Mutation Detection in Tumor-Derived Cell Free DNA Anticipates Progression in a Patient With Metastatic Colorectal Cancer.
ABSTRACT: Background: The observation of tumor-derived cell-free DNA (ctDNA) in plasma brought new expectations to monitor treatment response in cancer patients. Case presentation: In an exploratory case of a 57-year-old man diagnosed with metastatic sigmoid adenocarcinoma, we used a hotspot panel of cancer-associated gene mutations to identify tumor-specific mutations in the primary tumor and metastasis. RESULTS:Five mutations were detected (KRAS, p.Gly12Val; TP53, p.Arg175His; RB1, p.Ile680Thr; ALK, p.Gly1184Glu; and ERBB2, p.Lys860Lys), of which three were detected in both tissue types (primary tumor and metastasis). All five mutations were monitored in the ctDNA of six serial plasma samples. Only KRAS and TP53 mutations were detected at a high frequency in the first plasma sample. After 1 month of chemotherapy the allele frequencies of both mutations fell below the detection limit. From the third month of systemic treatment onward, the allele frequencies of both mutations were detectable in plasma, displaying a continual increase thereafter. The remaining three mutations were not detected in plasma samples. Signs of disease progression in ctDNA during the treatment period were evident while computed tomography (CT) measurements suggested stable metastatic lesions throughout the treatment. Conclusions: Liquid biopsies revealed tumor heterogeneity and predicted tumor progression, demonstrating the potential of ctDNA analysis to be a sensitive and specific tool for monitoring treatment responsivity and for early identification of treatment resistance.
Project description:Colorectal cancer (CRC) is a highly lethal disease worldwide. The majority of patients receiving targeted therapy or chemotherapy develop drug resistance, while its molecular mechanism remains to be elucidated. The plasma circulating tumor DNA (ctDNA) exhibited the potential in identifying gene variations and monitoring drug resistance in CRC treatment. In this study, we monitored the ctDNA mutational changes in advanced CRC patients underwent first-line therapy with bevacizumab and cetuximab combined with chemotherapy. The mutation spectrum of 43 patients was established by a 605-gene next-generation sequencing (NGS) panel. The baseline measurement shows that genes with the highest mutation frequency were TP53 (74%), APC (58%), KRAS (40%), SYNE1 (33%), LRP1B (23%), TOP1 (23%), and PIK3CA (21%). Mutations in TP53, APC, and KRAS were detected in 29 paired plasma and tissue samples with the consistency of 81, 67, and 42%, respectively. Clinically targetable gene mutations, such as APC, RNF43, SMAD4, BRAD1, KRAS, RAF1, and TP53, were also identified in ctDNA. The overall consistency between ctDNA and tissue samples was 54.6%. Alleviation of mutational burden in BRAF, KRAS, AMER1, and other major driving genes was observed following the first-line therapy. Patients with KRAS and TP53 mutations in tissues appeared to benefit more than the wild-type counterpart. The dynamic change of plasma mutation status was consistent with the tissue tumor burden and was closely correlated with disease progression. In conclusion, ctDNA monitoring is a useful method for molecular genotyping of colorectal cancer patients. Dynamic changes in resistance can be sensitively monitored by gene variation status, which potentially helps to develop treatment strategy.
Project description:BACKGROUND:Identifying and tracking somatic mutations in cell-free DNA (cfDNA) by next-generation sequencing (NGS) has the potential to transform the clinical management of subjects with advanced non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC). METHODS:Baseline tumor tissue (n?=?47) and longitudinal plasma (n?=?445) were collected from 71 NSCLC subjects treated with chemotherapy. cfDNA was enriched using a targeted-capture NGS kit containing 197 genes. Clinical responses to treatment were determined using RECIST v1.1 and correlations between changes in plasma somatic variant allele frequencies and disease progression were assessed. RESULTS:Somatic variants were detected in 89.4% (42/47) of tissue and 91.5% (407/445) of plasma samples. The most commonly mutated genes in tissue were TP53 (42.6%), KRAS (25.5%), and KEAP1 (19.1%). In some subjects, the allele frequencies of mutations detected in plasma increased 3-5?months prior to disease progression. In other cases, the allele frequencies of detected mutations declined or decreased to undetectable levels, indicating clinical response. Subjects with circulating tumor DNA (ctDNA) levels above background had significantly shorter progression-free survival (median: 5.6 vs 8.9?months, respectively; log-rank p?=?0.0183). CONCLUSION:Longitudinal monitoring of mutational changes in plasma has the potential to predict disease progression early. The presence of ctDNA mutations during first-line treatment is a risk factor for earlier disease progression in advanced NSCLC.
Project description:While tumor genotyping is the standard treatment for patients with non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC), spatial and temporal tumor heterogeneity and insufficient specimens can lead to limitations in the use of tissue-based sequencing. Circulating tumor DNA (ctDNA) fully encompasses tumor-specific sequence alterations and offers an alternative to tissue sample biopsies. However, few studies have evaluated whether the frequency of multiple genomic alterations observed following ctDNA sequencing is similar to that observed following tissue sequencing in NSCLC. Therefore, in the present study, targeted next-generation sequencing (NGS) was performed on tissue and plasma ctDNA samples in 99 patients with NSCLC. Overall, the frequencies of genetic alterations detected in ctDNA were positively correlated with those detected via tissue profiling (r=0.812; P=0.022). Genomic data revealed significant mutual exclusivity between alterations in epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) and tumor protein 53 (TP53; P=0.020), and between alterations in EGFR and KRAS (P=0.008), as well as potential mutual exclusivity between alterations in EGFR and Erb-B2 receptor tyrosine kinase 2 (P=0.059). Furthermore, the EGFR mutant allele frequency (MAF) was positively correlated with the TP53 MAF in individual tumors (r=0.773; P=0.005), and there was a marked difference in the EGFR MAF between patients with and without the TP53 mutation (P=0.001). Levels of the tumor serum marker CA242 in patients with ctDNA-detectable mutations were higher compared with those in patients without ctDNA-detectable mutations. The data from the present study highlight the importance of tissue and plasma ctDNA screening by NGS to guide personalized therapy and promote the clinical management of patients with NSCLC.
Project description:Assessing circulating tumor DNA (ctDNA) is a promising method to evaluate somatic mutations from solid tumors in a minimally-invasive way. In a group of twelve metastatic colorectal cancer (mCRC) patients undergoing liver metastasectomy, from each patient DNA from cell-free DNA (cfDNA), the primary tumor, metastatic liver tissue, normal tumor-adjacent colon or liver tissue, and whole blood were obtained. Investigated was the feasibility of a targeted NGS approach to identify somatic mutations in ctDNA. This targeted NGS approach was also compared with NGS preceded by mutant allele enrichment using synchronous coefficient of drag alteration technology embodied in the OnTarget assay, and for selected mutations with digital PCR (dPCR). All tissue and cfDNA samples underwent IonPGM sequencing for a CRC-specific 21-gene panel, which was analyzed using a standard and a modified calling pipeline. In addition, cfDNA, whole blood and normal tissue DNA were analyzed with the OnTarget assay and with dPCR for specific mutations in cfDNA as detected in the corresponding primary and/or metastatic tumor tissue. NGS with modified calling was superior to standard calling and detected ctDNA in the cfDNA of 10 patients harboring mutations in APC, ATM, CREBBP, FBXW7, KRAS, KMT2D, PIK3CA and TP53. Using this approach, variant allele frequencies in plasma ranged predominantly from 1 to 10%, resulting in limited concordance between ctDNA and the primary tumor (39%) and the metastases (55%). Concordance between ctDNA and tissue markedly improved when ctDNA was evaluated for KRAS, PIK3CA and TP53 mutations by the OnTarget assay (80%) and digital PCR (93%). Additionally, using these techniques mutations were observed in tumor-adjacent tissue with normal morphology in the majority of patients, which were not observed in whole blood. In conclusion, in these mCRC patients with oligometastatic disease NGS on cfDNA was feasible, but had limited sensitivity to detect all somatic mutations present in tissue. Digital PCR and mutant allele enrichment before NGS appeared to be more sensitive to detect somatic mutations.
Project description:Because circulating tumor DNA (ctDNA) studies focusing on only one or a few genes to monitor the disease progress or treatment response are unlikely to find its clinical significance, the development of cell-free DNA (cfDNA) panel covering hundreds of mutation hot spots is important for the establishment of clinically practical ctDNA detection system. We enrolled 101 patients with metastatic colorectal cancer (mCRC) who received chemotherapy. Amplicon-based genomic profiling of 14 genes, which are commonly mutated in CRC, in plasma by next-generation sequencing (NGS) was carried out to evaluate the feasibility of this assay and was compared with their clinical parameters and RAS status in matched tissue samples. Somatic mutations of the 14 genes in plasma cfDNA were detected in 88 patients (87.1%) with mCRC. Mutations in TP53, KRAS, and APC genes were detected in 70 (69.3%), 39 (38.6%), and 24 (23.7%) patients, respectively. Mutant allele frequencies in plasma were significantly associated with metastasis (liver, P = 0.00004, lymph node, P = 0.008, number of metastatic organs, P = 0.0006), tumor markers (CEA, P = 0.000007, CA19-9, P = 0.006, LDH, P = 0.00001), and tumor diameter (maximum, P = 0.00002, sum of diameter, P = 0.00009). The overall concordance rate of RAS status between ctDNA and matched tissue was 77.2% (78/101). Our data confirmed that mutant allele in cfDNA can be sensitively detected by amplicon-based NGS system. These results suggest that ctDNA could be a novel diagnostic biomarker to monitor changes in mutational status and tumor burden in patients with mCRC.
Project description:Targeted deep sequencing across broad genomic regions has been used to detect circulating tumor DNA (ctDNA) in pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma (PDAC) patients. However, since most PDACs harbor a mutation in KRAS, sequencing of broad regions needs to be systemically compared to analyzing only KRAS mutations for PDAC. Using capture-based targeted deep sequencing, we detected somatic tumor mutations in 17 fine needle aspiration biopsy and 69 longitudinal cell-free DNA (cfDNA) samples from 17 PDAC patients. KRAS mutations were detected in 10 out of 17 pretreatment patient plasma samples. Next, interrogation of genetic alterations in matched primary tumor samples detected ctDNA in 12 of 17 pretreatment plasma samples and cfDNA sequencing across the 83 target genes identified ctDNA in 15 of 17 cases (88.2% sensitivity). This improved sensitivity of ctDNA detection resulted in enhanced tumor burden monitoring when we analyzed longitudinal plasma samples. We found that cfDNA sequencing detected the lowest mutant allelic fractions and number of variants when complete response or partial response to chemotherapy was achieved. We demonstrated that ctDNA levels measured by targeted deep sequencing sensitively indicate the presence of cancer and correlate well with clinical responses to therapy and disease progression in PDAC patients.
Project description:<h4>Introduction</h4>KRAS and EGFR ectodomain-acquired mutations in patients with metastatic colorectal cancer (mCRC) have been correlated with acquired resistance to anti-EGFR monoclonal antibodies (mAbs). We investigated the frequency, co-occurrence, and distribution of acquired KRAS and EGFR mutations in patients with mCRC refractory to anti-EGFR mAbs using circulating tumor DNA (ctDNA).<h4>Patients and methods</h4>Sixty-two post-treatment plasma and 20 matching pretreatment archival tissue samples from KRAS (wt) mCRC patients refractory to anti-EGFR mAbs were evaluated by high-sensitivity emulsion polymerase chain reaction for KRAS codon 12, 13, 61, and 146 and EGFR 492 mutations.<h4>Results</h4>Plasma analyses showed newly detectable EGFR and KRAS mutations in 5/62 [8%; 95% confidence interval (CI) 0.02-0.18] and 27/62 (44%; 95% CI 0.3-0.56) samples, respectively. KRAS codon 61 and 146 mutations were predominant (33% and 11%, respectively), and multiple EGFR and/or KRAS mutations were detected in 11/27 (41%) cases. The percentage of mutant allele reads was inversely correlated with time since last treatment with EGFR mAbs (P = 0.038). In the matching archival tissue, these mutations were detectable as low-allele-frequency clones in 35% of patients with plasma mutations after treatment with anti-EGFR mAbs and correlated with shorter progression-free survival (PFS) compared with the cases with no new mutations (3.0 versus 8.0 months, P = 0.0004).<h4>Conclusion</h4>Newly detected KRAS and/or EGFR mutations in plasma ctDNA from patients refractory to anti-EGFR treatment appear to derive from rare, pre-existing clones in the primary tumors. These rare clones were associated with shorter PFS in patients receiving anti-EGFR treatment. Multiple simultaneous mutations in KRAS and EGFR in the ctDNA and the decline in allele frequency after discontinuation of anti-EGFR therapy in a subset of patients suggest that several resistance mechanisms can co-exist and that relative clonal burdens may change over time. Monitoring treatment-induced genetic alterations by sequencing ctDNA could identify biomarkers for treatment screening in anti-EGFR-refractory patients.
Project description:During posttreatment surveillance of head and neck cancer patients, imaging is insufficiently accurate for the early detection of relapsing disease. Free circulating tumor DNA (ctDNA) may serve as a novel biomarker for monitoring tumor burden during posttreatment surveillance of these patients. In this exploratory study, we investigated whether low level ctDNA in plasma of head and neck cancer patients can be detected using Droplet Digital PCR (ddPCR).TP53 mutations were determined in surgically resected primary tumor samples from six patients with high stage (II-IV), moderate to poorly differentiated head and neck squamous cell carcinoma (HNSCC). Subsequently, mutation specific ddPCR assays were designed. Pretreatment plasma samples from these patients were examined on the presence of ctDNA by ddPCR using the mutation-specific assays. The ddPCR results were evaluated alongside clinicopathological data.In all cases, plasma samples were found positive for targeted TP53 mutations in varying degrees (absolute quantification of 2.2-422 mutational copies/ml plasma). Mutations were detected in wild-type TP53 background templates of 7667-156,667 copies/ml plasma, yielding fractional abundances of down to 0.01%.Our results show that detection of tumor specific TP53 mutations in low level ctDNA from HNSCC patients using ddPCR is technically feasible and provide ground for future research on ctDNA quantification for the use of diagnostic biomarkers in the posttreatment surveillance of HNSCC patients.
Project description:The predictive effect of circulating tumor DNA (ctDNA) in colorectal cancer (CRC) treatment is still highly discussed. The primary objective of our study was to investigate a possible prognostic/predictive value of ctDNA under regorafenib treatment. This prospective multicenter translational biomarker phase II pilot study enrolled 30 metastatic CRC patients (67% men, 33% women) treated with regorafenib. ctDNA was assessed in plasma before treatment start and at defined time points during administration. Measurement of tumor fraction as well as mutation and copy number analysis of CRC driver genes were performed by next-generation sequencing approaches. Multivariate analyses for survival and treatment efficacy were adjusted to age, gender and Eastern Cooperative Oncology Group. Disease control rate was 30%. Median tumor fraction at baseline was 18.5% (0-49.9). Mutations in CRC driver genes or genes involved in angiogenesis were identified in 25 patients (83.3%). KRAS mutations were detected in 13 of 14 KRAS-positive tumors; in three patients without KRAS mutation in the respective tumors, acquired mutations as a consequence of prior anti-EGFR treatment were detected. In a subset of patients, novel occurring mutations or focal amplifications were detected. A tumor fraction of 5% and higher at baseline was significantly associated with a decreased OS (P = .022; hazard ratio 3.110 (95% confidence interval: 1.2-8.2). ctDNA is detectable in a high proportion of mCRC patients. Higher ctDNA levels are associated with survival among regorafenib treatment. Moreover, our data highlight the benefit of a combined evaluation of mutations and somatic copy number alterations in advanced cancer patients.
Project description:Circulating tumor DNA (ctDNA) in peripheral blood is a "liquid biopsy" that contains representative tumor information including gene mutations. Additionally, repeated ctDNA samples can be easily obtained to monitor response to treatment and disease progression, which may be especially valuable to lung cancer patients with tumors that cannot be easily biopsied or removed. To investigate the changes in ctDNA after surgical tumor resection, tumor and blood samples obtained before and after surgery were collected prospectively from 41 non-small lung cancer (NSCLC) patients. Somatic driver mutations in tumor DNA (tDNA) and pre- and post-op plasma ctDNA sample pairs were identified by targeted sequencing in several genes including EGFR, KRAS, and TP53 with an overall study concordance of 78.1% and sensitivity and specificity of 69.2% and 93.3%, respectively. Importantly, the frequency of 91.7% of ctDNA mutations decreased after surgery and these changes were observed as little as 2 days post-op. Moreover, the presence of ctDNA had a higher positive predictive value than that of six tumor biomarkers in current clinical use. This study demonstrates the use of targeted sequencing to reliably identify ctDNA changes in response to treatment, indicating a potential utility of this approach in the clinical management of NSCLC.