two gene clusters alfBR and alfEFG are regulated by substrate-specific induction mediated by the inactivation of the transcriptional repressor AlfR and by carbon catabolite repression mediated by the catabolite control protein A (CcpA). This work reports for the first time the characterization of the physiological role of an ?-L-fucosidase in lactic acid bacteria and the utilization of Fuc-?-1,3-GlcNAc as a carbon source for bacteria.
Project description:Lewis X (Le(x))-containing glycans play important roles in numerous cellular processes. However, the absence of robust, facile, and cost-effective methods for the synthesis of Le(x) and its structurally related analogs has severely hampered the elucidation of the specific functions of these glycan epitopes. Here we demonstrate that chemically defined guanidine 5'-diphosphate-beta-l-fucose (GDP-fucose), the universal fucosyl donor, the Le(x) trisaccharide, and their C-5 substituted derivatives can be synthesized on preparative scales, using a chemoenzymatic approach. This method exploits l-fucokinase/GDP-fucose pyrophosphorylase (FKP), a bifunctional enzyme isolated from Bacteroides fragilis 9343, which converts l-fucose into GDP-fucose via a fucose-1-phosphate (Fuc-1-P) intermediate. Combining the activities of FKP and a Helicobacter pylori alpha1,3 fucosyltransferase, we prepared a library of Le(x) trisaccharide glycans bearing a wide variety of functional groups at the fucose C-5 position. These neoglycoconjugates will be invaluable tools for studying Le(x)-mediated biological processes.
Project description:C-type lectins (CTLs) are proteins that contain one or more carbohydrate-recognition domains (CRDs) that require calcium for sugar binding and share high degree of sequence homology and tertiary structure. CTLs whose CRD contain EPN (Glu-Pro-Asn) tripeptide motifs have potential to bind mannose (Man), N-acetylglucosamine (GlcNAc), glucose (Glc) and l-fucose (Fuc), whereas those with QPD (Glu-Pro-Asp) tripeptide motifs bind galactose (Gal) and N-acetylgalactosamine (GalNAc). We report here for the first time a direct comparison of monosaccharide (and some di- and trisaccharides)-binding characteristics of 11 EPX-containing (X = N, S or D) immune-related CTLs using a competition assay and an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay, and neoglycoproteins as ligand. The EPX CTLs studied are DC-SIGN, L-SIGN, mSIGNR1, human and mouse mannose receptors, Langerin, BDCA-2, DCIR, dectin-2, MCL and MINCLE. We found that: (1) they all bound Man and Fuc; (2) binding of Glc and GlcNAc varied considerably among these lectins, but was always less than Man and Fuc; (3) in general, Gal and GalNAc were not bound. However, dectin-2, DCIR and MINCLE showed ability to bind Gal/GalNAc; (4) DC-SIGN, L-SIGN, mSIGNR1 and Langerin showed enhanced binding of Man?2Man over Man, whereas all others showed no enhancement; (5) DC-SIGN bound Le(x) trisaccharide structure, which has terminal Gal and Fuc residues, more avidly than Fuc, whereas L-SIGN, mSIGNR1, DCIR and MINCLE bound Le(x) less avidly than Fuc. BDCA-2, dectin-2, Langerin, MCL and mannose receptor did not bind Le(x) at all.
Project description:Mass spectrometric analyses of lipopolysaccharide (LPS) from isogenic Escherichia coli strains with nonpolar mutations in the waa locus or overexpression of their cognate genes revealed that waaZ and waaS are the structural genes required for the incorporation of the third 3-deoxy-?-D-manno-oct-2-ulosonic acid (Kdo) linked to Kdo disaccharide and rhamnose, respectively. The incorporation of rhamnose requires prior sequential incorporation of the Kdo trisaccharide. The minimal in vivo lipid A-anchored core structure Kdo(2)Hep(2)Hex(2)P(1) in the LPS from ?waaO (lacking ?-1,3-glucosyltransferase) could incorporate Kdo(3)Rha, without the overexpression of the waaZ and waaS genes. Examination of LPS heterogeneity revealed overlapping control by RpoE ? factor, two-component systems (BasS/R and PhoB/R), and ppGpp. Deletion of RpoE-specific anti-? factor rseA led to near-exclusive incorporation of glycoforms with the third Kdo linked to Kdo disaccharide. This was accompanied by concomitant incorporation of rhamnose, linked to either the terminal third Kdo or to the second Kdo, depending upon the presence or absence of phosphoethanolamine on the second Kdo with truncation of the outer core. This truncation in ?rseA was ascribed to decreased levels of WaaR glycosyltransferase, which was restored to wild-type levels, including overall LPS composition, upon the introduction of rybB sRNA deletion. Thus, ?waaR contained LPS primarily with Kdo(3) without any requirement for lipid A modifications. Accumulation of a glycoform with Kdo(3) and 4-amino-4-deoxy-l-arabinose in lipid A in ?rseA required ppGpp, being abolished in a ?(ppGpp(0) rseA). Furthermore, ?(waaZ lpxLMP) synthesizing tetraacylated lipid A exhibited synthetic lethality at 21-23°C pointing to the significance of the incorporation of the third Kdo.
Project description:Keratan sulphate chains from bovine articular cartilage were fully digested with keratanase from Pseudomonas sp. and the products were reduced with alkaline borohydride. The resultant fragments were fractionated on a Nucleosil 5SB column and the earliest eluting fucose-containing oligosaccharides were isolated. Structural analysis using 1H n.m.r. spectroscopy (600 MHz) showed the two least-charged species to have the following structure: GlcNAc(6S) beta 1-3Gal beta 1-4(Fuc alpha 1-3)GlcNAc(6S) beta 1- 3Gal beta 1-4GlcNAc(6S) beta 1-3Gal-ol and GlcNAc(6S) beta 1-3Gal beta 1- 4(Fuc alpha 1-3)GlcNAc(6S) beta 1-3Gal beta 1-4GlcNAc(6S) beta 1-6(Gal beta 1- 3)GalNAc-ol. Both galactoses adjacent to the fucosylated N-acetylglucosamine residue are unsulphated. Therefore, it can be deduced from these structures that the presence of fucose on N-acetylglucosamine residues in keratan sulphates protects both of the adjacent unsulphated galactose residues from keratanase cleavage. This result has implications for the interpretation of keratanase fingerprints, because in articular cartilage keratan sulphates the keratanase-resistant blocks are not solely those with fully sulphated galactose residues, but also include the fucosylated sequences, which have unsulphated galactoses. It is, therefore, not possible to estimate their galactose sulphation or the size of the fully sulphated disaccharide-repeat sequences from keratan sulphates that contain fucose.
Project description:L-Fucose is a sugar present in human secretions as part of human milk oligosaccharides, mucins, and other glycoconjugates in the intestinal epithelium. The genome of the probiotic Lactobacillus rhamnosus GG (LGG) carries a gene cluster encoding a putative L-fucose permease (fucP), L-fucose catabolic pathway (fucI, fucK, fucU, and fucA), and a transcriptional regulator (fucR). The metabolism of L-fucose in LGG results in 1,2-propanediol production, and their fucI and fucP mutants displayed a severe and mild growth defect on L-fucose, respectively. Transcriptional analysis revealed that the fuc genes are induced by L-fucose and subject to a strong carbon catabolite repression effect. This induction was triggered by FucR, which acted as a transcriptional activator necessary for growth on L-fucose. LGG utilized fucosyl-?1,3-N-acetylglucosamine and contrarily to other lactobacilli, the presence of fuc genes allowed this strain to use the L-fucose moiety. In fucI and fucR mutants, but not in fucP mutant, L-fucose was not metabolized and it was excreted to the medium during growth on fucosyl-?1,3-N-acetylglucosamine. The fuc genes were induced by this fucosyl-disaccharide in the wild type and the fucP mutant but not in a fucI mutant, showing that FucP does not participate in the regulation of fuc genes and that L-fucose metabolism is needed for FucR activation. The l-fucose operon characterized here constitutes a new example of the many factors found in LGG that allow this strain to adapt to the gastrointestinal conditions.