Mechanistic role of transglutaminase-2 in focal adhesions.
ABSTRACT: Transglutaminase (TG)-2 interacts with matrix proteins and integrins, forming focal adhesions (FA) to initiate cell migration, thus playing a vital role in wound healing. Previously we showed that TG-2 influenced phosphorylation of paxillin and other FA proteins. Here, we aimed to investigate the molecular mechanism of TG-2 regulation of paxillin. Human corneal epithelial cells expressing shRNA against TG-2 (shTG) and scrambled sequence control (shRNA) were cultured. TG-2 was pulled down by anti-paxillin antibody, but not MAP3K12. Cell-free interaction assay with immobilized paxillin shows that TG-2 bind to paxillin directly. JNK was the strongest kinase for paxillin phosphorylation in the in-vitro kinase screen, but TG-2 could not phosphorylate paxillin directly. Increasing TG-2 concentrations did not increase the amount of JNK in the TG-2/paxillin complex. Immunofluoresent staining shows that TG-2 colocalises with vinculin and paxillin in FA of migrating cells. TG-2 binds to paxillin and JNK-containing FA but does not recruit JNK directly. Taken together with previous findings, TG-2 binds paxillin non-covalently, and JNK can phosphorylate paxillin, these processes critically regulate corneal epithelial adhesion and migration.
Project description:<h4>Background</h4>Severe hypertriglyceridemia (SHTG, TG ?5·65?mmol/L), a disease, usually resulting from a combination of genetic and environmental factors, may increase the risk of acute pancreatitis (AP). However, previous genetic analysis has been limited by lacking of related observation of gene to AP.<h4>Methods</h4>The expanding genetic sequencing including 15 TG-related genes (LPL, LMF1, APOC2, GPIHBP1, GCKR, ANGPTL3, APOB, APOA1-A4-C3-A5, TRIB1, CETP, APOE, and LIPI) was performed within 103 patients who were diagnosed with primary SHTG and 46 age- and sex-matched normal controls.<h4>Findings</h4>Rare variants were found in 46 patients and 12 controls. The detection rate of rare variants in SHTG group increased by 19·5% via intensive genetic analysis. Presence of rare variants in LPL, APOA5, five LPL molecular regulating genes and all the sequenced genes were found to be associated with SHTG (p?<?0·05). Of noted, patients with history of AP presented higher frequency of rare variants in LPL gene and all the LPL molecular regulating genes (27·8% vs.4·7% and 50·0% vs. 20·0%). The risk scores for SHTG determined by common TG-associated variants were increased in subgroups according to the extent of SHTG when they were compared with that of controls. Finally, patients without rare variants within SHTG group also presented higher risk scores than control group (p?<?0·05).<h4>Interpretation</h4>Expanding genetic analysis had a higher detection rate of rare variants in patients with SHTG. Rare variants in LPL and its molecular regulating genes could increase the risk of AP among Chinese patients with SHTG. FUND: This work was partially supported by the Capital Health Development Fund (201614035) and CAMS. Major Collaborative Innovation Project (2016-I2M-1-011) awarded to Dr. Jian-Jun Li, MD, PhD.
Project description:One of the signaling components involved in hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) progression is the focal adhesion adaptor paxillin. Hydrogen peroxide inducible clone-5 (Hic-5), one of the paralogs of paxillin, exhibits many biological functions distinct from paxillin, but may cooperate with paxillin to trigger tumor progression. Screening of Hic-5 in 145 surgical HCCs demonstrated overexpression of Hic-5 correlated well with intra- and extra-hepatic metastasis. Hic-5 highly expressed in the patient derived HCCs with high motility such as HCC329 and HCC353 but not in the HCCs with low motility such as HCC340. Blockade of Hic-5 expression prevented constitutive migration of HCC329 and HCC353 and HGF-induced cell migration of HCC340. HCC329Hic-5(-), HCC353Hic-5(-), HCC372Hic-5(-), the HCCs stably depleted of Hic-5, exhibited reduced motility compared with each HCC expressing Scramble shRNA. Moreover, intra/extrahepatic metastasis of HCC329Hic-5(-) in SCID mice greatly decreased compared with HCC329Scramble. On the other hand, ectopic Hic-5 expression in HCC340 promoted its progression. Constitutive and HGF-induced Hic-5 expression in HCCs were suppressed by the reactive oxygen species (ROS) scavengers catalase and dithiotheritol and c-Jun N-terminal kinase (JNK) inhibitor SP600125. On the contrary, depletion of Hic-5 blocked constitutive and HGF-induced ROS generation and JNK phosphorylation in HCCs. Also, ectopic expression of Hic-5 enhanced ROS generation and JNK phosphorylation. These highlighted that Hic-5 plays a central role in the positive feedback ROS-JNK signal cascade. Finally, the Chinese herbal derived anti-HCC peptide LZ-8 suppressed constitutive Hic-5 expression and JNK phosphorylation. In conclusion, Hic-5 mediates ROS-JNK signaling and may serve as a therapeutic target for prevention of HCC progression.
Project description:Increasing cell mobility is the basis of tumor invasion and metastasis, and is therefore a therapeutic target for preventing the spread of many types of cancer. Septins are a family of cytoskeletal proteins with GTPase activity, and play a role in many important cellular functions, including cell migration. SEPT9 isoform 1 protein (SEPT9_i1) has been associated with breast tumor development and the enhancement of cell migration; however, the exact mechanism of how SEPT9_i1 might affect breast cancer progression remains to be elucidated. Here, we report that the expression of SEPT9_i1 positively correlated with paxillin, and both were significantly upregulated in invasive breast cancer tissues of patients with lymph node metastases. Lentivirus-mediated shRNA knockdown of SEPT9 in MCF-7 cells diminished tumor cell migration, focal adhesion (FA) maturation and the expression of β-actin, β-tubulin, Cdc42, RhoA, and Rac, whereas overexpression of SEPT9_i1 in SEPT9-knockdown MCF-7 cells promoted cell migration, FA maturation and relevant protein expression. Furthermore, overexpression of SEPT9_i1 in MCF-7 cells markedly increased FAK/Src/paxillin signaling, at least in part through RhoA/ROCK1 upstream activation. Transcriptome profiling suggested that SEPT9_i1 may directly affect "Focal adhesion" and "Regulation of actin cytoskeleton" signaling mechanisms. Finally, overexpression of SEPT9_i1 markedly enhanced lung metastases in vivo 6 weeks after tumor inoculation. These findings suggest that a mechanism of Septin-9-induced aberrant cancer cell migration is through cytoskeletal regulation and FA modulation, and encourages the use of SEPT9 as novel therapeutic target in the prevention of tumor metastasis.
Project description:<h4>Background</h4>Previous studies by our group and others have shown that C3G interacts with Bcr-Abl through its SH3-b domain.<h4>Results</h4>In this work we show that C3G and Bcr-Abl form complexes with the focal adhesion (FA) proteins CrkL, p130Cas, Cbl and Abi1 through SH3/SH3-b interactions. The association between C3G and Bcr-Abl decreased upon Abi1 or p130Cas knock-down in K562 cells, which suggests that Abi1 and p130Cas are essential partners in this interaction. On the other hand, C3G, Abi1 or Cbl knock-down impaired adhesion to fibronectin, while p130Cas silencing enhanced it. C3G, Cbl and p130Cas-SH3-b domains interact directly with common proteins involved in the regulation of cell adhesion and migration. Immunoprecipitation and immunofluorescence studies revealed that C3G form complexes with the FA proteins paxillin and FAK and their phosphorylated forms. Additionally, C3G, Abi1, Cbl and p130Cas regulate the expression and phosphorylation of paxillin and FAK. p38? MAPK also participates in the regulation of adhesion in chronic myeloid leukemia cells. It interacts with C3G, CrkL, FAK and paxillin and regulates the expression of paxillin, CrkL and ?5 integrin, as well as paxillin phosphorylation. Moreover, double knock-down of C3G/p38? decreased adhesion to fibronectin, similarly to the single silencing of one of these genes, either C3G or p38?. These suggest that C3G and p38? MAPK are acting through a common pathway to regulate cell adhesion in K562 cells, as previously described for the regulation of apoptosis.<h4>Conclusions</h4>Our results indicate that C3G-p38?MAPK pathway regulates K562 cell adhesion through the interaction with FA proteins and Bcr-Abl, modulating the formation of different protein complexes at FA.
Project description:Cell migration requires the fine spatiotemporal integration of many proteins that regulate the fundamental processes that drive cell movement. Focal adhesion (FA) dynamics is a continuous process involving coordination between FA and actin cytoskeleton, which is essential for cell migration. We studied the spatiotemporal relationship between the dynamics of focal adhesion kinase (FAK) and paxillin at FAs in the protrusion of living endothelial cells. Concurrent dual-color imaging showed that FAK was assembled at FA first, which was followed by paxillin recruitment to the FA. By tracking and quantifying FAK and paxillin in migrating cells, the normalized FAK/Paxillin fluorescence intensity (FI) ratio is > 1 (? 4 fold) at cell front, ? 1 at cell center, and < 1 at cell rear. The significantly higher FAK FI than paxillin FI at cell front indicates that the assembly of FAK-FAs occurs ahead of paxillin at cell front. To determine the time difference between the assemblies of FAK and paxillin at nascent FAs, FAs containing both FAK and paxillin were quantified by image analysis and time correlation. The results show that FAK assembles at the nascent FAs earlier than paxillin in the protrusions at cell front.
Project description:Focal adhesion (FA) formation is induced by extracellular matrix-stimulated integrin clustering and activation of receptors for diffusible factors. Leupaxin (LPXN) is a member of the paxillin family of FA proteins expressed in many cancer cell lines. We found activation of gastrin-releasing peptide receptor (GRPr) by bombesin (BN) stimulated LPXN translocation from cytoplasm to FAs. Using mutagenesis, we identified LIM3 as the primary FA targeting domain for LPXN and showed BN-induced LPXN tyrosine phosphorylation on residues 22, 62 and 72. A LIM3 point mutant of LPXN failed to target to FAs and had no BN-stimulated tyrosine phosphorylation. Conversely, a non-phosphorylatable mutant (Y22/62/72F) translocated to FAs after BN addition. Stimulation of FA formation using vinblastine also induced LPXN translocation and tyrosine phosphorylation. Therefore, dynamic LPXN tyrosine phosphorylation requires translocation to FAs. LPXN and paxillin had opposite roles in adhesion to collagen I (CNI) in MDA-MB-231 breast cancer cells. LPXN siRNA stimulated whereas paxillin siRNA inhibited cell adhesion. Knockdown of both LPXN and paxillin behaved similarly to paxillin knockdown alone, suggesting LPXN’s function in adhesion might depend on paxillin. Additionally, LPXN regulated cell spreading on CNI but not on fibronectin whereas paxillin knockdown suppressed spreading on both substrates. These results demonstrate that although LPXN and paxillin’s FA targeting and tyrosine phosphorylation are similar, each protein has distinct functions.
Project description:The c-Jun N-terminal kinases (JNKs) are members of a larger group of serine/threonine (Ser/Thr) protein kinases from the mitogen-activated protein kinase family. JNKs were originally identified as stress-activated protein kinases in the livers of cycloheximide-challenged rats. Their subsequent purification, cloning, and naming as JNKs have emphasized their ability to phosphorylate and activate the transcription factor c-Jun. Studies of c-Jun and related transcription factor substrates have provided clues about both the preferred substrate phosphorylation sequences and additional docking domains recognized by JNK. There are now more than 50 proteins shown to be substrates for JNK. These include a range of nuclear substrates, including transcription factors and nuclear hormone receptors, heterogeneous nuclear ribonucleoprotein K, and the Pol I-specific transcription factor TIF-IA, which regulates ribosome synthesis. Many nonnuclear substrates have also been characterized, and these are involved in protein degradation (e.g., the E3 ligase Itch), signal transduction (e.g., adaptor and scaffold proteins and protein kinases), apoptotic cell death (e.g., mitochondrial Bcl2 family members), and cell movement (e.g., paxillin, DCX, microtubule-associated proteins, the stathmin family member SCG10, and the intermediate filament protein keratin 8). The range of JNK actions in the cell is therefore likely to be complex. Further characterization of the substrates of JNK should provide clearer explanations of the intracellular actions of the JNKs and may allow new avenues for targeting the JNK pathways with therapeutic agents downstream of JNK itself.
Project description:Barrier-protective agonists induce association of focal adhesions (FA) and adherens junctions (AJ) in endothelial cells. Here we identified specific domains of FA protein paxillin interacting with AJ protein and examined regulation of paxillin domain interactions with ?-catenin by Rac GTPase. Co-expression of paxillin LD-1,2; LD-3,4; LIM-1,2; and LIM-3,4 domains with ?-catenin showed exclusive interaction of LIM-1,2 and LIM-3,4 with ?-catenin, which was enhanced by agonist-induced Rac activation or expression of activated Rac mutant. These results demonstrate a novel function of paxillin LIM domains in targeting ?-catenin in a Rac-dependent manner, which may play a role in Rac-dependent control of FA-AJ interactions and monolayer integrity.
Project description:Focal adhesions (FAs) are multiprotein structures that link the intracellular cytoskeleton to the extracellular matrix. They mediate cell adhesion and migration, crucial to many (patho-) physiological processes. We examined in two cell types from different species the binding dynamics of functionally related FA protein pairs: paxillin and vinculin versus zyxin and VASP. In photobleaching experiments ~40% of paxillin and vinculin remained stably associated with a FA for over half an hour. Zyxin and VASP predominantly displayed more transient interactions. We show protein binding dynamics are influenced by FA location and orientation. In FAs located close to the edge of the adherent membrane paxillin, zyxin and VASP were more dynamic and had larger bound fractions. Zyxin and VASP were also more dynamic and had larger bound fractions at FAs perpendicular compared to parallel to this edge. Finally, we developed a photoconversion assay to specifically visualise stably bound proteins within subcellular structures and organelles. This revealed that while paxillin and vinculin are distributed evenly throughout FAs, their stably bound fractions form small clusters within the FA-complex. These clusters are more concentrated for paxillin than for vinculin and are mostly found at the proximal half of the FA where actin also enters.
Project description:The adenovirus type 2 Early Region 4 ORF4 (E4orf4) protein induces a caspase-independent death program in tumor cells involving changes in actin dynamics that are functionally linked to cell killing. Because an increase in myosin II-based contractility is needed for the death of E4orf4-expressing cells, we have proposed that alteration of cytoskeletal tension is part of the signals engaging the death pathway. Yet the mechanisms involved are poorly defined. Herein, we show that the Jun N-terminal kinase JNK is activated in part through a pathway involving Src, Rho, and ROCK (Rho kinase) and contributes to dysregulate adhesion dynamics and to kill cells in response to E4orf4. JNK supports the formation of atypically robust focal adhesions, which are bound to the assembly of the peculiar actomyosin network typifying E4orf4-induced cell death and which are required for driving nuclear condensation. Remarkably, the dramatic enlargement of focal adhesions, actin remodeling, and cell death all rely on paxillin phosphorylation at Ser-178, which is induced by E4orf4 in a JNK-dependent way. Furthermore, we found that Ser-178-paxillin phosphorylation is necessary to decrease adhesion turnover and to enhance the time residency of paxillin at focal adhesions, promoting its recruitment from an internal pool. Our results indicate that perturbation of tensional homeostasis by E4orf4 involves JNK-regulated changes in paxillin adhesion dynamics that are required to engage the death pathway. Moreover, our findings support a role for JNK-mediated paxillin phosphorylation in adhesion growth and stabilization during tension signaling.