Sequence-programmable covalent bonding of designed DNA assemblies.
ABSTRACT: Bottom-up fabrication of custom nanostructures using the methods of DNA nanotechnology has great potential for applications in many areas of science and technology. One obstacle to applications concerns the constrained environmental conditions at which DNA objects retain their structure. We present a general, site-selective, and scalable method for creating additional covalent bonds that increase the structural stability of DNA nanostructures. Placement of thymidines in close proximity within DNA nanostructures allows the rational creation of sites for covalent cyclobutane pyrimidine dimer (CPD) bonds induced via ultraviolet irradiation. The additional covalent bonds may be used in a sequence-programmable fashion to link free strand termini, to bridge strand breaks at crossover sites, and to create additional interhelical connections. Thus designed multilayer DNA origami objects can remain stable at temperatures up to 90°C and in pure double-distilled water with no additional cations present. In addition, these objects show enhanced resistance against nuclease activity. Cryo-electron microscopy (cryo-EM) structural analysis of non-cross-linked and cross-linked objects indicated that the global shape and the internal network of crossovers are preserved after irradiation. A cryo-EM map of a CPD-stabilized multilayer DNA origami object determined at physiological ionic strength reveals a substantial swelling behavior, presumably caused by repulsive electrostatic forces that, without covalent stabilization, would cause disassembly at low ionic strength. Our method opens new avenues for applications of DNA nanostructures in a wider range of conditions.
Project description:DNA origami nano-objects are usually designed around generic single-stranded "scaffolds". Many properties of the target object are determined by details of those generic scaffold sequences. Here, we enable designers to fully specify the target structure not only in terms of desired 3D shape but also in terms of the sequences used. To this end, we built design tools to construct scaffold sequences de novo based on strand diagrams, and we developed scalable production methods for creating design-specific scaffold strands with fully user-defined sequences. We used 17 custom scaffolds having different lengths and sequence properties to study the influence of sequence redundancy and sequence composition on multilayer DNA origami assembly and to realize efficient one-pot assembly of multiscaffold DNA origami objects. Furthermore, as examples for functionalized scaffolds, we created a scaffold that enables direct, covalent cross-linking of DNA origami via UV irradiation, and we built DNAzyme-containing scaffolds that allow postfolding DNA origami domain separation.
Project description:Although the field of structural DNA nanotechnology has been advancing with an astonishing pace, de novo design of complex 3D nanostructures and functional devices remains a laborious and time-consuming process. One reason for that is the need for multiple cycles of experimental characterization to elucidate the effect of design choices on the actual shape and function of the self-assembled objects. Here, we demonstrate a multi-resolution simulation framework, mrdna, that, in 30 min or less, can produce an atomistic-resolution structure of a self-assembled DNA nanosystem. We demonstrate fidelity of our mrdna framework through direct comparison of the simulation results with the results of cryo-electron microscopy (cryo-EM) reconstruction of multiple 3D DNA origami objects. Furthermore, we show that our approach can characterize an ensemble of conformations adopted by dynamic DNA nanostructures, the equilibrium structure and dynamics of DNA objects constructed using off-lattice self-assembly principles, i.e. wireframe DNA objects, and to study the properties of DNA objects under a variety of environmental conditions, such as applied electric field. Implemented as an open source Python package, our framework can be extended by the community and integrated with DNA design and molecular graphics tools.
Project description:Modeling tools provide a valuable support for DNA origami design. However, current solutions have limited application for conformational analysis of the designs. In this work we present a tool for a thorough study of DNA origami structure and dynamics. The tool is based on a novel coarse-grained model dedicated to geometry optimization and conformational analysis of DNA origami. We explored the ability of the model to predict dynamic behavior, global shapes, and fine details of two single-layer systems designed in hexagonal and square lattices using atomic force microscopy, Förster resonance energy transfer spectroscopy, and all-atom molecular dynamic simulations for validation of the results. We also examined the performance of the model for multilayer systems by simulation of DNA origami with published cryo-electron microscopy and atomic force microscopy structures. A good agreement between the simulated and experimental data makes the model suitable for conformational analysis of DNA origami objects. The tool is available at http://vsb.fbb.msu.ru/cosm as a web-service and as a standalone version.
Project description:"Scaffolded DNA origami" has been proven to be a powerful and efficient approach to construct two-dimensional or three-dimensional objects with great complexity. Multilayer DNA origami has been demonstrated with helices packing along either honeycomb-lattice geometry or square-lattice geometry. Here we report successful folding of multilayer DNA origami with helices arranged on a close-packed hexagonal lattice. This arrangement yields a higher density of helical packing and therefore higher resolution of spatial addressing than has been shown previously. We also demonstrate hybrid multilayer DNA origami with honeycomb-lattice, square-lattice, and hexagonal-lattice packing of helices all in one design. The availability of hexagonal close-packing of helices extends our ability to build complex structures using DNA nanotechnology.
Project description:Molecular self-assembly with DNA is an attractive route for building nanoscale devices. The development of sophisticated and precise objects with this technique requires detailed experimental feedback on the structure and composition of assembled objects. Here we report a sensitive assay for the quality of assembly. The method relies on measuring the content of unpaired DNA bases in self-assembled DNA objects using a fluorescent de-Bruijn probe for three-base 'codons', which enables a comparison with the designed content of unpaired DNA. We use the assay to measure the quality of assembly of several multilayer DNA origami objects and illustrate the use of the assay for the rational refinement of assembly protocols. Our data suggests that large and complex objects like multilayer DNA origami can be made with high strand integration quality up to 99%. Beyond DNA nanotechnology, we speculate that the ability to discriminate unpaired from paired nucleic acids in the same macromolecule may also be useful for analysing cellular nucleic acids.
Project description:The DNA origami method permits folding of long single-stranded DNA into complex 3D structures with subnanometer precision. Transmission electron microscopy, atomic force microscopy, and recently cryo-EM tomography have been used to characterize the properties of such DNA origami objects, however their microscopic structures and dynamics have remained unknown. Here, we report the results of all-atom molecular dynamics simulations that characterized the structural and mechanical properties of DNA origami objects in unprecedented microscopic detail. When simulated in an aqueous environment, the structures of DNA origami objects depart from their idealized targets as a result of steric, electrostatic, and solvent-mediated forces. Whereas the global structural features of such relaxed conformations conform to the target designs, local deformations are abundant and vary in magnitude along the structures. In contrast to their free-solution conformation, the Holliday junctions in the DNA origami structures adopt a left-handed antiparallel conformation. We find the DNA origami structures undergo considerable temporal fluctuations on both local and global scales. Analysis of such structural fluctuations reveals the local mechanical properties of the DNA origami objects. The lattice type of the structures considerably affects global mechanical properties such as bending rigidity. Our study demonstrates the potential of all-atom molecular dynamics simulations to play a considerable role in future development of the DNA origami field by providing accurate, quantitative assessment of local and global structural and mechanical properties of DNA origami objects.
Project description:DNA origami nanostructures have tremendous potential to serve as versatile platforms in self-assembly -based nanofabrication and in highly parallel nanoscale patterning. However, uniform deposition and reliable anchoring of DNA nanostructures often requires specific conditions, such as pre-treatment of the chosen substrate or a fine-tuned salt concentration for the deposition buffer. In addition, currently available deposition techniques are suitable merely for small scales. In this article, we exploit a spray-coating technique in order to resolve the aforementioned issues in the deposition of different 2D and 3D DNA origami nanostructures. We show that purified DNA origamis can be controllably deposited on silicon and glass substrates by the proposed method. The results are verified using either atomic force microscopy or fluorescence microscopy depending on the shape of the DNA origami. DNA origamis are successfully deposited onto untreated substrates with surface coverage of about 4 objects/mm(2). Further, the DNA nanostructures maintain their shape even if the salt residues are removed from the DNA origami fabrication buffer after the folding procedure. We believe that the presented one-step spray-coating method will find use in various fields of material sciences, especially in the development of DNA biochips and in the fabrication of metamaterials and plasmonic devices through DNA metallisation.
Project description:DNA nanotechnology is a rapidly advancing field, which increasingly attracts interest in many different disciplines, such as medicine, biotechnology, physics and biocomputing. The increasing complexity of novel applications requires significant computational support for the design, modelling and analysis of DNA nanostructures. However, current in silico design tools have not been developed in view of these new applications and their requirements. Here, we present Adenita, a novel software tool for the modelling of DNA nanostructures in a user-friendly environment. A data model supporting different DNA nanostructure concepts (multilayer DNA origami, wireframe DNA origami, DNA tiles etc.) has been developed allowing the creation of new and the import of existing DNA nanostructures. In addition, the nanostructures can be modified and analysed on-the-fly using an intuitive toolset. The possibility to combine and re-use existing nanostructures as building blocks for the creation of new superstructures, the integration of alternative molecules (e.g. proteins, aptamers) during the design process, and the export option for oxDNA simulations are outstanding features of Adenita, which spearheads a new generation of DNA nanostructure modelling software. We showcase Adenita by re-using a large nanorod to create a new nanostructure through user interactions that employ different editors to modify the original nanorod.
Project description:DNA nanostructures with increasing complexity have showcased the power of programmable self-assembly from DNA strands. At the nascent stage of the field, a variety of small branched objects consisting of a few DNA strands were created. Since then, a quantum leap of complexity has been achieved by a scaffolded 'origami' approach and a scaffold-free approach using single-stranded tiles/bricks-creating fully addressable two-dimensional and three-dimensional DNA nanostructures designed on densely packed lattices. Recently, wireframe architectures have been applied to the DNA origami method to construct complex structures. Here, revisiting the original wireframe framework entirely made of short synthetic strands, we demonstrate a design paradigm that circumvents the sophisticated routing and size limitations intrinsic to the scaffold strand in DNA origami. Under this highly versatile self-assembly framework, we produce a myriad of wireframe structures, including 2D arrays, tubes, polyhedra, and multi-layer 3D arrays.
Project description:Programmable self-assembly of nucleic acids enables the fabrication of custom, precise objects with nanoscale dimensions. These structures can be further harnessed as templates to build novel materials such as metallic nanostructures, which are widely used and explored because of their unique optical properties and their potency to serve as components of novel metamaterials. However, approaches to transfer the spatial information of DNA constructions to metal nanostructures remain a challenge. We report a DNA-assisted lithography (DALI) method that combines the structural versatility of DNA origami with conventional lithography techniques to create discrete, well-defined, and entirely metallic nanostructures with designed plasmonic properties. DALI is a parallel, high-throughput fabrication method compatible with transparent substrates, thus providing an additional advantage for optical measurements, and yields structures with a feature size of ~10 nm. We demonstrate its feasibility by producing metal nanostructures with a chiral plasmonic response and bowtie-shaped nanoantennas for surface-enhanced Raman spectroscopy. We envisage that DALI can be generalized to large substrates, which would subsequently enable scale-up production of diverse metallic nanostructures with tailored plasmonic features.