Enterobacter hormaechei subsp. hoffmannii subsp. nov., Enterobacter hormaechei subsp. xiangfangensis comb. nov., Enterobacter roggenkampii sp. nov., and Enterobacter muelleri is a later heterotypic synonym of Enterobacter asburiae based on computational analysis of sequenced Enterobacter genomes.
ABSTRACT: Background: The predominant species in clinical Enterobacter isolates is E. hormaechei. Many articles, clinicians, and GenBank submissions misname these strains as E. cloacae. The lack of sequenced type strains or named species/subspecies for some clades in the E. cloacae complex complicate the issue. Methods: The genomes of the type strains for Enterobacter hormaechei subsp. oharae, E. hormaechei subsp. steigerwaltii, and E. xiangfangensis, and two strains from Hoffmann clusters III and IV of the E. cloacae complex were sequenced. These genomes, the E. hormaechei subsp. hormaechei type strain, and other available Enterobacter type strains were analysed in conjunction with all extant Enterobacter genomes in NCBI's RefSeq using Average Nucleotide Identity (ANI). Results: There were five recognizable subspecies of E. hormaechei: E. hormaechei subsp. hoffmannii subsp. nov., E. hormaechei subsp. xiangfangensis comb. nov., and the three previously known subspecies. One of the strains sequenced from the E. cloacae complex was not a novel E. hormaechei subspecies but rather a member of a clade of a novel species: E. roggenkampii sp. nov.. E. muelleri was determined to be a later heterotypic synonym of E. asburiae which should take precedence. Conclusion: The phylogeny of the Enterobacter genus, particularly the cloacae complex, was re-evaluated based on the type strain genome sequences and all other available Enterobacter genomes in RefSeq.
Project description:The genus Enterobacter comprises common pathogens and has a complicated taxonomy. Precise taxonomic assignation lays a foundation for microbiology. In this study, we updated the Enterobacter taxonomy based on robust genome analyses. We found that all Enterobacter subspecies assignments were incorrect. Enterobacter cloacae subsp. dissolvens and Enterobacter hormaechei subsp. hoffmannii are species (Enterobacter dissolvens and Enterobacter hoffmannii, respectively) rather than subspecies. Enterobacter xiangfangensis, Enterobacter hormaechei subsp. oharae, and Enterobacter hormaechei subsp. steigerwaltii are not Enterobacter hormaechei subspecies but belong to the same species (Enterobacter xiangfangensis). Enterobacter timonensis should be removed to Pseudenterobacter, a novel genus. We then reported two novel species, Enterobacter quasiroggenkampii and Enterobacter quasimori, by genome- and phenotype-based characterization. We also applied the updated taxonomy to curate 1,997 Enterobacter genomes in GenBank. Species identification was changed following our updated taxonomy for the majority of publicly available strains (1,542, 77.2%). The most common Enterobacter species was E. xiangfangensis We identified 14 novel tentative Enterobacter genomospecies. This study highlights that updated and curated taxonomic assignments are the premise of correct identification.IMPORTANCE Enterobacter species are major human pathogens. Precise species identification lays a foundation for microbiology, but the taxonomy of Enterobacter is complicated and confusing. In this study, first, we significantly updated the taxonomy of Enterobacter by rigorous genome analyses and found that all subspecies assignments of Enterobacter were incorrect. Second, we characterized and reported two novel Enterobacter species with clinical significance. Third, we curated 1,997 Enterobacter genome sequences deposited in GenBank and found that the species identification of most Enterobacter strains needed to be corrected. Fourth, we found that the most common Enterobacter species seen in clinical samples is Enterobacter xiangfangensis rather than Enterobacter cloacae Fifth, we identified 14 tentative novel Enterobacter and 18 tentative novel non-Enterobacter species. This study highlights that updated and curated taxonomic assignments are the premise of correct species identification. We recommend that future Enterobacter studies need to use the updated taxonomy to avoid misleading information.
Project description:Six species and six additional genovars are combined within the so-called Enterobacter cloacae complex, with one of them being the species Enterobacter hormaechei. In a recent population genetic study, two genetic clusters were found in close phylogenetic proximity to the genetic cluster of E. hormaechei. In order to prove the hypothesis that these three genetic clusters belong to the same species, we performed cross-hybridization experiments in microplates with DNAs of representatives of each genetic cluster. The close phylogenetic relationship among the clusters was reflected by their relatively low deltaT(m) values, ranging from 0.3 to 4.8, confirming the hypothesis that the clusters are parts of the same species. These clusters can be distinguished from the other species of the E. cloacae complex, which have deltaT(m) values of 5.6 to 10.3. Forty-eight E. hormaechei strains from the different genetic clusters were phenotypically characterized with 129 biochemical tests. In this way, E. hormaechei could be differentiated from the other species of the E. cloacae complex because it tests negative in the 3-hydroxy-butyrate test. The three genetic clusters of E. hormaechei could also be differentiated from each other by using phenotypic tests. Hence, we propose three new subspecies of E. hormaechei corresponding to genetic clusters VI, VII, and VIII of the E. cloacae complex. E. hormaechei subsp. hormaechei comb. nov. corresponds to the original species description, as it gives negative results for the adonitol, d-arabitol, d-sorbitol, and d-melibiose tests and a positive result for the dulcitol test. E. hormaechei subsp. oharae subsp. nov. gives negative results for the dulcitol, adonitol, and d-arabitol tests and positive results for the d-sorbitol and d-melibiose tests. E. hormaechei subsp. steigerwaltii subsp. nov. gives a negative result for the dulcitol test and positive results for the adonitol, d-arabitol, d-sorbitol, and d-melibiose tests. Among the members of the E. cloacae complex, E. hormaechei seems to be the species most frequently recovered from clinical specimens.
Project description:Limited information is available that seed biopriming with plant growth-promoting Enterobacter spp. play a prominent role to enhance vegetative growth of plants. Contrary to Enterobacter cloacae, Enterobacter hormaechei is a less-studied counterpart despite its vast potential in plant growth-promotion mainly through the inorganic phosphorus (P) and potassium (K) solubilization abilities. To this end, 18 locally isolated bacterial pure cultures were screened and three strains showed high P- and K-solubilizing capabilities. Light microscopy, biochemical tests and 16S rRNA gene sequencing revealed that strains 15a1 and 40a were closely related to Enterobacter hormaechei while strain 38 was closely related to Enterobacter cloacae (Accession number: MN294583; MN294585; MN294584). All Enterobacter spp. shared common plant growth-promoting traits, namely nitrogen (N2) fixation, indole-3-acetic acid production and siderophore production. The strains 38 and 40a were able to produce gibberellic acid, while only strain 38 was able to secrete exopolysaccharide on agar. Under in vitro germination assay of okra (Abelmoschus esculentus) seeds, Enterobacter spp. significantly improved overall germination parameters and vigor index (19.6%) of seedlings. The efficacy of root colonization of Enterobacter spp. on the pre-treated seedling root tips was confirmed using Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM). The pot experiment of bioprimed seeds of okra seedling showed significant improvement of the plant growth (> 28%) which corresponded to the increase of P and K uptakes (> 89%) as compared to the uninoculated control plants. The leaf surface area and the SPAD chlorophyll index of bioprimed plants were increased by up to 29% and 9% respectively. This report revealed that the under-explored species of P- and K-solubilizing Enterobacter hormaechei sp. with multiple plant beneficial traits presents a great potential sustainable approach for enhancement of soil fertility and P and K uptakes of plants.
Project description:BACKGROUND:Enterobacter hormaechei is commonly considered a causative pathogen for nosocomial infections and it does not usually cause diseases in animals. However, researchers have recently dissociated the pathogenic Enterobacter hormaechei from foxes and piglets. Here, the Enterobacter hormaechei was first found to be associated with respiratory disease in unweaned calves in China. CASE PRESENTATION:A 2-month-old calf was severely sick and diagnosed with respiratory infection by a rural veterinarian, and it died 5 days after treatment with penicillin G. The lung sample was then run through histopathological analysis and pathogen isolation. The sequence analysis and biochemical tests results showed the isolated bacterium strain to be Enterobacter hormaechei, and drug sensitivity tests showed resistance to all ?-lactam antimicrobials and sensitivity to quinolones. Thickened alveoli septum, inflammatory cell infiltration, and erythrocyte diapedesis around the pulmonary alveoli septum were visible in lung histopathological sections. One week later, at the same farm, another calf showed similar clinical signs, and the Enterobacter hormaechei strain was isolated from its nasal discharge; after a week of treatment with enrofloxacin, as suggested by the results of drug sensitivity tests, this calf fully recovered. CONCLUSIONS:To the best of our knowledge, this is the first case report of calves with respiratory disease that was associated with E. hormaechei, and multi-drug resistance was observed in isolates.
Project description:KHM-1 was first reported in 1997 in Japan as a novel metallo-?-lactamase mediated by Citrobacter freundii carrying pKHM-1 plasmid. There have been few reports in the clinical field since then. A blaKHM-1-positive Enterobacter hormaechei subsp. hoffmannii in E. cloacae complex, isolate OIPH-N069 was isolated from an inpatient blood culture in 2016. The isolate was characterized by whole-genome sequencing, comparative analysis of the blaKHM-1 encoding plasmid, antimicrobial susceptibility tests, and bacterial conjugation. OIPH-N069 was classified into ST78 of E. cloacae complex, and was multidrug resistant because of the presence of antimicrobial resistance genes in addition to blaKHM-1 on its chromosome and plasmids. blaKHM-1 was located on 136,816 bp of the IncA/C2 plasmid pN069-1, which could be transferred to different bacterial species. The backbone structure, genetic arrangement of the class 1 integron cassette, and the blaKHM-1 gene located downstream of the IncA/C2 antibiotic resistance island, ARI-A, in pN069-1 and pKHM-1 were identical. Horizontal gene transfer of the blaCTX-M-2-ISEcp1 resistance gene module only occurred with pN069-1. The study findings indicate not only the structural conservation of blaKHM-1 encoding plasmids over time and across species, but also the risk of the spread of blaKHM-1 encoding plasmids to other bacterial species and the accumulation of additional resistance genes.
Project description:Sigma factors are bacterial transcription factors that bind the core RNA polymerase and direct transcription initiation at a specific promoter site. These specialized sigma factors bind the promoters of genes appropriate to the environmental conditions and selectively increase the transcription of those genes. Here, we attempt to identify sigma factors in 5 genomes belonging to the Enterobacter cloacae complex (Ecc), a group of gram-negative bacteria that are important nosocomial pathogens. This process includes the identification of orthologous sequences, conserved motifs, domains, families, phylogenetic profiles, and protein-protein associations of these components. Based on the reference genome, genome-wide comparison revealed that the genomes of Enterobacter asburiae JCM6051, Enterobacter nimipressuralis CIP 104980, Enterobacter hormaechei ATCC49162, Enterobacter kobei JCM 8580, and Enterobacter ludwigii EN-119 encode 10 sigma factors that exist in the reference strain Enterobacter cloacae subsp cloacae ATCC13047. Moreover, the sequence similarity, protein domains and families of the sigma factors, protein-protein association, and phylogenetic profile indicate that the sigma factor proteins of these 5 strains may have evolutionary relatedness and functional characteristics important to their various environmental niches. Interestingly, the absence of RpoS in E kobei, which contributes to bacterial survival under environmental stress conditions, indicates that RpoS might have been independently acquired and may play different roles relating to pathogenicity, host range determination, and/or niche adaptation. Future work such as RNA sequencing will be directed towards investigating the roles that these sigma factors play in the biology of the Ecc.
Project description:The genetic heterogeneity of the nomenspecies Enterobacter cloacae is well known. Enterobacter asburiae, Enterobacter cancerogenus, Enterobacter dissolvens, Enterobacter hormaechei, Enterobacter kobei, and Enterobacter nimipressuralis are closely related to it and are subsumed in the so-called E. cloacae complex. DNA-DNA hybridization studies performed previously identified at least five DNA-relatedness groups of this complex. In order to analyze the genetic structure and the phylogenetic relationships between the clusters of the nomenspecies E. cloacae, 206 strains collected from 22 hospitals, a veterinarian, and an agricultural center in 11 countries plus all 13 type strains of the genus and reference strain CDC 1347-71(R) were examined with a combination of sequence and PCR-restriction fragment length polymorphism (PCR-RFLP) analyses of the three housekeeping genes hsp60, rpoB, and hemB as well as ampC, the gene of a class C beta-lactamase. Based on the neighbor-joining tree of the hsp60 sequences, 12 genetic clusters (I to XII) and an unstable sequence crowd (xiii) were identified. The robustness of the genetic clusters was confirmed by analyses of rpoB and hemB sequences and ampC PCR-RFLPs. Sequence crowd xiii split into two groups after rpoB analysis. Only three strains formed a cluster with the type strain of E. cloacae, indicating that the minority of isolates identified as E. cloacae truly belong to the species; 13% of strains grouped with other type strains of the genus, suggesting that the phenotypes of these species seem to be more heterogeneous than so far believed. Three clusters represented 70% of strains, but none of them included a type or reference strain. The genetic clustering presented in this study might serve as a framework for future studies dealing with taxonomic, evolutionary, epidemiological, or pathogenetic characteristics of bacteria belonging to the E. cloacae complex.
Project description:Here, we report the draft genome sequences of Acinetobacter sp. strain EKM10A, Enterobacter hormaechei EKM10E, and Enterobacter hormaechei EKM11E, containing 3,978,352, 4,760,222, and 4,758,163?bp, respectively. These seed biogel-associated endophytes were previously isolated from the seed wash of Echinocystis lobata (wild cucumber) and tested in vitro for antagonism against soilborne fungal/oomycete pathogens.
Project description:Enterobacter strains are among the dominant symbiotic bacteria in the gastrointestinal tract of insects, with the ability to fulfill diverse roles. In this announcement, we describe the draft genome sequence of Enterobacter hormaechei strain ENT5, isolated from wild adult Zeugodacus cucurbitae flies.
Project description:Background:International data on the molecular epidemiology of Enterobacteriaceae with VIM carbapenemases are limited. Methods:We performed short read (Illumina) WGS on a global collection of 89 VIM-producing clinical Enterobacteriaceae (2008-14). Results:VIM-producing (11 varieties within 21 different integrons) isolates were mostly obtained from Europe. Certain integrons with bla VIM were specific to a country in different species and clonal complexes (CCs) (In 87 , In 624 , In 916 and In 1323 ), while others had spread globally among various Enterobacteriaceae species (In 110 and In 1209 ). Klebsiella pneumoniae was the most common species ( n = 45); CC147 from Greece was the most prevalent clone and contained In 590 -like integrons with four different bla VIM s. Enterobacter cloacae complex was the second most common species and mainly consisted of Enterobacter hormaechei ( Enterobacter xiangfangensis , subsp. steigerwaltii and Hoffmann cluster III). CC200 (from Croatia and Turkey), CC114 (Croatia, Greece, Italy and the USA) and CC78 (from Greece, Italy and Spain) containing bla VIM-1 were the most common clones among the E. cloacae complex. Conclusions:This study highlights the importance of surveillance programmes using the latest molecular techniques in providing insight into the characteristics and global distribution of Enterobacteriaceae with bla VIM s.